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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 2008, Vol.39(3), pp.434-443
    Description: This paper addresses the significance of primitivism as a figure of thought during the emergence of —consisting of different fields of knowledge and disciplines—in Germany at the beginning of the twentieth century. Two interrelated problems in particular shaped the scholarly discourse on primitivism: first, the question of the existence and modes of operation of ‘other’ forms of thought and consciousness. Second, the epistemological question how these ‘other’ forms of thought could be recognized if the researcher him or herself belonged to a particular historically determined European mode of thought and perception. In this context the art of non-European ‘primitives’ and of the insane became a central topic. Its cross-disciplinary investigation ultimately arrived at a redefinition of a nexus of problems: the challenge to the old concept of art as well as to the dominant concept of psychopathology, that is, the definition of normality and deviancy. Both the non-European ‘natives’ and the European ‘insane’ received new importance as scientific objects for a wider range of fields of knowledge. This process was connected with an articulated need to expand and strengthen the faculty of subjectivity and intuition on the part of the for means of investigation and understanding ( ). The discourse on primitivism in German reflected the crisis of knowledge and methology at the beginning of the twentieth century and was finally resolved by taking refuge in phenomenology and holism.
    Keywords: Kulturwissenschaften ; ‘other’ Forms of Thought ; Art ; Psychopathology ; Subjectivity ; Creativity ; Emphatic Notion of Schizophrenia ; Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 0039-3681
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 23 March 2012, Vol.419(4), pp.698-702
    Description: ► Characterization of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen in (TbPCNA). ► TbPCNA is a suitable marker to detect replication in . ► TbPCNA distribution and regulation is different compared to closely related parasites and . As in most eukaryotic cells, replication is regulated by a conserved group of proteins in the early-diverged parasite . Only a few components of the replication machinery have been described in this parasite and regulation, sub-nuclear localization and timing of replication are not well understood. We characterized the proliferating cell nuclear antigen in (TbPCNA) to establish a spatial and temporal marker for replication. Interestingly, PCNA distribution and regulation is different compared to the closely related parasites and . TbPCNA foci are clearly detectable during S phase of the cell cycle but in contrast to they are not preferentially located at the nuclear periphery. Furthermore, PCNA seems to be degraded when cells enter G2 phase in suggesting different modes of replication regulation or functions of PCNA in these closely related eukaryotes.
    Keywords: Pcna ; Replication ; S Phase Marker ; Cell Cycle Regulation ; Trypanosoma Brucei ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    E-ISSN: 1090-2104
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Studies in history and philosophy of science, September 2008, Vol.39(3), pp.434-43
    Description: This paper addresses the significance of primitivism as a figure of thought during the emergence of Kulturwissenschaften--consisting of different fields of knowledge and disciplines--in Germany at the beginning of the twentieth century. Two interrelated...
    Keywords: Anthropology, Cultural ; Knowledge ; Art -- History
    ISSN: 0039-3681
    E-ISSN: 18792510
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: Osteuropa 〈Berlin>, 2007, pp. 157-165
    ISSN: 00306428
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Contemporary History, January 1999, Vol.34(1), pp.125-144
    Description: During WW1 the German Army Medical Service treated 613, 047 soldiers for 'diseases of the nervous system' in military hospitals. As a theme of historical research into everyday life and mentalites during the war, the topic of 'war neurotics' raises questions about the connection between social and psychic change. Examines the process by which the German state handed responsibility for the interpretation and solution of the problem of war neuroses to the psychiatric community, and how this psychiatric-cultural interpretation found acceptance in every camp of the Weimar Republic. By considering the social reality created by scientific psychiatric theories of mental illness and the therapy practised on war combatants, the study presents the history of science as part of cultural history. Addresses the meanings of the definitions of normality and deviancy for the scientific legitimation and social practice of exclusion used against certain groups in the population, and society's general acceptance in the 1920s of psychiatric patterns of interpretation. (Quotes from original text)
    Keywords: History & Archaeology
    ISSN: 0022-0094
    E-ISSN: 1461-7250
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2008, Vol.16(12), pp.6436-6447
    Description: 5-Butyl-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)indole-3-carbaldehyde aroyl hydrazones strongly inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells (IC , 19–115 nM) by cell cycle arrest in G /M phase and apoptosis. Cell cycle arrest of malignant cells is an important option for cancer treatment. In this study, we modified the structure of antimitotic 2-phenylindole-3-carbaldehydes by condensation with hydrazides of various benzoic and pyridine carboxylic acids. The resulting hydrazones inhibited the growth of MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells with IC values of 20–30 nM for the most potent derivatives. These 2-phenylindole derivatives also exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of both proliferating and resting U-373 MG glioblastoma cells. Though the hydrazones exhibited similar structure–activity relationships as the aldehydes, they did not inhibit tubulin polymerization as the aldehydes but were capable of blocking the cell cycle in G /M phase. The cell cycle arrest was accompanied by apoptosis as demonstrated by the activation of caspase-3. Since these 2-phenylindole-based hydrazones display no structural similarity with other antitumor drugs they are interesting candidates for further development.
