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  • 1
    In: Neurourology and Urodynamics, March 2014, Vol.33(3), pp.277-277
    Description: Byline: Heinz Koelbl ***** No abstract is available for this article. ***** Article Note: Conflict of Interest: none
    Keywords: Parturition ; Exercise Therapy -- Methods ; Fecal Incontinence -- Prevention & Control ; Pelvic Floor -- Physiopathology ; Pelvic Floor Disorders -- Therapy ; Urinary Incontinence -- Prevention & Control;
    ISSN: 0733-2467
    E-ISSN: 1520-6777
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Climatic Change, 2014, Vol.123(3), pp.461-476
    Description: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) can be a valuable CO 2 mitigation option, but what role CCS will play in the future is uncertain. In this paper we analyze the results of different integrated assessment models (IAMs) taking part in the 27th round of the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) with respect to the role of CCS in long term mitigation scenarios. Specifically we look into the use of CCS as a function of time, mitigation targets, availability of renewables and its use with different fuels. Furthermore, we explore the possibility to relate model results to general and CCS specific model assumptions. The results show a wide range of cumulative capture in the 2010–2100 period (600–3050 GtCO 2 ), but the fact that no model projects less than 600 GtCO 2 indicates that CCS is considered to be important by all these models. Interestingly, CCS storage rates are often projected to be still increasing in the second half of this century. Depending on the scenario, at least six out of eight, up to all models show higher storage rates in 2100 than in 2050. CCS shares in cumulative primary energy use are in most models increasing with the stringency of the target or under conservative availability of renewables. The strong variations of CCS deployment projection rates could not be related to the reported differences in the assumptions of the models by means of a cross-model comparison in this sample.
    ISSN: 0165-0009
    E-ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 3
    In: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, July 2012, Vol.119(8), pp.1022-1022
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 1470-0328
    E-ISSN: 1471-0528
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemical Engineering Science, 2010, Vol.65(5), pp.1897-1901
    Description: Mixing processes are frequently characterized with competing chemical reaction schemes. The most popular reaction scheme for continuous flow mixers is the iodide iodate reaction method, which traditionally uses sulfuric acid as proton source for both reactions involved in the scheme. Experimental evidence is provided which indicates that for a quantitative treatment of the experimental data either the experiments need to be carried out with a strong acid such as perchloric acid or the dissociation constants of sulfuric acid need to be included in the models linking the primary experimental results with quantitative measures such as mixing times. Another chemical test reaction system, the acetal cleavage method, traditionally carried out with hydrochloric acid was applied for comparison. In that case, the use of perchloric acid showed no significant impact on the experimental results.
    Keywords: Hydrodynamics ; Mass Transfer ; Mixing ; Kinetics ; Mixing Times ; Iodide Iodate Reaction ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0009-2509
    E-ISSN: 1873-4405
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  • 5
    In: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, January 2012, Vol.119(1), pp.51-61
    Description: Albrich S, Laterza R, Skala C, Salvatore S, Koelbl H, Naumann G. Impact of mode of delivery on levator morphology: a prospective observational study with three‐dimensional ultrasound early in the postpartum period. BJOG 2012;119:51–61. To evaluate morphology and integrity of the levator ani muscle (LAM) with three‐dimensional ultrasound early in the postpartum period. Prospective cross‐sectional observational study. University hospital in Germany. Women after vaginal delivery and caesarean section with no previous vaginal delivery. Three‐dimensional perineal ultrasound was performed between 48 and 72 hours postpartum. The axial plane at the level of minimal hiatal dimension and tomographic ultrasound imaging were used to determine LAM biometry and defect. Primary outcome was to compare hiatal dimensions and levator defect following vaginal delivery or caesarean section. For secondary outcomes, we evaluated the role of caesarean section in protecting levator integrity, and the possible involvement of the first stage of labour in LAM changes. In all, 157 women participated: 81 (51.6%) following vaginal delivery (70 spontaneous and 11 operative deliveries) and 76 (48.4%) following caesarean section (55 elective and 21 emergency caesarean sections). All biometric indices of the levator were higher after vaginal delivery (〈 0.001), except for LAM thickness. LAM defects were found to be significantly associated with vaginal delivery, with relative risk 7.5 (〈 0.001). Following vaginal delivery, 32 (39.5%) levator defects were found: 27 (38.5%) after spontaneous delivery and five (45.4%) after operative delivery. Four (5.2%) women had a levator defect following emergency caesarean section. Vaginal delivery modifies and damages the LAM: the risk of levator defect after vaginal delivery is more than seven times higher than after caesarean section. Despite this, emergency caesarean section seems to have no complete preventive effect on LAM trauma.
