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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, April 5, 2012, Vol.399, p.35(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2012.02.021 Byline: Doreen Zirkler, Friederike Lang, Martin Kaupenjohann Keywords: Soil colloid; Vacuum filtration; Centrifugation; Particle size separation Abstract: Display Omitted Author Affiliation: TU Berlin, Department of Soil Science, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, 10587 Berlin, Germany Article History: Received 28 October 2011; Revised 2 February 2012; Accepted 17 February 2012
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(4)
    Description: Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs) is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste) in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW) were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha) and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59–62 dt/ha) indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH 4 -N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH 4 -N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Engineering And Technology ; Engineering And Technology ; Physical Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.371(1), pp.629-640
    Description: Background and aims: Various studies address changes in nitrogen and carbon cycling by exotic plant species, while impacts on phosphorus cycling are understudied. Therefore, we assessed the effects of the introduced Cinchona pubescens Vahl on plant and soil nutrients (especially phosphorus) in the highlands of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Methods: Nutrient analyses were carried out on soil, leaf litter, and leaf samples taken from Cinchona, the endemic shrub Miconia robinsoniana Cogn. and the native fern Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf.) Maxon. in plots invaded and previously invaded by Cinchona. Results: Cinchona contained significantly more nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in its green leaves than Miconia. Surprisingly, there was no evidence of phosphorus resorption in senesced Cinchona leaves. This was also the case in Miconia leaves, but only in Cinchona-invaded plots. Specific leaf area of Cinchona was significantly higher than of Miconia and Pteridium leaves, as was its litter turnover rate. Total soil nitrogen, ammonium and available phosphorus concentrations were higher in the invaded plots. Leaf litter from these plots also contained more phosphorus, which was positively correlated with the phosphorus concentrations in the soil. Conclusions: These results suggest enhanced nutrient uptake by Cinchona and a faster decomposition of its litter, leading to increased nutrient availability in the soil. An accelerated cycling could promote spread of Cinchona and other introduced species, increasing the risk of further displacement of indigenous plant species in the Santa Cruz highlands.
    Keywords: Biological invasion ; Conservation ; Ecological impacts ; Ecosystem functioning ; Nutrient resorption proficiency ; Phosphorus
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 05 April 2012, Vol.399, pp.35-40
    Description: ► Colloid recovery after filtration and centrifugation of soil suspensions was measured. ► Colloid recovery after filtration is 50–97% of the recovery after centrifugation. ► Cellulose nitrate filters retain colloids without losing permeability. ► Recovery of mineral colloids after filtration is less than recovery of organic colloids. ► We recommend centrifugation for soils with colloids of similar density. Soil colloid science requires the separation of the colloids from larger particles in suspensions, which is frequently achieved by filtration. However, the results of filtration may be biased due to (i) pore clogging and (ii) the formation of a filter cake. In order to quantify these effects, we filtrated different volumes of soil suspensions containing mainly mineral (M), mainly organic (O) or mineral and organic (MO) colloids through 1.2 μm membranes. Turbidity and the concentrations of colloid-bound C, Si and Al were measured in the filtrates and, as a reference, in centrifugates of the suspensions. To exclude the influence of the filter cake and examine only pore clogging effects, we conducted the same filtration experiment with suspensions which have been pre-treated by a centrifugal elimination of particles 〉3 μm. Finally, we scanned a membrane after filtration with an electron microscope for the visualisation of possible pore clogging. Turbidity and concentrations of colloid-bound Al and Si in the filtrates of the pre-treated suspensions were one order of magnitude lower than in centrifugates. This discrepancy was most pronounced for M suspensions which indicates that filters preferentially remove mineral colloids. Microscope images revealed no sign for pore clogging and smaller filtrated suspension volumes did not lead to more colloid recovery in pre-treated filtrates. We assume that the colloids are retained within the thick, multilayered structure of the filter without clogging the main pores. When filter cakes are forming (experiment without previous centrifugation), turbidity and concentrations of colloid-bound Al, Si and C decrease with increasing filtration volume. However, the retaining effect of filter cakes seems negligible compared to the retaining effect within the filter. We conclude that the composition of soil colloidal suspensions depends significantly on the technique which is used to remove larger particles. Filtration underestimates the amount of colloids in suspension and centrifugation should be preferred as separation method at least for soils with colloids of similar density, either M or O.
