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  • 1
    Language: German
    In: Uro-News, 6/2018, Vol.22(6), pp.28-31
    ISSN: 1432-9026
    E-ISSN: 2196-5676
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2010, Vol.468(7320), p.103
    Description: RANK ligand (RANKL), a TNF-related molecule, is essential for osteoclast formation, function and survival through interaction with its receptor RANK (1,2). Mammary glands of RANK- and RANKL-deficient mice develop normally during sexual maturation, but fail to form lobuloalveolar structures during pregnancy because of defective proliferation and increased apoptosis of mammary epithelium (3). It has been shown that RANKL is responsible for the major proliferative response of mouse mammary epithelium to progesterone during mammary lactational morphogenesis (4), and in mouse models, manipulated to induce activation of the RANK/ RANKL pathway in the absence of strict hormonal control, inappropriate mammary proliferation is observed (5,6). However, there is no evidence so far of a functional contribution of RANKL to tumorigenesis. Here we show that RANK and RANKL are expressed within normal, pre-malignant and neoplastic mammary epithelium, and using complementary gain-of-function (mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)-RANK transgenic mice) and loss-of function (pharmacological inhibition of RANKL) approaches, define a direct contribution of this pathway in mammary tumorigenesis. Accelerated pre-neoplasias and increased mammary tumour formation were observed in MMTV-RANK transgenic mice after multiparity or treatment with carcinogen and hormone (progesterone). Reciprocally, selective pharmacological inhibition of RANKL attenuated mammary tumour development not only in hormone- and carcinogen-treated MMTV-RANK and wild-type mice, but also in the MMTV-neutransgenic spontaneous tumour model. The reduction in tumorigenesis upon RANKL inhibition was preceded by a reduction in pre-neoplasias as well as rapid and sustained reductions in hormone- and carcinogen-induced mammary epithelial proliferation and cyclin D1 levels. Collectively, our results indicate that RANKL inhibition is acting directly on hormone-induced mammary epithelium at early stages in tumorigenesis, and the permissive contribution of progesterone to increased mammary cancer incidence is due to RANKL-dependent proliferative changes in the mammary epithelium. The current study highlights a potential role for RANKL inhibition in the management of proliferative breast disease.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer -- Risk Factors ; Breast Cancer -- Care And Treatment ; Breast Cancer -- Research ; Immunohistochemistry -- Usage ; Progesterone -- Physiological Aspects ; Progesterone -- Genetic Aspects ; Progesterone -- Research ; Tumor Proteins -- Health Aspects ; Tumor Proteins -- Genetic Aspects ; Tumor Proteins -- Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Schizophrenia Research, September 2012, Vol.140(1-3), pp.104-109
    Description: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) during adolescence are not uncommon and potentially represent a clinical and public health concern. A greater understanding of their aetiology and patterns of change over time is needed. We aimed to describe trajectories of PLEs during adolescence, and examine their association with characteristics earlier during development. This was a cohort study of 7387 adolescents from the ALSPAC birth cohort who completed self-reported questionnaires about PLEs at 4 time points over a five-year period (ages 11.5–16.5 years). Association between childhood characteristics and latent class membership was examined. The proportion of children reporting PLEs declined with age. Individuals within decreasing (1.7%), intermittent (16.8%), and persistent (0.9%) PLEs trajectories were more likely to come from adverse backgrounds and have disturbed childhood development compared to the low PLE (80.6%) class. Persistent-class individuals scored highest on most measures though no measure clearly distinguished between persistent, intermittent and decreasing groups. A number of early life characteristics and markers of childhood emotional and behavioural development are associated with trajectories of PLEs during adolescence. Despite the increase in cost and time required to collect data at repeated intervals, studies of trajectories are likely to have greater potential for predicting transition into clinical disorder at an earlier stage.
