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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집, 2014, Vol.2014(6), pp.309-309
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2017, Vol.12(7), pp.e0180264
    Description: Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of organic matter resources in arable soils.
    Keywords: Bacteria -- Growth & Development ; Fungi -- Growth & Development ; Nematoda -- Growth & Development ; Soil -- Chemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집, 2014, Vol.2014(6), pp.427-427
    Keywords: Carbon Transport ; Colloids ; Bacteria Transport
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집, 2014, Vol.2014(6), pp.441-441
    Keywords: Doc ; Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Chromatography ; Colloidal Organic Carbon ; Ground Water
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집, 2014, Vol.2014(6), pp.266-266
    Keywords: Hematite Nanoparticles ; Biofilm ; EPS ; Colloidal Stability
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, Sept 25, 2018
    Description: Structure formation and self organization in soils determine soil functions and regulate soil processes. Mathematically based modeling can facilitate the understanding of organizing mechanisms at different scales, provided that the major driving forces are taken into account. In this research we present an extension of the mechanistic model for transport, biomass development and solid restructuring that was proposed in a former publication of the authors. Three main extensions are implemented. First, arbitrary shapes for the building units (e.g., spherical, needle-like, or platy particles), and also their compositions are incorporated into the model. Second, a gas phase is included in addition to solid, biofilm, and fluid phases. Interaction rules within and between the phases are prescribed using a cellular automaton method (CAM) and a system of partial differential equations (PDEs). These result in a structural self organization of the respective phases which define the time-dependent composition of the computational domain. Within the non-solid phases, chemical species may diffuse and react. In particular a kinetic Langmuir isotherm for heterogeneous surface reactions and a Henry condition for the transfer from/into the gas phase are applied. As third important model extension charges and charge conservation laws are included into the model for both the solid phase and ions in solution, as electrostatic attraction is a major driving force for aggregation. The ions move obeying the Nernst-Planck equations. A fully implicit local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method is applied to solve the resulting equation systems. The operational, comprehensive model allows to study structure formation as a function of the size and shape of the solid particles. Moreover, the effect of attraction and repulsion by charges is thoroughly discussed. The presented model is a first step to capture various aspects of structure formation and self organization in soils, it is a process-based tool to study the interplay of relevant mechanisms in silico.
    Keywords: Soil Structure – Models ; Soil Structure – Analysis
    ISSN: 2296-665X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Earth Science, 01 April 2016, Vol.4
    Description: The Earth’s Critical Zone (CZ) is a thin living layer connecting atmosphere and geosphere, including aquifers. Humans live in the CZ and benefit from the vital supporting services it provides. However, the CZ is increasingly impacted by human activities including land and resource use, pollution and climate change. Recent interest in uniting the many disciplines studying this complex domain has initiated an international network of research infrastructure platforms that allow access to the CZ in a range of geologic settings. In this paper a new such infrastructure platform associated with the Collaborative Research Center AquaDiva is described, that uniquely seeks to combine CZ research with detailed investigation of the functional biodiversity of the subsurface. Overall, AquaDiva aims to test hypotheses about how water connects surface conditions set by land cover and land management to the biota and biogeochemical functions in the subsurface. With long-term and continuous observations, hypotheses about how seasonal variations and extreme events at the surface impact subsurface processes, community structure and function, are tested. AquaDiva has established the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE) in central Germany in an alkaline geological setting of German Triassic Muschelkalk formations. The Hainich CZE includes specialized monitoring wells to access the vadose zone and two main groundwater complexes in limestone and marlstone parent materials along a ~6 km transect spanning forest, pasture and agricultural land uses. Initial results demonstrate fundamental differences in the biota and biogeochemistry of the two aquifer complexes that trace back to the land uses in their respective recharge areas. They also show the importance of antecedent conditions on the impact of precipitation events on responses in terms of groundwater dynamics, chemistry and ecology. Thus we find signals of surface land use and events can be detected in the subsurface CZ. Future research will expand to a second CZE in contrasting siliciclastic parent rock, to evaluate the relative importance of parent material lithology versus surface conditions for the emergent characteristics of the subsurface CZ and biodiversity. The Hainich CZE is open to researchers who bring new questions that the research platform can help answer.
