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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, November 2013, Vol.143(11), pp.1760-6
    Description: Although n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered anti-inflammatory components, the role of dietary n-6 PUFAs in inflammation remains controversial. Some mechanistic evidence suggests vitamin E as a potential effect modifier in the relationship between PUFAs and inflammation. Our objectives were to evaluate the long-term associations between dietary intakes of PUFAs and elevated plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and to investigate potential effect modification by vitamin E. Individuals in the placebo group of the SU.VI.MAX trial who had available CRP measurements in 2007-2009 were included in the study (n = 843). Dietary intakes of n-3 PUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, and vitamin E were assessed in 1994-1996 with at least 6 dietary records. The logistic regression OR for elevated CRP (〉3 mg/L) and 95% CI were estimated for individual PUFAs and for total n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes. Models were adjusted for sociodemographical, lifestyle, anthropometric, and dietary variables. Interactions with vitamin E intakes were also assessed. Inverse associations were observed between intakes of total n-3 PUFAs [α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), ALA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), EPA + docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3), DPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)] and n-6 PUFA [linoleic acid (18:2n-6) + arachidonic acid (20:4n-6)] and elevated CRP (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 of intake: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.77; P-trend = 0.01; and OR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.70; P-trend = 0.002, respectively). Stratification on vitamin E intakes showed that inverse associations between dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes and elevated CRP were substantial only in individuals with low intakes of vitamin E. Our results supported the contention that intakes of both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are inversely associated with plasma CRP concentrations. Vitamin E is a potential effect modifier and should therefore be taken into account in such investigations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.
    Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory Agents -- Administration & Dosage ; C-Reactive Protein -- Analysis ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 -- Administration & Dosage ; Fatty Acids, Omega-6 -- Administration & Dosage ; Vitamin E -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: American journal of public health, March 2018, Vol.108(3), pp.318-320
    Description: Based on the content of the food per 100 grams, its underlying nutrient profiling system includes both unfavorable nutrients (i.e., energy, saturated fat, sugars, and sodium) and favorable elements (i.e., fiber, protein, and percentage of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and nuts) to yield a summary score, represented in a five-category color-coded scale. Products with higher nutritional quality are rated as A (dark green), and products with a lower nutritional quality are rated as E (dark orange).2 The underlying algorithm for the Nutri-Score was adapted from the 2005 Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system, and its graphical format was defined according to the available scientific literature on front-of-pack nutrition labeling.3 HEAVILY LOBBIED BY AGRO-INDUSTRY The selection of the NutriScore by the government in France followed a process in which every regulatory step was heavily lobbied by agro-industry, which used strategies that belong in the Big Tobacco playbook: shaping the evidence base, political and economic pressures, destabilizing scientific opponents, delaying the decision, and offering substitutions to the proposed policy.4 In France, indeed, nearly four years separate the first occurrence of the proposed label- in January 2014-and the actual signature of the decree for the Nutri-Score. BECOMING GLOBAL Similarities between Big Food and Big Tobacco lobbying strategies have been highlighted on numerous occasions,7 and examples of intense lobbying in the field of food taxation (particularly for the sugar-sweetened beverage industry) have shown the extent to which the food industry may fight back against public health policies.
    Keywords: Food Industry ; Global Health ; Health Policy ; Nutrition Policy ; Food Labeling -- Standards
    ISSN: 00900036
    E-ISSN: 1541-0048
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Archives of internal medicine, 09 April 2012, Vol.172(7), pp.540-7
    Description: To advance knowledge about the cancer-chemopreventive potential of individual nutrients, we investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplements on cancer outcomes among survivors of cardiovascular disease. This was an ancillary study of the Supplementation With Folate, Vitamins B(6) and B(12) and/or Omega-3 Fatty Acids (SU.FOL.OM3) secondary prevention trial (2003-2009). In all, 2501 individuals aged 45 to 80 years were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of the following 4 daily supplementation groups: (1) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (0.56 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B(6); 3 mg) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12); 0.02 mg); (2) eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (600 mg) in a 2:1 ratio; (3) B vitamins and ω-3 fatty acids; or (4) placebo. Overall and sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs regarding the cancer outcomes were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. After 5 years of supplementation, incident cancer was validated in 7.0% of the sample (145 events in men and 29 in women), and death from cancer occurred in 2.3% of the sample. There was no association between cancer outcomes and supplementation with B vitamins (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.85-1.55]) and/or ω-3 fatty acids (HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.87-1.58]). There was a statistically significant interaction of treatment by sex, with no effect of treatment on cancer risk among men and increased cancer risk among women for ω-3 fatty acid supplementation (HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.33-6.89]). We found no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins and/or ω-3 fatty acids on cancer outcomes in individuals with prior cardiovascular disease. Trial Registration  isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN41926726.