    Keywords: Soil Colloid ; Vacuum Filtration ; Centrifugation ; Particle Size Separation ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    E-ISSN: 1873-4359
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and surfaces, 2012, Vol.399, pp.35-40
    Description: Soil colloid science requires the separation of the colloids from larger particles in suspensions, which is frequently achieved by filtration. However, the results of filtration may be biased due to (i) pore clogging and (ii) the formation of a filter cake. In order to quantify these effects, we filtrated different volumes of soil suspensions containing mainly mineral (M), mainly organic (O) or mineral and organic (MO) colloids through 1.2μm membranes. Turbidity and the concentrations of colloid-bound C, Si and Al were measured in the filtrates and, as a reference, in centrifugates of the suspensions. To exclude the influence of the filter cake and examine only pore clogging effects, we conducted the same filtration experiment with suspensions which have been pre-treated by a centrifugal elimination of particles 〉3μm. Finally, we scanned a membrane after filtration with an electron microscope for the visualisation of possible pore clogging. Turbidity and concentrations of colloid-bound Al and Si in the filtrates of the pre-treated suspensions were one order of magnitude lower than in centrifugates. This discrepancy was most pronounced for M suspensions which indicates that filters preferentially remove mineral colloids. Microscope images revealed no sign for pore clogging and smaller filtrated suspension volumes did not lead to more colloid recovery in pre-treated filtrates. We assume that the colloids are retained within the thick, multilayered structure of the filter without clogging the main pores. When filter cakes are forming (experiment without previous centrifugation), turbidity and concentrations of colloid-bound Al, Si and C decrease with increasing filtration volume. However, the retaining effect of filter cakes seems negligible compared to the retaining effect within the filter. We conclude that the composition of soil colloidal suspensions depends significantly on the technique which is used to remove larger particles. Filtration underestimates the amount of colloids in suspension and centrifugation should be preferred as separation method at least for soils with colloids of similar density, either M or O. ; p. 35-40.
    Keywords: Colloids ; Filtrates ; Centrifugation ; Filtration ; Aluminum ; Turbidity ; Soil Colloids ; Silicon ; Filter Cake ; Soil
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, August 15, 2015, Vol.524-525, p.310(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.005 Byline: Christiane Dicke, Janet Andert, Christian Ammon, Jurgen Kern, Andreas Meyer-Aurich, Martin Kaupenjohann Abstract: Field studies that have investigated the effects of char materials on the emission of nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) are still scarce. Therefore, we conducted a field trial with bio- and hydrochars and measured N.sub.2O emissions for one whole year. It was hypothesised that the incorporation of chars reduces the emissions of N.sub.2O. Chars were produced by pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) using either maize silage or wood residues as feedstock. In addition, after production chars were post-treated with digestate in order to accelerate the ageing process of the chars. Chars and digestate were applied to the soil to raise the C content. Emissions of N.sub.2O were measured weekly and soil samples for inorganic nitrogen (N) and soil water-content were taken once a month. Additionally, the abundance of functional marker genes from denitrification (nosZ) was determined in October 2012 and in June 2013. The treatment with pure digestate emitted the most N.sub.2O compared to the control and char treatments. However, this was significant only in one case. There were no great differences between the char treatments due to high spatial variability and gene abundance of nosZ did not differ between treatments. Overall, emissions of N.sub.2O were relatively low. This was attributed to the heterogeneous distribution of the chars and the sandy soils that did not favour the production of N.sub.2O. To conclude, the emissions of N.sub.2O were mainly influenced by temperature and precipitation and to a minor extent by the type of char and post-treatment. Article History: Received 12 December 2014; Revised 20 March 2015; Accepted 2 April 2015 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: P. Kassomenos
    Keywords: Soil Moisture – Analysis ; Sandy Soils – Analysis ; Denitrification – Analysis ; Precipitation (Meteorology) – Analysis ; Nitrous Oxide – Analysis ; Pyrolysis – Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 August 2015, Vol.524-525, pp.310-318
    Description: Field studies that have investigated the effects of char materials on the emission of nitrous oxide (N O) are still scarce. Therefore, we conducted a field trial with bio- and hydrochars and measured N O emissions for one whole year. It was hypothesised that the incorporation of chars reduces the emissions of N O. Chars were produced by pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) using either maize silage or wood residues as feedstock. In addition, after production chars were post-treated with digestate in order to accelerate the ageing process of the chars. Chars and digestate were applied to the soil to raise the C content. Emissions of N O were measured weekly and soil samples for inorganic nitrogen (N) and soil water-content were taken once a month. Additionally, the abundance of functional marker genes from denitrification ( ) was determined in October 2012 and in June 2013. The treatment with pure digestate emitted the most N O compared to the control and char treatments. However, this was significant only in one case. There were no great differences between the char treatments due to high spatial variability and gene abundance of did not differ between treatments. Overall, emissions of N O were relatively low. This was attributed to the heterogeneous distribution of the chars and the sandy soils that did not favour the production of N O. To conclude, the emissions of N O were mainly influenced by temperature and precipitation and to a minor extent by the type of char and post-treatment.
