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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, March, 2013, Vol.195-196, p.70(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.11.014 Byline: Roy Kasteel, Frauke Schnitzler, Anne E. Berns, Jan Vanderborght, Harry Vereecken Keywords: Vadose zone; Dye tracers; Contaminant transport; Preferential flow Abbreviations: MRZ, Merzenhausen; SCH, Scheyern; BaP, benzo[a]pyrene; BB, Brilliant Blue; TLC, thin layer chromatography Abstract: Small amounts of organic compounds are often found at much larger depths than expected from their organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient (K.sub.oc). In this study the food dye Brilliant Blue (BB) was used to visualize the (preferential) transport pathways in undisturbed soil monoliths taken from an Orthic Luvisol and from a Eutric Cambisol. After spiking the monoliths with 1.0MBq of either.sup.14C-labeled benazolin (leacher) or.sup.14C-labeled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, nonleacher), they were intermittently irrigated under free-draining conditions twice weekly with 4mm of rain water for 17weeks. BB (4gL.sup.-1) was added to the rain water during the last 4weeks. After irrigation, the monoliths were sliced and photographs were taken from horizontal cross-sections. Soil was dried and incinerated to measure total.sup.14C-activity. The mean travel depth for benazolin (6-7cm) was larger than for BaP (2cm), which is in line with their K.sub.oc values, although BaP was much more mobile than expected from the K.sub.oc value. BB patterns, arbitrarily classified into five intensity classes, showed that large parts of the monolith were bypassed below the completely stained upper two to five centimeter. Furthermore, BB patterns indicated the locations of strongly sorbing compounds in the deeper soil layers and are therefore a helpful tool to selectively sample the soil for these compounds. A continuously stained root channel below the 20-cm depth contained substantial amounts of BaP, indicating that soil structure cannot be neglected to assess the fate of nonleachers in undisturbed soils. Article History: Received 3 July 2012; Revised 19 November 2012; Accepted 21 November 2012
    Keywords: Tracers (Chemistry) ; Soil Structure ; Recharge Zones ; Rainwater ; Vadose Zone
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, Jan, 2014, Vol.95, p.470(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.100 Byline: Stephan Sittig, Roy Kasteel, Joost Groeneweg, Diana Hofmann, Bjorn Thiele, Stephan Koppchen, Harry Vereecken Abstract: acents We show transformation and sequestration of the antibiotic sulfadiazine in two soils. acents Transformation products were found in liquid phase and extracts from the sorbed phase. acents We used a compartment model including all species and did global optimization. acents Sorption and transformation are concentration dependent. Article History: Received 12 December 2012; Revised 21 September 2013; Accepted 29 September 2013
    Keywords: Soils ; Sulfadiazine
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, January 2014, Vol.95, pp.470-477
    Description: Veterinary antibiotics administered to livestock can be unintentionally released into the environment, for example by the application of manure to soils. The fate of such antibiotics in soils is mostly determined by sorption and degradation processes, including transformation. There is a need to further examine the combined transformation and sorption behavior of these emerging pollutants in soils. Long-term batch sorption experiments with the C-radiolabeled antibiotic sulfadiazine enabled us to simultaneously trace the sorption and transformation dynamics of sulfadiazine. The parent compound and the transformation products were analyzed in the liquid phase and in the extracts from the solid phase after a sequential extraction. We found that of up to six transformation products were formed during degradation and that these products exhibited quite different dynamics in the two soils. Transformation products were formed rapidly and were extractable from the solid phase. We observed identical sets of the transformation products in both phases. The input concentration influenced the course of transformation of the parent substance. We present a detailed analysis including a mathematical description and derive regulatory kinetic endpoints for predicting environmental concentrations.
    Keywords: Sulfadiazine ; Transformation in Soils ; Sorption and Sequestration ; Numerical Studies ; Kinetic Endpoints ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 24 August 2016, Vol.64(33), pp.6407-15
    Description: Pesticide transport from seed dressings toward subsurface tile drains is still poorly understood. We monitored the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam from sugar beet seed dressings in flow-proportional drainage water samples, together with spray applications of bromide and the herbicide S-metolachlor in spring and the fungicides epoxiconazole and kresoxim-methyl in summer. Event-driven, high first concentration maxima up to 2830 and 1290 ng/L for thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, respectively, were followed by an extended period of tailing and suggested preferential flow. Nevertheless, mass recoveries declined in agreement with the degradation and sorption properties collated in the groundwater ubiquity score, following the order bromide (4.9%), thiamethoxam (1.2%), imidacloprid (0.48%), kresoxim-methyl acid (0.17%), S-metolachlor (0.032%), epoxiconazole (0.013%), and kresoxim-methyl (0.003%), and indicated increased leaching from seed dressings compared to spray applications. Measured concentrations and mass recoveries indicate that subsurface tile drains contribute to surface water contamination with neonicotinoids from seed dressings.