    Keywords: Dietary Supplements ; Anticarcinogenic Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 -- Therapeutic Use ; Folic Acid -- Therapeutic Use ; Neoplasms -- Epidemiology ; Secondary Prevention -- Methods ; Vitamin B 12 -- Therapeutic Use ; Vitamin B 6 -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 00039926
    E-ISSN: 1538-3679
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  • 4
    In: Age and Ageing, 2015, Vol. 44(4), pp.648-654
    Description: Background: longitudinal data as regards the link between the cumulative effect of cardiometabolic disorders and cognition are relatively scant and heterogeneous. Objective: we examined the cross-time associations of MetS status with cognitive performance in ageing adults. Design and methods: using data from the French SU.VI.MAX cohort, we studied 2,788 adults. The presence of abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and elevated blood pressure was clinically evaluated in 1994–96. Cognitive performance was assessed after a mean of 13 years via a battery of six validated instruments. The standardised individual test scores were summed up to provide a composite cognitive performance measure; principal component analysis was performed to define performance scores on verbal memory and executive functioning. Associations between MetS and subsequent cognitive performance were examined via ANCOVA, providing estimates of mean difference and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: MetS status at midlife was not associated with subsequent cognitive function. However, a 1-unit increase in the number of cardiometabolic disorders present was associated with a decrease in the composite cognitive score (mean difference = −0.36; 95% CI: −0.68, −0.05). Significant associations were also found with several cardiometabolic disorders (hyperglycaemia, central obesity and dyslipidaemia) and specific cognitive domains. Conclusion: this study supports the existence of a cross-time, cumulative effect of cardiometabolic disorders present at midlife and subsequent cognitive performance. Given the worldwide population ageing and the increase in MetS prevalence, there is an urgent need for recommendations as regards cognitive ageing.
    Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome ; Cardiometabolic Disorders ; Memory ; Executive Function ; Glycaemia ; Cognition ; Prospective Cohort ; Older People
    ISSN: 0002-0729
    E-ISSN: 1468-2834
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(5), p.e97834
    Description: BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of obesity and the social pressure for thinness increase the prevalence of dieting. However, little is known about the overall perception of dieting strategies actually used by the general population. OBJECTIVES: Our main objective was to investigate perceptions of weight-loss practices in an observational study in order to identify the most favourable strategy. DESIGN: Adults from the ongoing Nutrinet-Santé cohort study who had reported engaging in dieting in the three previous years were included in the study. For each diet, detailed information was collected on types of diets, circumstances and perception of the diet, and outcomes. Perceptions were compared across diets using sex-specific mixed effects models. RESULT: Among the 48 435 subjects who had completed the respective questionnaire, 12 673 (26.7%, 87.8% of women) had followed at least one weight-loss diet in the previous three years. Diet plans prescribed by health professionals and diets conforming to official dietary recommendations were the most favourably perceived among all assessed weight-loss strategies. Alternatively, commercial diet plans and self-imposed dietary restrictions were more negatively perceived (Odds ratios (OR) for adherence difficulty 1.30 (95% confidence interval (0.99;1.7)) in men and OR 1.92 (1.76;2.10) in women compared to official nutritional guidelines; OR 1.06 (0.82;1.38) in men and OR 1.39 (1.26;1.54) in women respectively) compared to official nutritional guidelines. CONCLUSION: Official dietary recommendations could be useful tools for maintaining a dietary balance while following a weight-loss diet.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, October 2015, Vol.145(10), pp.2355-61
    Description: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), comprising high waist circumference, blood pressure, glycemia, and triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol could in part be prevented by adequate nutrition. Nutrient profiling systems could be useful public health tools to help consumers make healthier food choices. An individual dietary index (DI) based on nutrient profiling of foods consumed could characterize dietary patterns in relation to the onset of MetS. The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between the Food Standards Agency (FSA) Nutrient Profiling System (NPS) DI and the onset of MetS in a middle-aged French cohort. Participants from the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort (SU.VI.MAX, n = 3741) were included in the present study. The FSA NPS DI was computed by using dietary data from 24 h records at inclusion. MetS was identified at baseline and at year 13 of follow-up with the use of self-reported medication, data from clinical investigations, and biological measurements. A prospective association between the FSA NPS DI (in quartiles and continuous) and the onset of MetS was investigated by using logistic regression. Poorer diets identified with the use of the FSA NPS DI were significantly associated with a higher risk of developing MetS (OR for poorer vs. healthier FSA NPS DI: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.89; P-trend across quartiles = 0.02). The FSA NPS DI was significantly associated with the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) components of MetS (difference between healthier vs. poorer FSA NPS DI: 2.16 mm Hg for SBP and 1.5 mm Hg for DBP, P-trend across quartiles = 0.02). The FSA NPS DI was prospectively associated with the onset of MetS in a middle-aged French population. The application of NPSs in public health initiatives may help the population make healthier food choices, which might reduce the risk of developing MetS.
