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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: BMJ: British Medical Journal, 2 July 2011, Vol.343(7813), pp.7-8
    Keywords: Social sciences -- Population studies -- Human populations ; Law -- Criminal law -- Criminal offenses
    ISSN: 09598138
    E-ISSN: 17561833
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: BMJ: British Medical Journal, 14 May 2011, Vol.342(7806), pp.1042-1042
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Health care industry -- Medical practice ; Political science -- Government -- Governance
    ISSN: 09598138
    E-ISSN: 17561833
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    British Medical Journal Publishing Group
    Language: English
    In: BMJ, 28 June 2011, Vol.342
    Description: Has child protection become a form of madness, as the BMJ recently debated?1 2 In response to the authors’ points, the answer is both “yes” and “no.” Yes, we need to focus on the underlying causes that disadvantage children and that in the process may place children at the risk of abuse; but no, in that abuse of children is a widespread phenomenon to which society and professionals have become increasingly aware, so we should continue to make every effort to identify and protect such children.
    Keywords: Children & Youth ; Physicians;
    ISSN: 0959-8138
    ISSN: 09598138
    E-ISSN: 1468-5833
    E-ISSN: 14685833
    E-ISSN: 17561833
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    British Medical Journal Publishing Group
    Language: English
    In: BMJ, 10 May 2011, Vol.342
    Description: Concerns about the competency of GPs in managing health problems in children are not new,1 but with the onset of GP commissioning the requirement to address them is urgent. The first step is for general practice as a profession to recognise its important role in the health and welfare of children. Then two things need to happen.
    Keywords: United Kingdom–UK ; Europe ; Consortia ; Childrens Health ; Children & Youth ; Physicians ; Royal College of General Practitioners;
    ISSN: 0959-8138
    ISSN: 09598138
    E-ISSN: 1468-5833
    E-ISSN: 14685833
    E-ISSN: 17561833
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  • 5
    In: Geophysical Research Letters, 28 January 2013, Vol.40(2), pp.307-311
    Description: Gravity drainage of brine through liquid brine channels is the dominant mechanism for the desalination of growing sea ice. We describe and determine mathematically the essential physics of this process, elucidating the connection between downward flow in brine channels and a convective upward flow in the rest of the porous ice, which we show has a vertically linear structure and strength proportional to a Rayleigh number. Our simple dynamical model of this process is used to interpret the exponential propagation of dye fronts in laboratory experiments. We propose that using our new, derived parameterization for gravity drainage in sea ice in terms of two unknown parameters could lead to computationally feasible improvements to thermodynamic sea‐ice models. Drainage sustained by convection due to compositional density gradient Vertical salt transport approximately vertically linear and horizontally uniform Reduced description makes sea‐ice models more physically appropriate and robust
    Keywords: Sea Ice
    ISSN: 0094-8276
    E-ISSN: 1944-8007
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2011, Vol.341(1), pp.363-382
    Description: Exudation of organic acid anions by plants as well as root-induced changes in rhizosphere pH can potentially improve phosphate (P i ) availability in the rhizosphere and are frequently found to occur simultaneously. In non-calcareous soils, a major proportion of P i is strongly sorbed to metal oxi(hydr)oxides of mainly iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) and organic anions are known to compete with P i for the same sorption sites (ligand exchange) or solubilize P i via ligand-promoted mineral dissolution. Root-induced co-acidification may also further promote P i release from soil. The relative efficiency of these different solubilization mechanisms, however, is poorly understood. The aims of this study were to gain a better mechanistic understanding of the solubilizing mechanisms of four carboxylates (citrate, malate, oxalate, malonate) in five soils with high and low P surface site saturation. Results indicate that at a lower P saturation of solid phase sorption sites, ligand-promoted mineral dissolution was the main P i solubilization mechanism, while ligand exchange became more important at higher soil P concentrations. Co-acidification generally increased P i solubility in the presence of carboxylates; however the relative solubilizing effect of carboxylates compared to the background electrolyte (KCl) control decreased by 20–50%. In soils with high amounts of exchangeable calcium (Ca), the proton-induced Ca solubilization reduced soluble P i , presumably due to ionic-strength-driven changes in the electric surface potential favoring a higher P i retention. Across a wider soil pH range (pH 3–8), P i solubility increased with increasing alkalinity, as a result of both, more negatively charged sorption sites, as well as DOC-driven changes in Fe and Al solubility, which were further enhanced by the presence of citrate. Overall, the relative efficiency of carboxylates in solubilizing P i was greatest in soils with medium to high amounts of anionic binding sites (mainly Fe- and Al-oxy(hydr)oxides) and a medium P sorption site coverage, with citrate being most effective in solubilizing P i .