    Keywords: Drainage Water ; Leaching ; Neonicotinoids ; Preferential Flow ; Seed Dressing ; Subsurface Tile Drains ; Sugar Beet ; Environmental Monitoring ; Groundwater -- Chemistry ; Imidazoles -- Analysis ; Insecticides -- Analysis ; Nitro Compounds -- Analysis ; Oxazines -- Analysis ; Soil -- Chemistry ; Thiazoles -- Analysis ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Analysis
    ISSN: 00218561
    E-ISSN: 1520-5118
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, 2012, Vol.41(5), pp.1497-506
    Description: Understanding the long-term sequestration of veterinary antibiotics into soil fractions with different bioavailability is important in terms of assessing their eco-toxicological impact. We performed 60-d batch sorption experiments with radiolabeled sulfadiazine (SDZ) using samples from two agricultural soils. Sequential extraction with CaCl/MeOH (easily accessible fraction), microwave (residual fraction, RES), and combustion (nonextractable residues, NER) was used to quantify the sequestration dynamics of the C-derived SDZ-equivalent concentration. Multiple harsh extractions allowed us to mathematically extrapolate to the amount of SDZ equivalents that can be potentially extracted, resulting in halving the NER fraction after 60 d. A modified two-stage model with irreversible sorption combined with global parameter optimization was able to display the sequestration dynamics. We demonstrated this with sterilized samples in which no transformation of the parent compound was observed. This also showed that transformation was primarily biologically driven. These modeling results verified the procedure, which was then applied to nontreated samples from both soils to estimate effective parameter values for SDZ-derived equivalents. Observed initial sorption, to which up to 20% of the kinetic sorption sites attributed, was included in the model. Both the RES and NER fractions reached a sorption plateau, with NER occupying about 30% of the kinetic fraction (RES+NER) for all soils. The sorption and sequestration of SDZ were soil-specific and dominated by kinetics. Sequestration in the RES fraction was much slower (characteristic time: 60 d) than the redistribution in the NER fraction (characteristic time: 〈6 d). The work presented here contributes to the prediction of the dynamics of (bio-)availability.
    Keywords: Models, Chemical ; Anti-Infective Agents -- Analysis ; Soil Pollutants -- Analysis ; Sulfadiazine -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
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  • 6
    In: Pest Management Science, December 2016, Vol.72(12), pp.2218-2230
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.4256/abstract Byline: Anna Gulkowska, Ignaz J Buerge, Thomas Poiger, Roy Kasteel Keywords: time-dependent sorption; soil incubation; sorption model; penflufen; fluxapyroxad; pesticide registration Abstract BACKGROUND Convincing experimental evidence suggests increased sorption of pesticides on soil over time, which, so far, has not been considered in the regulatory assessment of leaching to groundwater. Recently, Beulke and van Beinum (2012) proposed a guidance on how to conduct, analyse and use time-dependent sorption studies in pesticide registration. The applicability of the recommended experimental set-up and fitting procedure was examined for two fungicides, penflufen and fluxapyroxad, in four soils during a 170 day incubation experiment. RESULTS The apparent distribution coefficient increased by a factor of 2.5-4.5 for penflufen and by a factor of 2.5-2.8 for fluxapyroxad. The recommended two-site, one-rate sorption model adequately described measurements of total mass and liquid phase concentration in the calcium chloride suspension and the calculated apparent distribution coefficient, passing all prescribed quality criteria for model fit and parameter reliability. CONCLUSION The guidance is technically mature regarding the experimental set-up and parameterisation of the sorption model for the two moderately mobile and relatively persistent fungicides under investigation. These parameters can be used for transport modelling in soil, thereby recognising the existence of the experimentally observed, but in the regulatory leaching assessment of pesticides not yet routinely considered phenomenon of time-dependent sorption. [c] 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
    Keywords: Time‐Dependent Sorption ; Soil Incubation ; Sorption Model ; Penflufen ; Fluxapyroxad ; Pesticide Registration
    ISSN: 1526-498X
    E-ISSN: 1526-4998
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, March 2013, Vol.195-196, pp.70-78
    Description: Small amounts of organic compounds are often found at much larger depths than expected from their organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient ( ). In this study the food dye Brilliant Blue (BB) was used to visualize the (preferential) transport pathways in undisturbed soil monoliths taken from an Orthic Luvisol and from a Eutric Cambisol. After spiking the monoliths with 1.0 MBq of either C-labeled benazolin (leacher) or C-labeled benzo[ ]pyrene (BaP, nonleacher), they were intermittently irrigated under free-draining conditions twice weekly with 4 mm of rain water for 17 weeks. BB (4 g L ) was added to the rain water during the last 4 weeks. After irrigation, the monoliths were sliced and photographs were taken from horizontal cross-sections. Soil was dried and incinerated to measure total C-activity. The mean travel depth for benazolin (6–7 cm) was larger than for BaP (2 cm), which is in line with their values, although BaP was much more mobile than expected from the value. BB patterns, arbitrarily classified into five intensity classes, showed that large parts of the monolith were bypassed below the completely stained upper two to five centimeter. Furthermore, BB patterns indicated the locations of strongly sorbing compounds in the deeper soil layers and are therefore a helpful tool to selectively sample the soil for these compounds. A continuously stained root channel below the 20-cm depth contained substantial amounts of BaP, indicating that soil structure cannot be neglected to assess the fate of nonleachers in undisturbed soils. ► Benazolin and benzo[a]pyrene transport was studied in undisturbed soil monoliths. ► Fast breakthrough was found due to by-passing unstained parts of the soil matrix. ► Dye tracing is a helpful tool to selectively sample soil for less mobile compounds. ► Root channels are hydrological active transport pathways for benzo[a]pyrene.
