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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Foreign Affairs, 1 September 2013, Vol.92(5), pp.113-124
    Description: The U.S. Senate rejects multilateral treaties as if it were sport. Often, presidents don't even bother pushing for ratification, since they know the odds are long: under the U.S. Constitution, it takes only one-third of the Senate to reject a treaty. The United States' commitment problem has grown so entrenched that foreign governments no longer expect Washington's ratification or its full participation in the institutions treaties create. The world is moving on; laws get made elsewhere, with limited (if any) American involvement. The foundation of the Senate's posture is the belief, widespread among conservative Republicans, that multilateral treaties represent a grave threat to American sovereignty and democracy. Treaties, they argue, create rules that interfere with the democratic process by allowing foreigners to make law that binds the United States. These 'sovereigntists' portray treaties as all constraint, no advantage. Treaty-making, however, is an expression of sovereignty, not a threat to it, and by excluding itself from the process, the United States loses the opportunity to influence global problem solving. China is taking a greater interest in global issues; rising powers such as Brazil, India, and South Africa are asserting themselves; and Europe is consolidating and thus enhancing its negotiating power. American disengagement is allowing all these trends to accelerate. Yet rejection is just the beginning of the story. Over the past two decades, the executive branch has developed and expanded a variety of lower-profile methods for asserting the country's interests abroad in ways that do not require Senate involvement. The Clinton, Bush, and Obama administrations figured out that on some issues, they could circumvent the Senate entirely, and they developed new ways to participate in international forums, sometimes even exercising leadership in institutions that the Senate had refused to allow the United States to join. Call it 'stealth multilateralism.' Using a patchwork of political and legal strategies, the United States has learned how to respond to the global problems that are pulling it into the world even as Senate Republicans are trying to hold it back. As sound and effective as such measures can be, however, stealth multilateralism has its limits, since treaties establish more stable, transparent, and predictable relationships than political commitments. Both the United States and the rest of the world would benefit from a return to responsible multilateral engagement in which treaties regain their central role. Adapted from the source document. Reprinted by permission of Foreign Affairs. Copyright by the Council on Foreign Relations, Inc.
    Keywords: Law -- International law -- Treaties ; Political science -- Government -- Legislative bodies ; Political science -- Politics -- International politics ; Political science -- Politics -- International politics ; Law -- International law -- Treaties ; Political science -- Government -- National government ; Political science -- Political organizations -- Political parties ; Law -- Jurisprudence -- Philosophy of law ; Environmental studies -- Environmental sciences -- Climate change ; Law -- Criminal law -- Criminal offenses
    ISSN: 00157120
    E-ISSN: 23277793
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Foreign Affairs, May-June, 2011, Vol.90(3), p.118
    Description: 〈p〉A decade on, the ICC is still trying to find its footing. It has yet to complete a case, its first trial was nearly dismissed twice, and its top suspects are evading arrest. The problems stem partly from the chief prosecutor's poor management and excessive ambition. The election to replace him is a chance to reboot.〈/p〉
    Keywords: Dictators -- Investigations ; Crimes Against Humanity -- Investigations ; Criminal Law -- Interpretation And Construction ; Criminal Law -- International Aspects ; Public Prosecutors -- Appointments, Resignations And Dismissals
    ISSN: 0015-7120
    E-ISSN: 23277793
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, Dec, 2013, Vol.132(6), p.S224(7)
    Keywords: Physicians -- Practice ; Primary Health Care -- Management ; Genetics -- Study And Teaching
    ISSN: 0031-4005
    E-ISSN: 10984275
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 2011, Vol.25(6), pp.355-364
    Description: Toxoplasmosis is a rare disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, . Most persons with toxoplasmosis in the United States are asymptomatic, but if a woman is infected during pregnancy, the parasite can cross the placenta and cause congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus. The severity of congenital toxoplasmosis depends on when in the pregnancy the mother is exposed, but it can cause ocular and central nervous system disease as well as lead to growth failure and hearing and vision abnormalities. Congenital toxoplasmosis is treated with a combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin. It is important for pediatric nurse practitioners to be aware of the clinical presentation and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis.
    Keywords: Congenital Toxoplasmosis ; Toxoplasmosis ; Ocular Toxoplasmosis ; Retinochoroiditis ; Hydrocephalus ; Ppediatrics ; Nurse Practitioner ; Congenital Infections ; Torch ; Medicine ; Nursing
    ISSN: 0891-5245
    E-ISSN: 1532-656X
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, September 2011, Vol.47(9), pp.642-645
    Description: Advocacy has been identified as an ideal in nursing practice. National codes (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council) and professional standards (Australian College of Neonatal Nurses) state that nurses are to respect their patients' autonomous choices and act as their advocates. This responsibility includes acting as advocates for the needs and welfare of patients, for the profession of nursing and for the interests of colleagues in nursing. However, ambiguous interpretations of the concept of patient advocacy continue to pose a number of problems for nurses in practice and in particular neonatal practice. Neonatal nurses often perceive themselves primarily as advocates for the rights of helpless and vulnerable infants in their care. Advocacy is underpinned by caring, which is a significant feature in the delivery of quality care for each baby and child. This advocacy may be expressed at the bedside, in committee meetings, in agency discussions or in the public arena.
