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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2015, Vol.373(24), pp.2305-2313
    Description: Background Scabies is an underrecognized cause of illness in many developing countries. It is associated with impetigo, which can lead to serious systemic complications. We conducted a trial of mass drug administration for scabies control in Fiji. Methods We randomly assigned three island communities to one of three different interventions for scabies control: standard care involving the administration of permethrin to affected persons and their contacts (standard-care group), mass administration of permethrin (permethrin group), or mass administration of ivermectin (ivermectin group). The primary outcome was the change in the prevalence of scabies and of impetigo from baseline to 12 months. Results A total of 2051 participants were enrolled; 803 were in the standard-care group, 532 in the permethrin group, and 716 in the ivermectin group. From baseline to 12 months, the prevalence of scabies declined significantly in all groups, with the greatest reduction seen in the ivermectin group. The prevalence declined from 36.6% to 18.8% in the standard-care group (relative reduction in prevalence, 49%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37 to 60), from 41.7% to 15.8% in the permethrin group (relative reduction, 62%; 95% CI, 49 to 75), and from 32.1% to 1.9% in the ivermectin group (relative reduction, 94%; 95% CI, 83 to 100). The prevalence of impetigo also declined in all groups, with the greatest reduction seen in the ivermectin group. The prevalence declined from 21.4% to 14.6% in the standard-care group (relative reduction, 32%; 95% CI, 14 to 50), from 24.6% to 11.4% in the permethrin group (relative reduction, 54%; 95% CI, 35 to 73), and from 24.6% to 8.0% in the ivermectin group (relative reduction, 67%; 95% CI, 52 to 83). Adverse events were mild and were reported more frequently in the ivermectin group than in the permethrin group (15.6% vs. 6.8%). Conclusions Mass drug administration, particularly the administration of ivermectin, was efficacious for the control of scabies and impetigo. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12613000474752 .) This trial of strategies for scabies control in Fiji compared administration of permethrin to affected persons and their contacts with mass administration of either permethrin or ivermectin. The prevalence of scabies declined in all groups, with the greatest decline in the ivermectin group. Scabies, a skin condition that is recognized by the World Health Organization as a disease of public health importance, 1 is a substantial contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Scabies is caused by a microscopic mite ( Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis ) and is transmitted primarily through person-to-person contact. Infestation can result in debilitating itchiness, with associated sleep disturbance, reduced ability to concentrate, 2 social stigmatization, 3 and ongoing health care expenses. 4 , 5 In many developing countries, scabies-related scratching is an important cause of impetigo, 6 – 10 which is most often due to Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus infection and can lead to septicemia, . . .
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: BMC Public Health, 01 August 2017, Vol.17(1), pp.1-8
    Description: Abstract Background Zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis occur as a result of the often complex interactions that exist at the human-animal-environment interface. The most obvious consequence of this complexity is the need for the health...
    Keywords: Leptospirosis ; One Health ; Zoonotic Diseases ; Governance ; Collaboration ; Multi-Sectoral ; Public Health
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(11), p.e0206622
    Description: As part of large on-going vaccine impact studies in Fiji and Mongolia, we identified 25/2750 (0.9%) of nasopharyngeal swabs by microarray that were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae contained pneumococci with a divergent 33F capsular polysaccharide locus (designated '33F-1'). We investigated...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
  • 5
    In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, July 2018, Vol.33(3), pp.677-689
    Description: Byline: Anna McPherson,Peter S. Hill, Mike Kama, Simon Reid Keywords: Fiji; governance; leptospirosis; One Health; zoonosis SUMMARY Fiji has a high burden of leptospirosis, with endemic infection and epidemic outbreaks with high mortality, often associated with flooding and cyclones. As a zoonosis, leptospirosis control requires interventions in sectors beyond the usual control of health-in Fiji, the dairy and sugar industries, and water and sanitation and rodent control in communities. This paper presents the findings of qualitative research to inform policy around governance for a One Health multisectoral approach to leptospirosis control. Methods Key informants from relevant government agencies and industry organizations were interviewed in late 2014, and the interviews analyzed and triangulated with documentary analysis. Findings The analysis identified 5 themes: perceptions of the impact of leptospirosis, governance processes, models for collaboration, leptospirosis control, and preferred leadership for leptospirosis management. Data were limited, with poor communication between ministries, and limited awareness of leptospirosis outside outbreaks. Collaboration during outbreaks was positive but not sustained in endemic periods. Mechanism for enhanced collaboration was developed for endemic and outbreak situations. Conclusion The findings informed a One Health governance approach to leptospirosis, framed within a National Strategic Plan, with a specific National Action Plan for Leptospirosis. The process provides a research based One Health template for application to other zoonotic diseases. Article Note: The Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology
    Keywords: Fiji ; Governance ; Leptospirosis ; One Health ; Zoonosis
    ISSN: 0749-6753
    E-ISSN: 1099-1751
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(12), p.e0186911
    Description: Empirical data on contact patterns can inform dynamic models of infectious disease transmission. Such information has not been widely reported from Pacific islands, nor strongly multi-ethnic settings, and few attempts have been made to quantify contact patterns relevant for the spread of gastrointestinal...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, February 2018, Vol.24(2), pp.284-293
    Description: Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1.26/quintile increase, 95% CI 1.12-1.42), and decreased with increased distance from major rivers and creeks (OR 0.89/km increase, 95% CI 0.80-0.99) and distance to modeled flood-risk areas (OR 0.80/quintile increase, 95% CI 0.69-0.92) after being adjusted for age, typhoid fever vaccination, and home toilet type. Risk for exposure to Salmonella Typhi and its spatial distribution in Fiji are driven by environmental factors. Our findings can directly affect typhoid fever control efforts in Fiji.
