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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, 2015, Vol.191, p.750(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.08.033 Byline: Steffen Mumme, Malte Jochum, Ulrich Brose, Noor Farikhah Haneda, Andrew D. Barnes Abstract: Tropical land-use intensification is rapidly increasing in regions that harbour high levels of biodiversity, thus posing a serious threat to the stability and resilience of tropical ecosystems and the important ecosystem services that they provide. We compared functional group richness and functional dispersion in litter-invertebrate communities among four different land-use systems, ranging in intensity from primary degraded lowland forest to oil-palm agriculture in two landscapes on Sumatra, Indonesia. We then investigated the consequences for functional stability and community resilience by calculating functional redundancy and response diversity of sampled communities. From primary degraded forest to intensively managed oil-palm systems, we found a 46% decrease in species richness and a 48% reduction in density, but weaker effects on functional group richness and an increase in functional dispersion. Although we detected no significant alteration of response diversity, functional redundancy of litter-invertebrate communities decreased clearly by losing 37% of functionally redundant species due to land-use change. Our results indicate that land-use change, from tropical rainforest to oil-palm agriculture, can alter both taxonomic and functional diversity of litter-invertebrate communities, resulting in the loss of functional redundancy and thus functional stability of these ecosystems. However, we also show that land-use systems of intermediate management intensity, such as jungle-rubber agroforestry, could serve as reservoirs of functional diversity and stability in monoculture-dominated production landscapes. Article History: Received 25 February 2015; Revised 14 August 2015; Accepted 24 August 2015
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Land Use ; Land Use Controls
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Animal Ecology, September 2017, Vol.86(5), pp.1114-1123
    Description: High biodiversity and biomass of soil communities are crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. Using a dataset of 780 macro‐invertebrate consumer species across 32 sites in tropical lowland rain forest and agricultural systems on Sumatra, Indonesia, we investigated the effects of basal resource stoichiometry (C:X ratios of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S in local leaf litter), litter mass (basal resource quantity and habitat space), plant species richness (surrogate for litter habitat heterogeneity), and soil pH (acidity) on consumer species richness and biomass across different consumer groups (i.e. 3 feeding guilds and 10 selected taxonomic groups). In order to distinguish the most important predictors of consumer species richness and biomass, we applied a standardised model averaging approach investigating the effects of basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and soil pH on both consumer community characteristics. This standardised approach enabled us to identify differences and similarities in the magnitude and importance of such effects on consumer species richness and biomass. Across consumer groups, we found litter mass to be the most important predictor of both species richness and biomass. Resource stoichiometry had a more pronounced impact on consumer species richness than on their biomass. As expected, taxonomic groups differed in which resource and habitat parameters (basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and pH) were most important for modulating their community characteristics. The importance of litter mass for both species richness and biomass indicates that these tropical consumers strongly depend on habitat space and resource availability. Our study supports previous theoretical work indicating that consumer species richness is jointly influenced by resource availability and the balanced supply of multiple chemical elements in their resources. While effects of resource quantity, quality and other habitat parameters on consumer species richness and biomass are often studied in isolation, the authors used a standardised model averaging framework to simultaneously investigate effects on macro‐invertebrate consumer communities in tropical leaf litter. Litter mass and resource stoichiometry dominated both consumer community characteristics.
    Keywords: Consumer Biomass ; Consumer Species Richness ; Consumer–Resource Interaction ; Ecological Stoichiometry ; Elemental Ratios ; Model Averaging
    ISSN: 0021-8790
    E-ISSN: 1365-2656
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, November 2015, Vol.191, pp.750-758
    Description: Tropical land-use intensification is rapidly increasing in regions that harbour high levels of biodiversity, thus posing a serious threat to the stability and resilience of tropical ecosystems and the important ecosystem services that they provide. We compared functional group richness and functional dispersion in litter-invertebrate communities among four different land-use systems, ranging in intensity from primary degraded lowland forest to oil-palm agriculture in two landscapes on Sumatra, Indonesia. We then investigated the consequences for functional stability and community resilience by calculating functional redundancy and response diversity of sampled communities. From primary degraded forest to intensively managed oil-palm systems, we found a 46% decrease in species richness and a 48% reduction in density, but weaker effects on functional group richness and an increase in functional dispersion. Although we detected no significant alteration of response diversity, functional redundancy of litter-invertebrate communities decreased clearly by losing 37% of functionally redundant species due to land-use change. Our results indicate that land-use change, from tropical rainforest to oil-palm agriculture, can alter both taxonomic and functional diversity of litter-invertebrate communities, resulting in the loss of functional redundancy and thus functional stability of these ecosystems. However, we also show that land-use systems of intermediate management intensity, such as jungle-rubber agroforestry, could serve as reservoirs of functional diversity and stability in monoculture-dominated production landscapes.