    Keywords: Hydrothermal Carbonization ; Nitrous Oxide ; Nosz ; Pyrolysis ; Post-Treatment ; Digestate ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 February 2017, Vol.578, pp.557-565
    Description: Biochar has been frequently suggested as an amendment to improve soil quality and mitigate climate change. To investigate the optimal management of nitrogen (N) fertilization, we examined the combined effect of biochar and N fertilizer on plant N uptake and N O emissions in a cereal rotation system in a randomized two-factorial field experiment on a sandy loam soil in Brandenburg, Germany. The biochar treatment received 10 Mg ha wood-derived biochar in September 2012. Four levels of N fertilizer, corresponding to 0, 50%, 100%, 130% of the recommended fertilizer level, were applied in winter wheat ( L.)) and winter rye ( L ) in 2013 and 2014 followed by the catch crop oil radish ( L. var. ). Biomass and N uptake of winter wheat and winter rye were significantly affected by the level of N fertilizer but not by biochar. For N uptake of oil radish an interaction effect was observed for biochar and N fertilizer. Without applied fertilizer, 39% higher N uptake was found in the presence of biochar, accompanied by higher soil NH content and elevated cumulative CO emissions. At 130% of the recommended fertilizer level, 16% lower N uptake and lower cumulative N O emissions were found in the biochar-mediated treatment. No significant change in abundance of microbial groups and nosZ gene were observed. Our results highlight that biochar can have a greenhouse gas mitigation effect at high levels of N supply and may stimulate nutrient uptake when no N is supplied.
    Keywords: Microbial Community ; Greenhouse Gas Emissions ; Nosz Gene ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, Jan 1, 2016, Vol.261, p.80(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.06.020 Byline: Elisabeth Vogel, Detlef Deumlich, Martin Kaupenjohann Abstract: In the last decade, legislative incentives have led to a significant increase in maize cultivation for the generation of energy from biomass in Germany. The expansion of maize acreage resulted in an increased risk of water erosion due to the low vegetative soil cover after the seeding of the maize and the linear structure and great distance of the maize rows. Soil erosion is considered a major threat to food security and causes damages both on-site and off-site, i.e., to adjacent infrastructures and surface waters. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of six main erosion control concepts in terms of their reduction of damages using the physically based model Erosion-3D. Simulations were carried out based on an agricultural site in Brandenburg, Germany, for three different rainfall events with average recurrence intervals of 2, 20 and 100years. No-tillage and conservation tillage showed the strongest erosion mitigation potential with reduction rates of up to 90 to 100%. Contour buffer strips and vegetated waterways have only very small erosion mitigation effects. Medium erosion reduction rates were simulated for the division of the field into smaller parcels or strips (alternating maize and winter cereal crops). We conclude that no-tillage or conservation tillage is the most recommendable erosion control measure. However, further research needs to be done on the potential of no-tillage and conservation tillage to increase preferential flow paths, their effect on the vertical outflow rate of pesticides and herbicides into groundwater resources and ways to mitigate these adverse effects. Vegetated waterways and contour buffer strips can be combined with other erosion control measures and entail only a minimal reduction in cultivation area. Their installation is relatively low priced, however, additional maintenance costs may be incurred. Noteworthy reduction rates could only be shown for rainfall events with short return periods. The division of the field into winter grain and maize cultivation areas leads to substantial erosion mitigation rates, but has to be seen in context with the reduction of maize cultivation area. The long-term benefits of decreasing maize acreage under specific circumstances might, however, outweigh the reduced benefits of maize production. Article History: Received 19 March 2015; Revised 9 June 2015; Accepted 24 June 2015
    Keywords: Risk Assessment ; Conservation Tillage ; Biomass Energy ; Corn ; No-Tillage ; Soil Erosion
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2015, Vol.178(4), pp.582-585
    Description: Biochar is proposed as a soil amendment for metal immobilization. Studies on former sewage field soils have indicated that biochar addition immobilized Zn, probably by the precipitation of Zn phosphates. Direct evidence of the presence of these mineral phases was still lacking. We investigated the colloidal precipitate obtained after ultracentrifugation of the soil‐water extract a biochar particle and a corresponding bulk soil sample from a sewage field soil that had been amended with 5% (w/w) biochar by P ‐edge XANES spectroscopy. The P ‐edge XANES spectrum of a colloidal precipitate visually resembled spectra of a synthetic Zn phosphate [Zn(PO)] and of hopeite (ZnZnPO·4HO). Spectra evaluation by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear combination fitting (LCF) confirmed the presence of Zn‐P‐phases in the colloidal precipitate and, to a lesser extent, in the biochar and bulk soil sample. The P speciations varying in differently sampled soil compartments point to a small‐scale heterogeneity of the biochar‐induced P transformation processes.
    Keywords: Biochar ; Colloids ; Soil Amendment ; Metal Immobilization ; Hopeite
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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