    Keywords: a Priori Dietary Score ; Cohort Study ; Dietary Patterns ; Metabolic Syndrome ; Nutrient Profiling System ; Diet -- Adverse Effects ; Food -- Adverse Effects ; Health Promotion -- Methods ; Metabolic Syndrome -- Etiology
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, December 2013, Vol.143(12), pp.1974-81
    Description: The link between iron status and cognition has been established in infants and children, yet evidence in adults is scant and heterogeneous. We examined sex- and menopause-specific cross-time associations of iron status with cognition in the French Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants Study cohort (1539 men, 1431 pre-/perimenopausal women, 962 postmenopausal women). Serum ferritin and hemoglobin data were obtained in 1995. Cognition was assessed after a mean of 13 y through 6 validated instruments, including the RI-48 cued recall test, phonemic and semantic fluency tasks, forward and backward digit span tasks, and a trail-making test. The standardized individual test scores were summed to form a composite cognitive performance measure. Associations between ferritin and hemoglobin and subsequent cognitive performance were examined through multivariable linear regression. Among men, no significant associations were observed. In postmenopausal women, an inverse association was found between ferritin and phonemic fluency (adjusted β: -0.11; 95% CI: -0.21, -0.01). Significant inverse associations between ferritin and both the composite cognitive measure (adjusted β: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.17, -0.00) and the forward digit span scores (adjusted β: -0.13; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.03) were observed only among premenopausal women aged ≥ 46 y at baseline. No significant findings with hemoglobin emerged. This study supports an inverse association between midlife iron status and subsequent cognitive performance that is sex- and menopause-dependent. Given the urgent need for prevention research on age-related disorders, future investigations of iron status and cognition are warranted. The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.
    Keywords: Cognition ; Perimenopause ; Iron -- Blood
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 8
    In: British Journal of Nutrition, 2012, Vol.107(6), pp.921-927
    Description: Certain epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that n -3 fatty acids and folate can reduce blood pressure (BP). We investigated the effect of a daily supplementation with dietary doses of B-vitamins or n -3 fatty acids for 5 years on BP in patients with a history of CVD who participated in the Supplémentation en Folates et Omega-3 trial. The patients ( n 2501; 1987 men and 514 women) were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of four groups: B-vitamins (5-methyl-THF (560 μg); vitamin B 6 (3 mg) and vitamin B 12 (20 μg)) and a placebo capsule for n -3 fatty acids; n -3 fatty acids (600 mg of EPA and DHA at a ratio of 2:1) and a placebo capsule for B-vitamins; both B-vitamins and n -3 fatty acids; or placebo capsules for both treatments. The patients took two capsules daily in a double-blind manner for a median duration of 4·7 years. At baseline and annual examination for 5 years, the patients underwent a clinical examination where BP and clinical and biological parameters were assessed. No effect of supplementation with either n -3 PUFA or B-vitamins on BP was observed in crude and adjusted multivariate models. Change in BP was not associated with change in homocysteine. In conclusion, the present results do not support the routine use of dietary supplements containing B-vitamins, or of n -3 fatty acids, to reduce BP in people with prior CVD.
    Keywords: Dietary Surveys And Nutritional Epidemiology; Hypertension; -3 Fatty Acids; Folate; Randomised Controlled Trials; Blood Pressure
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    E-ISSN: 1475-2662
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American journal of epidemiology, 01 April 2014, Vol.179(7), pp.910-6
    Description: Whereas the feasibility and effectiveness of Internet-based epidemiologic research have been established, methodological support for the quality of such data is still accumulating. We aimed to identify sociodemographic differences among members of a French cohort according to willingness to provide part of one's 15-digit national identification number (personal Social Security number (PSSN)) and to assess response consistency based on information reported on the sociodemographic questionnaire and that reflected in the PSSN. We studied 100,118 persons enrolled in an Internet-based prospective cohort study, the NutriNet-Santé Study, between 2009 and 2013. Persons aged 18 years or more who resided in France and had Internet access were eligible for enrollment. The sociodemographic profiles of participants with discordant data were compared against those of participants with concordant data via 2-sided polytomous logistic regression. In total, 84,442 participants (84.3%) provided the first 7 digits of their PSSN, and among them 5,141 (6.1%) had discordant data. Our multivariate analysis revealed differences by sex, age, education, and employment as regards response consistency patterns. The results support the quality of sociodemographic data obtained online from a large and diverse volunteer sample. The quantitative description of participant profiles according to response consistency patterns could inform future methodological work in e-epidemiology.
    Keywords: Internet ; Cohort Studies ; Data Quality ; E-Epidemiology ; Epidemiologic Methods ; General Population ; Prospective Studies ; Response Consistency ; Epidemiologic Research Design ; Social Class ; Community Participation -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Internet -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Nutrition Surveys -- Methods
    ISSN: 00029262
    E-ISSN: 1476-6256
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  • 10
    Language: French
    In: Les Tribunes de la santé, 2015, Vol.49(4), p.23
    Description: Les maladies chroniques représentent en France un enjeu majeur de santé publique. Les cancers et les maladies cardiovasculaires sont les principales causes de morbi-mortalité. La nutrition apparaît comme un déterminant important de ces pathologies et un réel levier de prévention, étant donné son caractère modifiable. Parmi les éléments nutritionnels reconnus dans les relations nutrition-santé, la consommation de fruits et légumes est considérée un facteur protecteur, alors que la consommation de sel, de sucre ou d’acides gras saturés est considérée comme un facteur de risque.
    Keywords: Public Health
    ISSN: 1765-8888
    E-ISSN: 2105-2182
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