    Keywords: Phosphate ; Fertilization ; Organic acids ; Carboxylates ; pH ; Nutrient mobilization ; Acidification ; Rhizosphere
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics, August 2015, Vol.92(2), pp.022406
    Description: The physics of ice crystal growth from the liquid phase, especially in the presence of salt, has received much less attention than the growth of snow crystals from the vapor phase. The growth of so-called frazil ice by solidification of a supercooled aqueous salt solution is consistent with crystal growth in the basal plane being limited by the diffusive removal of the latent heat of solidification from the solid-liquid interface, while being limited by attachment kinetics in the perpendicular direction. This leads to the formation of approximately disk-shaped crystals with a low aspect ratio of thickness compared to radius, because radial growth is much faster than axial growth. We calculate numerically how fast disk-shaped crystals grow in both pure and binary melts, accounting for the comparatively slow axial growth, the effect of dissolved solute in the fluid phase, and the difference in thermal properties between solid and fluid phases. We identify the main physical mechanisms that control crystal growth and show that the diffusive removal of both the latent heat released and the salt rejected at the growing interface are significant. Our calculations demonstrate that certain previous parametrizations, based on scaling arguments, substantially underestimate crystal growth rates by a factor of order 10-100 for low aspect ratio disks, and we provide a parametrization for use in models of ice crystal growth in environmental settings.
    Keywords: Condensed Matter - Materials Science ; Physics - Atmospheric And Oceanic Physics;
    E-ISSN: 1550-2376
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Chest, July 2011, Vol.140(1), pp.186-190
    Description: Reports of the effect of low temperatures on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) are conflicting, and the effect on ciliary beat pattern has not been reported. We aimed to clarify this association and determine whether cooling of cilia may allow ciliary function to be assessed without the need of expensive high-speed video microscopy. Fourteen nasal brush biopsy samples were collected, and the CBF and beat pattern of undisrupted ciliated edges were evaluated. Two methods were used to strictly control changes in temperature: One enabled rapid transitory measurements during cooling and warming, and the other was used to maintain accurate low temperatures over longer periods of time. A sigmoid relationship between CBF and temperature was observed. CBF decreased with cooling and increased with warming. Ciliary function was unaffected by the direction of temperature change and was maintained down to 2°C. The percentage of dyskinetic cilia observed at 2°C or 4°C was unchanged from that at 37°C. Contrary to previous research, our data show that cilia continue to beat with a normal pattern at temperatures as low as 2°C. Slowing of cilia by cooling may allow detailed analysis of ciliary beat pattern without the need of expensive high-speed video microscopy.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0012-3692
    E-ISSN: 1931-3543
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 05 April 2016, Vol.67(13), pp.1943-1943
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(16)31944-1 Byline: Ali R. Rahimi, David W. Jones, Cristina Bozocea, Tina R. Robinson, Elizabeth Leslie, Binwei Song Author Affiliation: (a) Kaiser Permanente Georgia, Atlanta, GA, USA (b) The Southeast Permanente Medical Group, Atlanta, GA, USA Article Note: (footnote) Poster Contributions Poster Area, South Hall A1 Sunday, April 03, 2016, 9:45 a.m.-10:30 a.m. Session Title: New Treatments for Systemic Hypertension Abstract Category: 34. Prevention: Hypertension Presentation Number: 1190-369
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: History of Psychiatry, September 2017, Vol.28(3), pp.263-279
    Description: This paper traces the significance of the diagnosis of ‘moral insanity’ (and the related diagnoses of ‘monomania’ and ‘manie sans délire’) to the development of psychiatry as a profession in the nineteenth century. The pioneers of psychiatric thought were motivated to explore such diagnoses because they promised public recognition in the high status surroundings of the criminal court. Some success was achieved in presenting a form of expertise that centred on the ability of the experts to detect quite subtle, ‘psychological’ forms of dangerous madness within the minds of offenders in France and more extensively in England. Significant backlash in the press against these new ideas pushed the profession away from such psychological exploration and back towards its medical roots that located criminal insanity simply within the organic constitution of its sufferers.
    Keywords: England ; France ; Insanity ; Legal Defence ; M’naghten ; Monomania ; Moral Insanity
    ISSN: 0957-154X
    E-ISSN: 1740-2360
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