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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    In: Applied Vegetation Science, April 2013, Vol.16(2), pp.171-172
    Description: Traditionally, ecological theory on community assembly and are considered distinct. Fischer et al. (this issue of ), however, show neatly how differences in trait composition between resident and colonizing species could be established. By using an environmental context‐specific approach, the analysis bridges the gap between application and more theoretical understanding of vegetation ecology. Traditionally, ecological theory on community assembly and applied vegetation science are considered distinct. Fischer et al. (this issue of ), however, show neatly how differences in trait composition between resident and colonizing species could be established. By using an environmental context‐specific approach, the analysis bridges the gap between application and more theoretical understanding of vegetation ecology.
    Keywords: Vegetation ; Ecosystem and Ecology Studies;
    ISSN: 1402-2001
    E-ISSN: 1654-109X
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2013, Vol.502(7471), p.303
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Conservation of Natural Resources -- Trends;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    In: Ecology Letters, July 2012, Vol.15(7), pp.696-703
    Description: Recently, ecologists debated whether distinguishing native from non‐native species is sensible or not. One argument is that widespread and less widespread species are functionally different, whether or not they are native. An opposing statement points out ecologically relevant differences between native and non‐native species. We studied the functional traits that drive native and non‐native vascular plant species frequency in Germany by explaining species grid‐cell frequency using traits and their interaction with status. Native and non‐native species frequency was equally driven by life span, ploidy type and self‐compatibility. Non‐native species frequency rose with later flowering cessation date, whereas this relationship was absent for native species. Native and non‐native species differed in storage organs and in the number of environmental conditions they tolerate. We infer that environmental filters drive trait convergence of native and non‐native species, whereas competition drives trait divergence. Meanwhile, introduction pathways functionally bias the frequency of non‐native species.
    Keywords: Alien Species ; Anthropogenic Habitats ; Archaeophytes ; Community Assembly ; Functional Ecology ; Neophytes ; Niches ; Novel Ecosystems ; Species Ranges
    ISSN: 1461-023X
    E-ISSN: 1461-0248
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Biogeography, 1 May 2012, Vol.39(5), pp.995-998
    Description: Spatial analyses are indispensable analytical tools in biogeography and macroecology. In a recent Guest Editorial, Hawkins (Journal of Biogeography, 2012,39, 1-9) raised several issues related to spatial analyses. While we concur with some points, we here clarify those confounding (1) spatial trends and spatial autocorrelation, and (2) spatial autocorrelation in the response variable and in the residuals. We argue that recognizing spatial autocorrelation in statistical modelling is not only a crucial step in model diagnostics, but that disregarding it is essentially wrong.
    Keywords: CORRESPONDENCE
    ISSN: 03050270
    E-ISSN: 13652699
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Biogeography, May 2012, Vol.39(5), pp.995-998
    Description: Spatial analyses are indispensable analytical tools in biogeography and macroecology. In a recent Guest Editorial, Hawkins (, 2012, , 1–9) raised several issues related to spatial analyses. While we concur with some points, we here clarify those confounding (1) spatial trends and spatial autocorrelation, and (2) spatial autocorrelation in the response variable and in the residuals. We argue that recognizing spatial autocorrelation in statistical modelling is not only a crucial step in model diagnostics, but that disregarding it is essentially wrong.
    Keywords: Biogeography ; Macroecology ; Spatial Analysis ; Spatial Autocorrelation ; Spatial Trends ; Statistical Analyses
    ISSN: 0305-0270
    E-ISSN: 1365-2699
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, April 2017, Vol.54(2), pp.527-536
    Description: The effect of climate change on wild bee communities is of major concern since the decline of bee species could imperil the provision of pollination services. Additionally, habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to wild bee populations, but improvements to the landscape structure could also improve the general conditions for wild bees. However, potential interactive effects of climate change and landscape structure on wild bee communities remain unknown. In this study, we assessed the potential of semi‐natural areas to maintain robust communities under changing weather conditions. We used bee monitoring data from six 4 × 4 km field sites across Germany. Almost 30 000 bee specimens were collected from 2010 to 2012 in 16 local communities per site at six sampling occasions per year. Following a multimodel inference approach, we identified the most important weather and landscape variables as well as interaction terms that affect wild bee species richness and total abundance. Correcting for overall phenology, we found a strong negative relationship between bee species richness and temperature, indicating that future increasing temperatures will lead to a decrease in species richness. However, a high proportion of semi‐natural habitats can considerably decrease the detrimental effect of warmer temperatures on bee species richness and abundance. Synthesis and applications. Semi‐natural areas and green infrastructure elements within agricultural landscapes become even more important under changing temperature conditions to mitigate the negative effects of increasing temperatures on wild bee species richness and total abundance. This has important implications for conservation decision making, suggesting that maintaining or restoring a fair amount of semi‐natural areas could serve as a countermeasure against climate change for wild bees. Semi‐natural areas and green infrastructure elements within agricultural landscapes become even more important under changing temperature conditions to mitigate the negative effects of increasing temperatures on wild bee species richness and total abundance. This has important implications for conservation decision making, suggesting that maintaining or restoring a fair amount of semi‐natural areas could serve as a countermeasure against climate change for wild bees.