    Keywords: Community Assembly ; Functional Redundancy ; Oil Palm ; Plantation Agriculture ; Soil Communities ; Species Traits ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    E-ISSN: 18732917
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The American Naturalist, 01 July 2017, Vol.190(1), pp.131-143
    Description: Living organisms are constrained by both resource quantity and quality. Ecological stoichiometry offers important insights into how the elemental composition of resources affects their consumers. If resource quality decreases, consumers can respond by shifting their body stoichiometry, avoiding low-quality resources, or up-regulating feeding rates to maintain the supply of required elements while excreting excess carbon (i.e., compensatory feeding). We analyzed multitrophic consumer body stoichiometry, biomass, and feeding rates along a resource-quality gradient in the litter of tropical forest and rubber and oil-palm plantations. Specifically, we calculated macroinvertebrate feeding rates based on consumer metabolic demand and assimilation efficiency. Using linear mixed effects models, we assessed resource-quality effects on macroinvertebrate detritivore and predator communities. We did not detect shifts in consumer body stoichiometry or decreases in consumer biomass in response to declining resource quality, as indicated by increasing carbon-to-nitrogen ratios. However, across trophic levels, we found a strong indication of decreasing resource quality leading to increased consumer feeding rates through altered assimilation efficiency and community body size structure. Our study reveals the influence of resource quality on multitrophic consumer feeding rates and suggests compensatory feeding to be more common across consumer trophic levels than was formerly known.
    Keywords: Resource Quality Depletion ; Ecological Stoichiometry ; Consumer Feeding Rates ; Consumer Resource Interaction ; Multitrophic Communities
    ISSN: 00030147
    E-ISSN: 15375323
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 19 May 2016, Vol.371(1694)
    Description: Predicting ecosystem functioning at large spatial scales rests on our ability to scale up from local plots to landscapes, but this is highly contingent on our understanding of how functioning varies through space. Such an understanding has been hampered by a strong experimental focus of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research restricted to small spatial scales. To address this limitation, we investigate the drivers of spatial variation in multitrophic energy flux-a measure of ecosystem functioning in complex communities-at the landscape scale. We use a structural equation modelling framework based on distance matrices to test how spatial and environmental distances drive variation in community energy flux via four mechanisms: species composition, species richness, niche complementarity and biomass. We found that in both a tropical and a temperate study region, geographical and environmental distance indirectly influence species richness and biomass, with clear evidence that these are the dominant mechanisms explaining variability in community energy flux over spatial and environmental gradients. Our results reveal that species composition and trait variability may become redundant in predicting ecosystem functioning at the landscape scale. Instead, we demonstrate that species richness and total biomass may best predict rates of ecosystem functioning at larger spatial scales.
    Keywords: Energy Flux ; Functional Diversity ; Litter Invertebrates ; Multitrophic ; Niche Complementarity ; Β-Diversity ; Agriculture ; Biodiversity ; Forests ; Invertebrates -- Physiology
    ISSN: 09628436
    E-ISSN: 1471-2970
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  • 6
    In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2012, Vol.367(1605), pp.2962-2970
    Description: Climate change has complex structural impacts on coastal ecosystems. Global warming is linked to a widespread decline in body size, whereas increased flood frequency can amplify nutrient enrichment through enhanced run-off. Altered population body-size structure represents a disruption in top-down control, whereas eutrophication embodies a change in bottom-up forcing. These processes are typically studied in isolation and little is known about their potential interactive effects. Here, we present the results of an in situ experiment examining the combined effects of top-down and bottom-up forces on the structure of a coastal marine community. Reduced average body mass of the top predator (the shore crab, Carcinus maenas ) and nutrient enrichment combined additively to alter mean community body mass. Nutrient enrichment increased species richness and overall density of organisms. Reduced top-predator body mass increased community biomass. Additionally, we found evidence for an allometrically induced trophic cascade. Here, the reduction in top-predator body mass enabled greater biomass of intermediate fish predators within the mesocosms. This, in turn, suppressed key micrograzers, which led to an overall increase in microalgal biomass. This response highlights the possibility for climate-induced trophic cascades, driven by altered size structure of populations, rather than species extinction.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0962-8436
    E-ISSN: 1471-2970
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, March 2018, Vol.33(3), pp.186-197
    Description: Relating biodiversity to ecosystem functioning in natural communities has become a paramount challenge as links between trophic complexity and multiple ecosystem functions become increasingly apparent. Yet, there is still no generalised approach to address such complexity in biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) studies. Energy flux dynamics in ecological networks provide the theoretical underpinning of multitrophic BEF relationships. Accordingly, we propose the quantification of energy fluxes in food webs as a powerful, universal tool for understanding ecosystem functioning in multitrophic systems spanning different ecological scales. Although the concept of energy flux in food webs is not novel, its application to BEF research remains virtually untapped, providing a framework to foster new discoveries into the determinants of ecosystem functioning in complex systems. Incorporating natural complexity into BEF research is a key challenge in ecology. Energy flux dynamics in networks underpin BEF theory in multitrophic systems. Network energetics define stability and functions across ecological scales, allowing for the expansion of BEF research to complex systems. We propose future directions for integrating network energy fluxes into BEF research.
    Keywords: Ecological Stoichiometry ; Ecosystem Multifunctionality ; Food Web ; Interaction Network ; Metabolic Theory ; Trophic Cascade ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0169-5347
    E-ISSN: 1872-8383
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  • 8
    In: Frontiers for Young Minds, 12/21/2018, Vol.6
    ISSN: Frontiers for Young Minds
    E-ISSN: 2296-6846
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Keywords: Ecology: Community ; Foraging: Ecology ; Interactions: Trophic ; Nutrient Cycles ; Stoichiometry ; Invertebrates ; Jambi Province ; Sumatra ; Indonesia ; Anthropocene
    ISSN: 0003-0147
    Source: DataCite
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  • 10
    Keywords: Ecological Stoichiometry ; Consumer-Resource Interaction ; Elemental Ratios ; Model Averaging ; Consumer Species Richness ; Consumer Biomass ; Jambi Province ; Sumatra ; Indonesia ; Anthropocene
    ISSN: 0021-8790
    Source: DataCite
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