    Keywords: Fiji ; Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi ; Vi Antibodies ; Vi Capsular Antigen ; Bacteria ; Environmental Factors ; Flooding ; Multilevel Analysis ; Risk Factors ; Seroprevalence ; Typhoid Fever ; Salmonella Typhi -- Physiology ; Typhoid Fever -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 8
    In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2018, Vol.12(10)
    Description: Introduction Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease responsible for over 1 million severe cases and 60,000 deaths annually. The wide range of animal hosts and complex environmental drivers of transmission make targeted interventions challenging, particularly when restricted to regression-based analyses which have limited ability to deal with complexity. In Fiji, important environmental and socio-demographic factors include living in rural areas, poverty, and livestock exposure. This study aims to examine drivers of transmission under different scenarios of environmental and livestock exposures. Methods Spatial Bayesian networks (SBN) were used to analyse the influence of livestock and poverty on the risk of leptospirosis infection in urban compared to rural areas. The SBN models used a combination of spatially-explicit field data from previous work and publically available census information. Predictive risk maps were produced for overall risk, and for scenarios related to poverty, livestock, and urban/rural setting. Results While high, rather than low, commercial dairy farm density similarly increased the risk of infection in both urban (12% to 18%) and rural areas (70% to 79%), the presence of pigs in a village had different impact in rural (43% to 84%) compared with urban areas (4% to 24%). Areas with high poverty rates were predicted to have 26.6% and 18.0% higher probability of above average seroprevalence in rural and urban areas, respectively. In urban areas, this represents 〉300% difference between areas of low and high poverty, compared to 43% difference in rural areas. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the use of SBN to provide valuable insights into the drivers of leptospirosis transmission under complex scenarios. By estimating the risk of leptospirosis infection under different scenarios, such as urban versus rural areas, these subgroups or areas can be targeted with more precise interventions that focus on the most relevant key drivers of infection. Author summary Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease responsible for over 60,000 deaths annually and is transmitted from mammal hosts to humans through contact with infected urine. The range of possible hosts and complex environmental factors related to transmission make targeted interventions challenging. We used spatial Bayesian Networks applied to a case study in Fiji to show that livestock exposure and poverty affect the probability of infection differently in rural compared to urban areas. This work illustrates the complexity of leptospirosis transmission drivers in Fiji, and shows how they are affected by the interactions between livestock exposure and other environmental and socio-demographic factors. In doing so, we support previous findings linking the risk of leptospirosis to poverty.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Earth Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Earth Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; People And Places ; Biology And Life Sciences
    ISSN: 1935-2727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: 2015, Vol.9(3), p.e0003452
    Description: Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. ; A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%), followed by children aged less than five (36.5%), and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous) Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%). Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. ; As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in endemic communities. ; Recently added to the World Health Organization list of neglected tropical diseases, scabies is an under-recognised cause of morbidity in many developing countries, due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. We examined 10,887 people across 75 communities in all four geographical divisions of Fiji, covering both urban and rural areas. The national prevalence of scabies and impetigo was 23.6% and 19.6% respectively, and highest in children aged 5–9 years. We found that scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo. Scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous) Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. Our study shows that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in endemic communities.
    Keywords: Research Article
    ISSN: 19352727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 01 July 2016, Vol.10(7), p.e0004798
    Description: BACKGROUND:Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic....
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1935-2727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
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