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Climate Warming ; Ecosystem Service ; Global Changes ; Green Infrastructure ; Mitigation ; Pollination Decline ; Pollinator Decline ; Semi‐Natural Areas ; Wild Bees
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 10 April 2018, Vol.373, pp.39-52
    Description: Species range shifts under climate change have predominantly been projected by models correlating species observations with climatic conditions. However, geographic range shifting may depend on biotic factors such as demography, dispersal and species interactions. Recently suggested hybrid models include these factors. However, parameterization of hybrid models suffers from lack of detailed ecological data across many taxa. Further, it is methodologically unclear how to upscale ecological information from scales relevant to ecological processes to the coarser resolution of species distribution data (often 100 km or even 2500 km ). We tackle these problems by developing a novel modelling and calibration framework, which allows hybrid model calibration from (static) presence-absence data that is available for many species. The framework improves understanding of the influence of biotic processes on range projections and reveals critical sources of uncertainty that limit projection reliability. We demonstrate its performance for the case of the butterfly Titania’s Fritillary ( .
    Keywords: Biotic Interaction ; Colonization ; Extinction ; Range Projection ; Process-Based ; Dispersal ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Biogeography, December 2016, Vol.43(12), pp.2502-2512
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jbi.12781/abstract Byline: Gudrun Carl, Daniel Doktor, Oliver Schweiger, Ingolf Kuhn Keywords: discrete wavelet transform; generalized linear model; multimodel inference; remote-sensing signal; spatial scales; vegetation period Abstract Aim Assessing the relationship between a spatial process and environmental variables as a function of spatial scale is a challenging problem. Therefore, there is a need for a valid and reliable tool to examine and evaluate scale dependencies in biogeography, macroecology and other earth sciences. Location Central Europe (latitude 43.99[degrees]-54.22[degrees] N, longitude 4.79[degrees]-15.02[degrees] E). Methods We present a method for applying two-dimensional wavelet analysis to a generalized linear model. This scale-specific regression is combined with a multimodel inference approach evaluating the relative importance of several environmental variables across different spatial scales. We apply this method to data of climate, topographic and land cover variables to explain variation in annual greening of vegetation (i.e. phenology) in Central Europe. Results Land use is more important to explain the variation in greening than climate at smaller resolution while climate is more important at larger resolution with a shift at c. 1000 km.sub.2. Main conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study analysing the scale dependency of an ecosystem process, clearly distinguishing between the different components of scale, namely grain, focus and extent. The obtained results demonstrate that our newly proposed method is particularly suitable for studying scale dependencies of various spatial processes on environmental drivers keeping grain and extent constant and changing focus (i.e. resolution). Article Note: Editor: Richard Pearson CAPTION(S): Appendix S1 Additional information about data sets. Appendix S2 R code for calculating scale-specific regressions.
    Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform ; Generalized Linear Model ; Multimodel Inference ; Remote‐Sensing Signal ; Spatial Scales ; Vegetation Period
    ISSN: 0305-0270
    E-ISSN: 1365-2699
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  • 9
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(11)
    Description: Forests with higher tree diversity are often assumed to be more resistant to insect herbivores but whether this effect depends on climatic conditions is so far poorly understood. In particular, a forest’s resistance to herbivory may depend on mean annual temperature (MAT) as a key driver of plant and insect phenology. We carried out a global meta-analysis on regression coefficients between tree diversity and four aspects of insect herbivory, namely herbivore damage, abundance, incidence rate and species richness. To test for a potential shift of tree diversity effects along a global gradient of MAT we applied mixed-effects models and estimated grand mean effect sizes and the influence of MAT, experimental vs. observational studies and herbivores diet breadth. There was no overall effect of tree diversity on the pooled effect sizes of insect herbivore damage, abundance and incidence rate. However, when analysed separately, we found positive grand mean effect sizes for herbivore abundance and species richness. For herbivore damage and incidence rate we found a significant but opposing shift along a gradient of MAT indicating that with increasing MAT diversity effects on herbivore damage tend towards associational resistance whereas diversity effects on incidence rates tend towards associational susceptibility. Our results contradict previous meta-analyses reporting overall associational resistance to insect herbivores in mixed forests. Instead, we report that tree diversity effects on insect herbivores can follow a biogeographic pattern calling for further in-depth studies in this field.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Physical Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    In: PLoS ONE, 2017, Vol.12(11)
    Description: The spread of invasive plants along elevational gradients is considered a threat to fragile mountain ecosystems, but it can also provide the opportunity to better understand some of the basic processes driving the success of invasive species. Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) is an invasive plant of global importance and has a broad distribution along elevational gradients in the Western Himalayas. Our study aimed at understanding the role of evolutionary processes (e.g. local adaptation and clinal differentiation) and different life history stages in shaping the distribution pattern of the invasive plant along an elevational gradient in the Western Himalaya. We carried out extensive distributional surveys, established a reciprocal transplant experiment with common gardens at three elevational levels, and measured a suite of traits related to germination, growth, reproduction and phenology. Our results showed a lack of local adaptation, and we did not find any evidence for clinal differentiation in any measured trait except a rather weak signal for plant height. We found that seed germination was the crucial life-cycle transition in determining the lower range limit while winter mortality of plants shaped the upper range limit in our study area, thus explaining the hump shaped distribution pattern. Differences in trait values between gardens for most traits indicated a high degree of phenotypic plasticity. Possible causes such as apomixis, seed dispersal among sites, and pre-adaptation might have confounded evolutionary processes to act upon. Our results suggest that the success and spread of Ageratina adenophora are dependent on different life history stages at different elevations that are controlled by abiotic conditions.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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