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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2011, Vol.403(1), pp.141-156
    Description: ► A surface-subsurface flow model with multi-objective global optimization is presented. ► The model performance was evaluated using bench-scale flow experiments. ► Inverse parameter estimation required observations at different spatial positions. ► The Pareto trade-off and model mismatch suggest lateral flow in soil layers. ► The model system is versatile for studying soil water and overland flow. A comprehensive description of water flow in environmental and agricultural systems requires an account of both surface and subsurface pathways. We present a new model which combines a 1D overland flow model and the 2D subsurface flow HYDRUS-2D model, and uses the multi-objective global search method AMALGAM for inverse parameter estimation. Furthermore, we present data from bench-scale flow experiments which were conducted with two 5-m long replicate soil channels. While rainfall was applied, surface runoff was recorded at the downstream end of the soil channel, subsurface drainage waters were sampled at three positions equally spaced along the channels, and pressure heads were recorded at five depths. The experimental observations were used to evaluate the performance of our modeling system. The complexity of the modeling approach was increased in three steps. First, only runoff and total drainage were simulated, then drainage flows from individual compartments were additionally evaluated, and finally a surface crust and immobile soil water were also considered. The results showed that a good match between measured and observed surface runoff and total drainage does not guarantee accurate representation of the flow process. An inspection of the Pareto results of different multiobjective calibration runs revealed a significant trade-off between individual objectives, showing that no single solution existed to match spatial variability in the flow. In spite of the observed crust formation, its consideration in the more complex model structure did not significantly improve the fit between the model and measurements. Accounting for immobile water regions only slightly improved the fit for one of the two replicate soil channels. Discrepancies between relatively complex model simulations and seemingly simple soil channel experiments suggest the presence of additional unknowns, such as heterogeneity of the soil hydraulic properties. Nevertheless, with its versatile subsurface options and powerful inverse method, the model system shows promise for studying hillslope flow problems involving both surface runoff and subsurface flow.
    Keywords: Overland Flow ; Surface Runoff ; Multi-Objective Global Parameter Optimization ; Mobile–Immobile Model ; Simulation ; Flow Channel Experiment ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 2
    Language: Portuguese
    In: Scientia Agricola, 01 April 2011, Vol.68(2), pp.160-166
    Description: The understanding of the preferential water flow and solute transport is important with regard to losses of nutrients and pesticides that affect the quality of the groundwater or surface water resources. Experiments using the brilliant blue dye tracer, a tension infiltrometer (TI) and a double square infiltrometer (DI) were carried out in the experimental field site located around 15 km southeast of the city of Rostock (North-Eastern Germany) on arable land in a Pleistocene lowland landscape where corn (Zea mays L.) and barley (Hordeum spp.) had been cultivated. One day after dye the infiltration, a pit was dug and vertical profiles were prepared in the TI and DI sites to assess the dye pathways in the subsoil of a Gleyic Luvisol. We wanted to examine if the mottled red and white (bleached) colour-pattern of the Gleyic Luvisol subsoil resulting from temporally stagnant water could be related to flow paths as visualized by dye tracing and if the soil colour could be related to other physical soil properties. Biogenic soil structures were the main transport routes conducting water and solutes into great depth in short time. These pathways had lower bulk density and less cone resistance than the adjacent red or white (bleached) areas of the Gleyic Luvisol subsoil. The red areas were involved in transport because their water contents increased after as compared to before infiltration. However, the measured physical soil properties did not differ between white and red areas. We assume that red areas participate in transport at least by imbibing water from the adjacent biogenic flow paths.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Multidisciplinary ; Umidade Do Solo ; Densidade Do Solo ; Resistência ; Soil Water Content ; Bulk Density ; Cone Resistance ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1678-992X
    ISSN: 01039016
    E-ISSN: 1678-992X
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  • 3
    In: Water Resources Research, November 2018, Vol.54(11), pp.9033-9044
    Description: Structural hierarchy is a fundamental characteristic of natural porous media. Yet it provokes one of the grand challenges for the modeling of fluid flow and transport since pore‐scale structures and continuum‐scale domains often coincide independent of the observation scale. Common approaches to represent structural hierarchy build, for example, on a multidomain continuum for transport or on the coupling of the Stokes equations with Darcy's law for fluid flow. These approaches, however, are computationally expensive or introduce empirical parameters that are difficult to derive with independent observations. We present an efficient model for fluid flow based on Darcy's law and the law of Hagen‐Poiseuille that is parameterized based on the explicit pore space morphology obtained, for example, by X‐ray μ‐CT and inherently permits the coupling of pore‐scale and continuum‐scale domain. We used the resulting flow field to predict the transport of solutes via particle tracking across the different domains. Compared to experimental breakthrough data from laboratory‐scale columns with hierarchically structured porosity built from solid glass beads and microporous glass pellets, an excellent agreement was achieved without any calibration. Furthermore, we present different test scenarios to compare the flow fields resulting from the Stokes‐Brinkman equations and our approach to comprehensively illustrate its advantages and limitations. In this way, we could show a striking efficiency and accuracy of our approach that qualifies as general alternative for the modeling of fluid flow and transport in hierarchical porous media, for example, fractured rock or karstic aquifers. A model for the simulation of pore‐scale and continuum‐scale flow in hierarchically structured porous media is developed Explicit pore space morphology obtained by image analysis of X‐ray micro‐CT images is used for parameterization Predictions of solute breakthrough obtained by particle tracking perfectly match observations