    Keywords: Psychotic Experiences ; Schizophrenia ; Epidemiology ; Cohort ; Trajectories
    ISSN: 0920-9964
    E-ISSN: 1573-2509
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Psychiatry, July, 2013, Vol.170(7), p.742(9)
    Description: Objective: The authors examined the development of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in a large population-based sample of young adults and explored their relationship to psychotic phenomena earlier in childhood. Method: The authors conducted a longitudinal birth cohort study of individuals assessed with the semistructured Psychosis-Like Symptom Interviews at ages 12 and 18 years. Results: Of the 4,724 individuals interviewed at age 18, 433 (9.2%) had either suspected (N=203 [4.3%]) or definite (N=230 [4.9%]) psychotic experiences. Of these, 79 (1.7%) met criteria for a psychotic disorder, and of those, only 50% sought professional help. All psychotic outcomes were more likely in young women and in those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. Of the participants who had psychotic experiences at age 12, 78.7% had remitted by age 18. The risk of psychotic disorders at age 18 was greater in those with suspected (odds ratio=5.6, 95% CI=2.6-12.1) and especially in those with definite (odds ratio=12.7, 95% CI=6.2-26.1) psychotic experiences at age 12, and also among those with psychotic experiences at age 12 attributed to sleep or fever or with nonpsychotic experiences such as depersonalization. The positive predictive values for increasing frequency of experiences at age 12 predicting psychotic disorders at age 18 ranged from 5.5% to 22.8%. Conclusions: Despite evidence for a continuum of psychotic experiences from as early as age 12, positive predictive values for predicting psychotic disorders were too low to offer real potential for targeted interventions. Psychotic disorders in young adults are relatively uncommon, but they constitute an important unmet need for care given that half of the individuals in this study who met criteria for a psychiatric disorder had not sought help for these problems despite high levels of associated distress and impairment. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12060768
    Keywords: Psychotic Disorders -- Risk Factors ; Psychotic Disorders -- Research ; Psychotic Disorders -- Demographic Aspects ; Childhood -- Analysis ; Childhood -- Psychological Aspects ; Experience -- Influence ; Experience -- Psychological Aspects
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2011, Vol.403(3), pp.307-320
    Description: ► Data from a 24-hour pumping test including observations above the water table. ► Uniform vertical gradients observed through saturated zone including capillary fringe. ► Water table drawdown accurately predicted using piezometric drawdowns. ► Time-drawdown curve shows inflection yet no drawdown of top of saturated zone. A 24-h pumping test was conducted in the shallow water table portion of an unconfined aquifer located at Canadian Forces Base Borden near Alliston, Ontario, Canada. This test was designed to monitor the dynamic nature of the vertical gradients that form within the zone of tension saturation above the water table during pumping and recovery. During the test, pressure head was monitored throughout the saturated zone, both above (tensiometers) and below (piezometers) the water table; soil water content was monitored using both neutron moisture probes and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Following pumping, recovery was monitored in the same manner as the pumping portion of the test. The hydraulic head drawdown observed above the water table in the tension saturated zone during pumping and recovery was very similar to the drawdown observed below the water table. Vertical gradients throughout the saturated zone appeared to be uniform and low, and did not change significantly in the transition across the water table. The magnitude of the vertical gradients peaked early in the test, and subsequently decreased, with the reduction being more significant at greater radial distances from the pumping well. Neutron measurements indicate that only a minor degree of drainage occurred within the measurement interval for the duration of the test, a result of the low magnitude of drawdown generated during pumping and influence of hysteresis on the moisture profile. Although drainage was negligible from within the tension saturated zone during pumping, the hydraulic head drawdown below the water table displayed reduced rates of drawdown during the intermediate period of the test. TDR data was only collected during recovery; however, the data set displays hysteretic behavior in the pressure–saturation profiles, with all profiles plotting on scanning curves. Based on these observations it appears that a conceptual model in which vertical gradients below the water table are of the same order of magnitude as those within the capillary fringe is appropriate for the analysis of vadose zone response to pumping.
    Keywords: Unconfined Aquifer ; Pumping Test ; Vadose Zone ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, April 2017, Vol.229, pp.46-52
    Description: Electrodialysis (ED) removed volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from a continually-fed, hydrogen-producing fermenter. Simultaneously, electrochemical removal and adsorption removed gaseous H and CO , respectively. Removing VFAs via ED in this novel process increased H yields by a factor of 3.75 from 0.24 mol H mol to 0.90 mol H mol . VFA production and substrate utilisation rates were consistent with the hypothesis that end product inhibition arrests H production. The methodology facilitated the recovery of 37 g of VFAs, and 30 L H that was more than 99% pure, both of which are valuable, energy dense chemicals. Typically, short hydraulic and solid retention times, and depressed pH levels are used to suppress methanogenesis, but this limits H production. To produce H from real world, low grade biomass containing complex carbohydrates, longer hydraulic retention times (HRTs) are required. The proposed system increased H yields via increased substrate utilisation over longer HRTs.
    Keywords: Biohydrogen ; Electrodialysis ; End Product Inhibition ; Homoacetogenesis ; Hydraulic Retention Time ; Increased Hydrolysis ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, 2010, Vol.183(4), pp.e649-e650
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, 2010, Vol.183(4), pp.e649-e649
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, 2010, Vol.183(4), pp.e34-e34
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, 2015, Vol.189, p.279(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.04.001 Byline: Rhys Jon Jones, Jaime Massanet-Nicolau, Alan Guwy, Giuliano C. Premier, Richard M. Dinsdale, Matthew Reilly Abstract: * Conventional electrodialysis used to remove VFAs from H.sub.2 fermentation broths for the first time. * VFA removal from fermentation broths was equal or greater than from model solutions. * Up to 99% of VFA removal from fermentation broths was achieved within 60min. * Removed VFAs are recoverable for use in bioenergy systems and as raw materials. Article History: Received 17 February 2015; Revised 31 March 2015; Accepted 1 April 2015
    Keywords: Fatty Acids – Analysis
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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