    Keywords: Data Mining ; Metabolomics ; Microbial Ecology ; Events ; Hydrogeochemistry ; Critical Zone ; Geology
    E-ISSN: 2296-6463
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, Sept, 2012, Vol.168, p.96(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.04.016 Byline: Markus Wehrer (a)(b), Philipp Jaesche (c), Kai Uwe Totsche (a) Abstract: A quantitative knowledge of the fate of deicing chemicals in the subsurface can be provided by joint analysis of lab experiments with numerical simulation models. In the present study, published experimental data of microbial degradation of the deicing chemical propylene glycol (PG) under flow conditions in soil columns were simulated inversely to receive the parameters of degradation. We evaluated different scenarios of an advection-dispersion model including different terms for degradation, such as zero order, first order and inclusion of a growing and decaying biomass for their ability to explain the data. The general break-through behavior of propylene glycol in soil columns can be simulated well using a coupled model of solute transport and degradation with growth and decay of biomass. The susceptibility of the model to non-unique solutions was investigated using systematical forward and inverse simulations. We found that the model tends to equifinal solutions under certain conditions. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Burgweg 11, 07743 Jena, Germany (b) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Smith Hall Room 136, 101 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102, United States (c) Weizbuhl 19, 95497 Goldkronach, Germany Article History: Received 9 November 2011; Revised 6 April 2012; Accepted 9 April 2012
    Keywords: Propylene -- Models ; Propylene -- Analysis ; Propylene Glycol -- Models ; Propylene Glycol -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, August, 2013, Vol.179, p.315(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.03.041 Byline: Markus Wehrer, Thilo Rennert, Kai Uwe Totsche Abstract: Mass transfer processes of pollutants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) may control groundwater pollution at abandoned industrial sites. We studied release kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from fresh and aged tar phases using a dialysis tubing technique. Time for equilibration ranged from several days to more than three years. For fresh tar materials the release seems to be limited by retarded pore diffusion, while for two of three aged tars diffusion limited release influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) was assumed. The equilibration process was driven by solubilization thermodynamics expressed by Raoult's law. Yet, solubility enhancement was observed potentially due to the presence of organic mobile sorbents. The results show that the release of PAHs from tar phases is generally rate limited and partitioning according to Raoult's law is the driving mechanism of the exchanges process. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Burgweg 11, 07743 Jena, Germany (b) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Smith Hall Room 136, 101 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102, United States Article History: Received 31 October 2012; Revised 13 March 2013; Accepted 19 March 2013
    Keywords: Water Pollution ; Thermodynamics ; Groundwater ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Pollution Control
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in microbiology, 2017, Vol.8, pp.1951
    Description: Despite the high relevance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) for nitrogen loss from marine systems, its relative importance compared to denitrification has less been studied in freshwater ecosystems, and our knowledge is especially scarce for groundwater. Surprisingly, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)-based studies identified zones with potentially active anammox bacteria within two superimposed pristine limestone aquifer assemblages of the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE; Germany). We found anammox to contribute an estimated 83% to total nitrogen loss in suboxic groundwaters of these aquifer assemblages at rates of 3.5-4.7 nmol L d, presumably favored over denitrification by low organic carbon availability. Transcript abundances of genes encoding hydrazine synthase exceeded and transcript abundances encoding denitrifier nitrite reductase by up to two orders of magnitude, providing further support of a predominance of anammox. Anammox bacteria, dominated by groups closely related to . Brocadia fulgida, constituted up to 10.6% of the groundwater microbial community and were ubiquitously present across the two aquifer assemblages with indication of active anammox bacteria even in the presence of 103 μmol L oxygen. Co-occurrence of and gene transcripts encoding ammonia mono-oxygenase suggested coupling between aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation under suboxic conditions. These results clearly demonstrate the relevance of anammox as a key process driving nitrogen loss from oligotrophic groundwater environments, which might further be enhanced through coupling with incomplete nitrification.
    Keywords: Anammox ; Chemolithoautotrophy ; Denitrification ; Groundwater ; Ladderane Lipids ; Subsurface
    ISSN: 1664-302X
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