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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(4), p.e0122539
    Description: Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 October 2014, Vol.330, pp.283-293
    Description: Future climate projections for Central Europe indicate a decrease in summer precipitation which might range between 15% and 50%, and equally important, changes in the climate variability, resulting in consecutive years with drought periods. With respect to Central European forests, we asked to which degree realistic drought conditions are tolerated by the recruits of the dominant tree species L , and how the effects depend on biotic interactions. To test the combined effects of drought, competition and provenance of recruits we set up a rain shelter experiment at three sites in different regions of Germany. Transposable roof panels allowed a flexible precipitation reduction between 10% and 70% corresponding with a return period of 40 years. We planted saplings of three provenances, exposed them to drought and competition. We tested if understorey herbaceous competitors have a negative impact on saplings, and thus, exacerbate drought effects and that provenances from drier regions are adapted to drought conditions and cope better with drought conditions. Six months after the drought treatment started, we encountered significant drought effects, seen in a reduced leaf stomatal conductance, although there was not yet a response in growth rates. Overall, the site had the greatest impact on phytometer performance, while we found no indication of adaptation to drought of the different provenances. Furthermore, drought effects increased in interaction with site effects, being highest at the driest site. At the driest site, leaf stomatal conductance decreased in the presence of competition but increased in the control subplots, while the site of intermediate moisture conditions showed the opposite pattern and the wettest site displayed no differences. Our results highlight the fact that biotic interactions can mitigate or exacerbate drought effects, depending on regional site conditions.
    Keywords: Global Change ; Fagus Sylvatica ; Drought ; Forest Understory ; Competition ; Provenances ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, April 1, 2016, Vol.20(3), p.1301
    Description: Climate change is expected to impact the water cycle and severely affect precipitation patterns across central Europe and in other parts of the world, leading to more frequent and severe droughts. Usually when projecting drought impacts on hydrological systems, it is assumed that system properties, like soil properties, remain stable and will not be affected by drought events. To study if this assumption is appropriate, we address the effects of drought on the infiltration behavior of forest soils using dye tracer experiments on six sites in three regions across Germany, which were forced into drought conditions. The sites cover clayey-, loamy- and sandy-textured soils. In each region, we compared a deciduous and a coniferous forest stand to address differences between the main tree species. The results of the dye tracer experiments show clear evidence for changes in infiltration behavior at the sites. The infiltration changed at the clayey plots from regular and homogeneous flow to fast preferential flow. Similar behavior was observed at the loamy plots, where large areas in the upper layers remained dry, displaying signs of strong water repellency. This was confirmed by water drop penetration time#xC2;#xA0;(WDPT) tests, which revealed, in all except one plot, moderate to severe water repellency. Water repellency was also accountable for the change of regular infiltration to fingered flow in the sandy soils. The results of this study suggest that the drought history or, more generally, the climatic conditions of a soil in the past are more important than the actual antecedent soil moisture status regarding hydrophobicity and infiltration behavior; furthermore, drought effects on infiltration need to be considered in hydrological models to obtain realistic predictions concerning water quality and quantity in runoff and groundwater recharge.
    Keywords: Soil Moisture ; Climate Change ; Droughts ; Coniferous Forests ; Forest Soils ; Water Cycle ; Tracers (Chemistry) ; Sandy Soils
    ISSN: 1027-5606
    ISSN: 16077938
    E-ISSN: 16077938
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  • 5
    In: Reviews of Geophysics, September 2016, Vol.54(3), pp.674-704
    Description: Water stable isotopes (O and H) are widely used as ideal tracers to track water through the soil and to separate evaporation from transpiration. Due to the technical developments in the last two decades, soil water stable isotope data have become easier to collect. Thus, the application of isotope methods in soils is growing rapidly. Studies that make use of soil water stable isotopes often have a multidisciplinary character since an interplay of processes that take place in the vadose zone has to be considered. In this review, we provide an overview of the hydrological processes that alter the soil water stable isotopic composition and present studies utilizing pore water stable isotopes. The processes that are discussed include the water input as precipitation or throughfall, the output as evaporation, transpiration, or recharge, and specific flow and transport processes. Based on the review and supported by additional data and modeling results, we pose a different view on the recently proposed two water world hypothesis. As an alternative to two distinct pools of soil water, where one pool is enriched in heavy isotopes and used by the vegetation and the other pool does not undergo isotopic fractionation and becomes recharge, the water gets successively mixed with newly introduced rainwater during the percolation process. This way, water initially isotopically enriched in the topsoil loses the fractionation signal with increasing infiltration depth, leading to unfractionated isotopic signals in the groundwater. We present how soil water stable isotopes provide valuable insight into water flow processes We review the influential factors at the soil‐vegetation‐atmosphere interface altering soil water isotopes We discuss current issues and challenges for soil water isotope studies
    Keywords: Vadose Zone ; Stable Isotope Hydrology ; Catchment Hydrology ; Soils Hydrology ; Ecohydrology
    ISSN: 8755-1209
    E-ISSN: 1944-9208
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  • 6
  • 7
    Text Resource
    Text Resource
    Universität des Saarlandes
    Language: German
    Keywords: Revaskularisation ; Arterie ; Dissektion
    Source: DataCite
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