    Keywords: Phenylindoles ; Aroyl Hydrazones ; Breast Cancer Cells ; Glioblastoma Cells ; Cell Cycle Arrest ; Apoptosis ; Medicine ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0968-0896
    E-ISSN: 1464-3391
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2007, Vol.15(23), pp.7368-7379
    Description: [(5- -Alkyl-2-phenylindol-3-yl)methylene]propane-dinitriles strongly inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells (IC : 13–200 nM) by blockade of the cell cycle in G /M phase. Cell cycle arrest of malignant cells is an important option for cancer treatment. In this study, we modified the structure of antimitotic 2-phenylindole-3-carbaldehydes by condensation with malononitrile. The resulting methylene propanedinitriles inhibited the growth of MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells with IC values below 100 nM. Though they exhibited similar structure–activity relationships as the aldehydes, they did not inhibit tubulin polymerization but were capable of blocking the cell cycle in G /M phase. The cell cycle arrest was accompanied by apoptosis as demonstrated by the activation of caspases 3 and 9. Since the new 2-phenylindole derivatives also inhibited the growth of transplanted MXT mouse mammary tumors, they are interesting candidates for further development.
    Keywords: Phenylindoles ; Breast Cancer ; Cell Cycle Arrest ; Apoptosis ; Medicine ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0968-0896
    E-ISSN: 1464-3391
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Macromolecular Bioscience, 09 November 2006, Vol.6(11), pp.952-958
    Description: This report describes the efficient conjugation of doxorubicin‐glycine‐phenylalanine‐leucine‐glycine ( and rhodamine‐glycine‐phenylalanine‐leucine‐glycine ( units to a monodisperse elastin‐mimetic polypeptide (EMM) bearing eight primary amine groups for chemical attachment. The synthetic approach is based on the solid‐phase synthesis of and followed by chemical conjugation to the elastin‐mimetic polypeptide in the presence of HOBt/PyBob as activating agents to form the polypeptide conjugates and . Conjugation efficiency was 61.2% (4.9 doxorubicin units per polypeptide chain) for and 53.7% (4.3 rhodamine units per polypeptide chain) for , demonstrating the feasibility of using these tailor‐made, recombinant polypeptides as potential drug carriers for cancer therapy. Schematic structure of the elastin‐mimetic polypeptide (EMM)7.
    Keywords: Biopolymers ; Functionalization Of Polymers ; Polymer‐Drug Conjugate ; Proteins ; Solid‐Phase Synthesis
    ISSN: 1616-5187
    E-ISSN: 1616-5195
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  • 9
    In: Journal of Historical Sociology, September 1993, Vol.6(3), pp.276-287
    Description: This article investigates the boundary dispute between jurists and the new experts of the developing field of psychiatry over the definition of a criminal's soundness of mind. The latter tried to extend their acknowledged competence for the physiological side of the mutual relationship between body and soul into the realm of emotional and behavioral disturbances which resulted in criminal acts, thereby extending the concept of insanity to all realms of human subjectivity. The psychiatric models of argumentation and persuasion used in court were analysed as well as the reaction of the jurists, who did not accept the undermining of their competence without protest. This paper shows, however, that the psychiatrists’ pattern of thought gradually gained acceptance among legal experts.
    Keywords: Criminal Justice ; Psychiatry ; Germany ; Eighteenth Century ; Nineteenth Century ; Interdisciplinary Approach ; Boundaries ; Sociology of Health and Medicine; Social Psychiatry (Mental Health) ; Article ; Criminal Justice-Psychiatry Boundary Disputes, Germany, 1760-1850 ; Published Data;
    ISSN: 0952-1909
    E-ISSN: 1467-6443
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2007, Vol.15(15), pp.5122-5136
    Description: 5- -Alkyl-2-phenylindole-3-carbaldehydes strongly inhibit the growth of MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells (IC : 5–20 nM) through interference with tubulin polymerization and subsequent cell cycle arrest in G /M phase. Small molecules such as indoles are attractive as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. Thus a number of 2-phenylindole-3-carbaldehydes with lipophilic substituents in both aromatic rings was synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity in MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Some 5-alkylindole derivatives with a 4-methoxy group in the 2-phenyl ring strongly inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells with IC values of 5–20 nM. Their action can be rationalized by the cell cycle arrest in G /M phase due to the inhibition of tubulin polymerization.
    Keywords: Phenylindoles ; Breast Cancer ; Tubulin Polymerization ; Cell Cycle Arrest ; Medicine ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0968-0896
    E-ISSN: 1464-3391
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