    Keywords: Caesarean Section ; Levator Ani Defect ; Three‐Dimensional Ultrasound ; Vaginal Delivery
    ISSN: 1470-0328
    E-ISSN: 1471-0528
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Climatic Change, May, 2013, Vol.118(2), p.15(13)
    Description: Byline: Detlef P. Vuuren (1,2,4), Sebastiaan Deetman (1), Jasper Vliet (1), Maarten Berg (1), Bas J. Ruijven (3), Barbara Koelbl (2) Abstract: Limiting climate change to 2 degC with a high probability requires reducing cumulative emissions to about 1600 GtCO.sub.2 over the 2000--2100 period. This requires unprecedented rates of decarbonization even in the short-run. The availability of the option of net negative emissions, such as bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or reforestation/afforestation, allows to delay some of these emission reductions. In the paper, we assess the demand and potential for negative emissions in particular from BECCS. Both stylized calculations and model runs show that without the possibility of negative emissions, pathways meeting the 2 degC target with high probability need almost immediate emission reductions or simply become infeasible. The potential for negative emissions is uncertain. We show that negative emissions from BECCS are probably limited to around 0 to 10 GtCO.sub.2/year in 2050 and 0 to 20 GtCO.sub.2/year in 2100. Estimates on the potential of afforestation options are in the order of 0--4 GtCO.sub.2/year. Given the importance and the uncertainty concerning BECCS, we stress the importance of near-term assessments of its availability as today's decisions has important consequences for climate change mitigation in the long run. Author Affiliation: (1) PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, The Netherlands (2) Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Department of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, NL-3584 CS, Utrecht, The Netherlands (3) National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO, USA (4) PBL Netherlands Environmental Assesment Agency, PO Box 303, 3720 AH, Bilthoven, The Netherlands Article History: Registration Date: 26/12/2012 Received Date: 06/05/2012 Accepted Date: 23/12/2012 Online Date: 06/02/2013 Article note: This article is part of a Special Issue on "Carbon Dioxide Removal from the Atmosphere: Complementary Insights from Science and Modeling" edited by Massimo Tavoni, Robert Socolow, and Carlo Carraro.
    Keywords: Air Pollution Control -- Methods ; Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide -- Control
    ISSN: 0165-0009
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Current Biology, 05 November 2018, Vol.28(21), pp.3516-3521.e2
    Description: Pycnodontiformes are an extinct order of ray-finned fishes from the Triassic to Eocene [ ], with a characteristic crushing dentition reflecting a highly specialized diet [ ]. However, our discovery of a new pycnodontiform from the Late Jurassic (ca. 152 Ma) Plattenkalk deposits of the Solnhofen Archipelago revealed long, pointed teeth along the vomer and triangular teeth with cutting edges along the prearticulars. This is the earliest evidence of specialized flesh cutting in a ray-finned fish. The dentition pattern, tooth shape, jaw morphology, and mechanics are all indicative of a feeding apparatus suitable for slicing flesh or fins, thus pioneering a new ecological niche. Evidence suggests that it may have exploited aggressive mimicry in a striking parallel to the feeding patterns of modern piranha. Remarkably, fossil fishes recovered from the same deposits as the new pycnodontiform show injuries to fins and fin bases. As a marine piranha-like fish contemporary with dinosaurs, it is the oldest known flesh-eating actinopterygian, revealing remarkable convergent evolution with modern piranhas. Kölbl-Ebert et al. describe a new pycnodontiform fish, , from the Jurassic. It has specialized morphological features for cutting flesh, including piranha-like teeth. As a marine fish contemporary with dinosaurs, it is the oldest known flesh-eating ray-finned fish, exhibiting remarkable convergent evolution with piranhas.
    Keywords: Pycnodontiformes ; Piranhamesodon ; Late Jurassic ; Solnhofen Archipelago ; Piranha-Like Dentition ; Convergent Evolution ; Aggressive Mimicry ; Functional Morphology ; Marine Fishes ; Predation ; Biology
    ISSN: 0960-9822
    E-ISSN: 1879-0445
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 12/15/2011, Vol.71(24 Supplement), pp.P1-01-16-P1-01-16
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Materials Science, 2011, Vol.46(19), pp.6248-6254
    Description: Both time–temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams have been established to characterize the crystallization behavior of slags in a selected temperature range. Therefore, the single hot thermocouple technique based on already existing equipment was constructed showing also some different approaches. Furthermore, the procedure was enhanced using a stretching device enabling the formation of very thin slag layers. This device permits the investigation of not only transparent but also translucent liquids with low amounts of coloring oxides, e.g. Fe 2 O 3 . For the initiation of this method, a transparent synthetic NCAS-slag showing a high crystallization tendency was used to proper adjust the control parameters. Afterward, two industrial mould slags for the continuous casting of steel were investigated and TTT- as well as CCT-diagrams created. The TTT-diagrams for both mould slags show only one nose but the shapes of crystals formed differ dependent on temperature. This is contributed to the ratio of the growth to nucleation rate which is raised at higher temperatures where dendritic crystals are formed. For the case of continuous-cooling experiments observing only the formation of dendritic crystals precipitating at temperatures close to the liquidus temperatures the same explanation is assumed. Contrary, this ratio is decreased for rather low temperatures where only fine separate crystals precipitate.
    Keywords: Temperature Measurement – Methods ; Temperature Measurement – Chemical Properties ; Casting (Metal) – Methods ; Casting (Metal) – Chemical Properties;
    ISSN: 0022-2461
    E-ISSN: 1573-4803
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Chemical Engineering Science, 20 September 2013, Vol.101, pp.454-460
    Description: In this contribution we report on kinetic investigations of the Dushman reaction at concentrations relevant to mixing studies in microstructured cyclone type mixers. The investigations were carried out under incomplete mixing. With this approach the kinetic investigations are as close as possible to the conditions of the corresponding mixing investigations, but no information on the absolute rate of the Dushman reaction is obtained. Our data suggest reaction orders (I : ; IO : ; H : ) close to those, typically assumed for mixing studies. No significant influence of the ionic strength could be found. Previous assumptions on the influence of the ionic strength neglected the basic nature of the sulfate ion. The use of perchloric acid instead of sulfuric acid, commonly employed in mixing studies, yields far higher optical densities of the resulting solutions, suggesting higher local H concentrations for the perchloric acid case.
    Keywords: Micromixing Times ; Reactive Mixing ; Villermaux/Dushman ; Kinetics ; Iodide Iodate Method ; Competing Reaction Systems ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0009-2509
    E-ISSN: 1873-4405
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