    Keywords: Vadose Zone ; Dye Tracers ; Contaminant Transport ; Preferential Flow ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 2013, Vol.195, pp.70-78
    Description: Small amounts of organic compounds are often found at much larger depths than expected from their organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient (Kₒc). In this study the food dye Brilliant Blue (BB) was used to visualize the (preferential) transport pathways in undisturbed soil monoliths taken from an Orthic Luvisol and from a Eutric Cambisol. After spiking the monoliths with 1.0MBq of either ¹⁴C-labeled benazolin (leacher) or ¹⁴C-labeled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, nonleacher), they were intermittently irrigated under free-draining conditions twice weekly with 4mm of rain water for 17weeks. BB (4gL⁻¹) was added to the rain water during the last 4weeks. After irrigation, the monoliths were sliced and photographs were taken from horizontal cross-sections. Soil was dried and incinerated to measure total ¹⁴C-activity. The mean travel depth for benazolin (6–7cm) was larger than for BaP (2cm), which is in line with their Kₒc values, although BaP was much more mobile than expected from the Kₒc value. BB patterns, arbitrarily classified into five intensity classes, showed that large parts of the monolith were bypassed below the completely stained upper two to five centimeter. Furthermore, BB patterns indicated the locations of strongly sorbing compounds in the deeper soil layers and are therefore a helpful tool to selectively sample the soil for these compounds. A continuously stained root channel below the 20-cm depth contained substantial amounts of BaP, indicating that soil structure cannot be neglected to assess the fate of nonleachers in undisturbed soils. ; p. 70-78.
    Keywords: Organic Compounds ; Soil Structure ; Photographs ; Luvisols ; Carbon ; Root Channels ; Benazolin ; Cambisols ; Rain ; Irrigation
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 01 June 2015, Vol.63(2), pp.102-109
    Description: Study of bacterial transport and retention in soil is important for various environmental applications such as groundwater contamination and bioremediation of soil and water. The main objective of this research was to quantitatively assess bacterial transport and deposition under saturated conditions in calcareous soil. A series of leaching experiments was conducted on two undisturbed soil columns. Breakthrough curves of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Cl were measured. After the leaching experiment, spatial distribution of bacteria retention in the soil columns was determined. The HYDRUS-1D one- and two-site kinetic models were used to predict the transport and deposition of bacteria in soil. The results indicated that the two-site model fits the observed data better than one-site kinetic model. Bacteria interaction with the soil of kinetic site 1 revealed relatively fast attachment and slow detachment, whereas attachment to and detachment of bacteria from kinetic site 2 was fast. Fast attachment and slow detachment of site 1 can be attributed to soil calcium carbonate that has favorable attachment sites for bacteria. The detachment rate was less than 0.02 of the attachment rate, indicating irreversible attachment of bacteria. High reduction rate of bacteria was also attributed to soil calcium carbonate.
    Keywords: Bacteria Transport ; Calcareous Soil ; Pseudomonas Fluorescens ; Saturated Flow ; Geography
    E-ISSN: 0042-790X
    E-ISSN: 13384333
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, 2010, Vol.39(2), pp.654-66
    Description: Antibiotics, such as sulfadiazine (SDZ), may enter arable soil by spreading of manure of medicated husbandry or directly by the excrement of grazing animals. Knowledge of the fate of antibiotics in soils is crucial for assessing the environmental risk of these compounds, including possible transport to ground water. Kinetic sorption of (14)C-labeled SDZ (4-amino-N-pyrimidin-2-yl-benzenesulfonamide) was investigated using the batch technique. The batch sorption-desorption experiments were conducted at various concentration levels (0.044-13 mg L(-1) initial solute concentration) and time scales (0.75-272 d). Sorption of (14)C-SDZ in the investigated silty loam was time dependent and strongly nonlinear in the solution phase concentration. The time to reach an apparent sorption equilibrium was about 20 d. However, desorption was very slow, and 41 d were insufficient to reach the desorption equilibrium. An inverse modeling technique was used to identify relevant sorption processes of (14)C-SDZ during the batch experiments. Among the investigated two- and three-domain sorption models, adsorption and desorption of (14)C-SDZ were best described with a new model defining two sorption domains and four parameters. Whereas sorption in the first sorption domain was nonlinear and instantaneous, solute uptake in the second sorption domain was rate limited following first-order kinetics. Desorption followed the same rate law until an equilibrium distribution was reached. After that, desorption was assumed to be impossible due to partly irreversible sorption. Although the proposed model needs further validation, it contributes to the discussion on complex sorption processes of organic chemicals in soils.
    Keywords: Models, Chemical ; Anti-Infective Agents -- Chemistry ; Soil -- Analysis ; Sulfadiazine -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
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