    Keywords: Darcy'S Law ; Particle Tracking ; Column Experiments ; X‐Ray Μ‐Ct ; Pore Space Morphology ; Image Analysis
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 1944-7973
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 September 2018, Vol.325, pp.37-48
    Description: Organic particles including microorganisms are a significant fraction of the mobile organic matter (MOM) pool that contributes to initial pedogenesis. Still, the dynamics and the interplay of the multitude of processes that control the mobilization, transport, and retention of MOM are vastly unclear. We studied this interplay using an ‘artificial soil’ as model for a young, unstructured soil with defined initial composition employing a novel two-layer column experiment. The upstream layer was composed of a mixture of well-defined mineral phases, a sterile organic matter source and a diverse, natural microbial inoculant mimicking an organic-rich topsoil. The downstream layer, mimicking the subsoil, was composed of the mineral phases, only. Columns were run under water-unsaturated flow conditions with multiple flow interruptions to reflect natural flow regimes and to detect possible non-equilibrium processes. Pore system changes caused by flow were inspected by scanning electron microscopy and computed micro-tomography. MOM-related physicochemical effluent parameters and bacterial community diversity and abundance were assessed by molecular analysis of the effluent and the solid phase obtained after the long-term irrigation experiment (75 d). Tomographic data showed homogeneous packing of the fine-grained media (sandy loam). During flow, the initially single-grain structured artificial soil showed no connected macropores. In total, 6% of the initial top layer organic matter was mobile. The release and transport of particulate (1.2%) and dissolved organic matter (4.8%) including bacteria were controlled by non-equilibrium conditions. Bacterial cells were released and selectively transported to downstream layer resulting in a depth-dependent and selective establishment of bacterial communities in the previously sterile artificial soil. This study underlines the importance of bacterial transport from the surface or topsoil for colonization and maturation of downstream compartments. This initial colonization of pristine surfaces is the major step in forming biogeochemical interfaces - the prominent locations of intensive biological activity and element turnover that seem to play a major role for the functioning of soil.
    Keywords: Mobile Organic Matter ; Unsaturated Two-Layer Column Experiment ; Experimental Pedogenesis ; Artificial Soil ; Computed Micro-Tomography ; Molecular Analysis ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 2009, Vol.104(1), pp.4-35
    Description: Although it has many positive effects, soil structure may adversely affect the filtering function of the vadose zone that protects natural water resources from various sources of pollution. Physically based models have been developed to analyze the impacts of preferential water flow (PF) and physical non-equilibrium (PNE) solute transport on soil and water resources. This review compiles results published over the past decade on the application of such models for simulating PF and PNE non-reactive tracer transport for scales ranging from the soil column to the catchment area. Recent progress has been made in characterizing the hydraulically relevant soil structures, dynamic flow conditions, inverse parameter and uncertainty estimations, independent model parameterizations, stochastic descriptions of soil heterogeneity, and 2D or 3D extensions of PNE models. Two-region models are most widely used across all scales; as a stand-alone approach to be used up to the field scale, or as a component of distributed, larger scale models. Studies at all scales suggest that inverse identification of parameters related to PF is generally not possible based on a hydrograph alone. Information on flux-averaged and spatially distributed local resident concentrations is jointly required for quantifying PNE transport. At the column and soil profile scale, model predictions of PF are becoming increasingly realistic through the implementation of the 3D soil structure as derived from hydrogeophysical and tracer techniques. At the field scale, integrating effects of the soil structure and its spatial variability has been attempted by combining 1D PNE approaches with stochastic parameter sampling. At the catchment area scale, the scarcity of data makes validation of PF related model components a task yet to be accomplished. The quest for easily measurable proxy variables, as ‘the missing link’ between soil structure and model parameters, continues in order to improve the practical predictive capability of PF–PNE models. A follow-up paper complementing this manuscript reviews model applications involving non-equilibrium transport of pesticides, as representatives of reactive solutes.
    Keywords: Preferential Flow ; Non-Reactive Tracer Transport ; Non-Equilibrium ; Modelling ; Structured Soil ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Geography
    ISSN: 0169-7722
    E-ISSN: 1873-6009
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