    Keywords: Ethics ; Ethic Of Care ; Neonatal Nursing ; Paediatric Nursing ; Patient Advocacy
    ISSN: 1034-4810
    E-ISSN: 1440-1754
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, Sept 1, 2012, Vol.55(5)
    Keywords: Herpes Simplex -- Statistics ; Herpes Simplex -- Risk Factors ; Circumcision -- Health Aspects ; Jewish Culture -- Health Aspects ; Gonorrhea -- Statistics ; Vaccines -- Storage ; Vaccines -- Quality Management ; Child Health
    ISSN: 1058-4838
    E-ISSN: 15376591
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Children and Youth Services Review, Nov, 2011, Vol.33(11), p.2146(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.06.020 Byline: Sarah Kaye, Philip J. Osteen Keywords: Child welfare; Fidelity; Reliability; Validity Abstract: Building evidence of effective practice in child welfare requires practitioners and researchers to know the extent to which programs are implemented in order to understand evaluation results. Fidelity monitoring is a critical strategy for ensuring that evidence-based and promising practices are implemented as intended and can be studied in real-world contexts. This paper addresses challenges to measuring fidelity in child welfare systems and presents an approach taken with one state to define fidelity criteria and measure fidelity to a child safety intervention. Measurement challenges were addressed by using existing documents and case review mechanisms to assess fidelity, and measuring the quality of practitioner judgment using expert reviewers. Validity of fidelity criteria and fidelity review instruments was established through consensus with model developers and local purveyors. Twelve cases were reviewed by a panel of raters to assess inter-rater reliability and discrepancy between local purveyors and model developers. This participatory and capacity-building method can be replicated and used to develop and embed valid and reliable fidelity monitoring systems in public child welfare to continue to build evidence about what works in child welfare services. Article History: Received 8 May 2011; Accepted 24 June 2011 Article Note: (footnote) [star] Partial support for this work was provided by Cooperative Agreement number HHS-2008-ACF-ACYF-CO-0058 from the US DHHS, ACYF, ACF, Children's Bureau to the University of Maryland School of Social Work; however the assertions and findings in this paper are not to be construed as those of the Children's Bureau.
    Keywords: Child Welfare -- Measurement ; Child Welfare -- Analysis ; Child Welfare -- Safety And Security Measures
    ISSN: 0190-7409
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    In: Addiction, March 2012, Vol.107(3), pp.467-477
    Description: To examine the literature pertaining to the diversion and misuse of pharmaceutical stimulants. Relevant literature was identified through comprehensive MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed searches. The evidence to date suggests that the prevalence of diversion and misuse of pharmaceutical stimulants varies across adolescent and young adult student populations, but is higher than that among the general population, with the highest prevalence found among adults with attention deficit–hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and users of other illicit drugs. Concerns that these practices have become more prevalent as a result of increased prescribing are not supported by large‐scale population surveys. Information on trends in misuse in countries where there have been recent increases in prescription and consumption rates, however, is limited. Little is known about the frequency and chronicity of misuse, or the extent of associated harms, particularly among those populations, i.e. adolescents, young adult student populations, those with ADHD and illicit drug users, where abuse may be more likely to occur. Continued monitoring of the diversion and misuse of pharmaceutical stimulants is of major clinical importance. Despite recognition of the abuse liability of these medications, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence, patterns and harms of diversion and misuse among populations where problematic use and abuse may be most likely to occur (e.g. adolescents, young adults, illicit drug users). Comprehensive investigations of diversion and misuse among these populations should be a major research priority, as should the assessment of abuse and dependence criteria among those identified as regular users.
    Keywords: Adhd ; Attention‐Deficit Hyperactive Disorder ; Diversion ; Misuse ; Pharmaceutical ; Stimulants
    ISSN: 0965-2140
    E-ISSN: 1360-0443
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Computers in Human Behavior, February 2016, Vol.55, pp.286-291
    Description: Given the social nature of digital gaming, an investigation into social processes underpinning the experiences within social contexts of play is greatly warranted. The current research explored the underpinnings of “group flow” within cooperative-based gaming. In particular, this was intended to provide insight into the social processes which facilitate flow experiences in these contexts. This was achieved through a questionnaire in which gamers (  = 76) provided retrospective open-ended accounts of flow during cooperative gaming. Additionally, quantitative data was obtained on flow and post-gameplay mood within this experience, as well as in solo gaming for comparative analysis. Thematic analysis of the qualitative responses revealed a number of factors which determined the experience of flow. These were; effective communication and team-work and task relevant knowledge of group members. Additionally, although flow was found to be lower in cooperative versus solo gaming, no differences in post-gameplay mood were observed. These findings aid conceptual development of facilitators of group flow in cooperative gaming, with insights into how this may extend to other cooperative activities. Additionally, they also provide new practical insight for representatives in the gaming industry on how gaming may be developed with the aim of promoting positive shared group experiences.
    Keywords: Digital Games ; Flow ; Group Flow ; Cooperative ; Groups ; Computer Science ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0747-5632
    E-ISSN: 1873-7692
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2011, Vol.262(3), pp.389-397
    Description: ► I analyzed aspen establishment data from 12 studies in the central Rocky Mountains. ► Aspen across the region had two periods of high establishment since the mid-1800s. ► A late-1800s pulse in establishment coincided with Euro-American settlement. ► A 1970–1980 pulse in establishment coincided with a regional shift in climate. ► Aspen population dynamics are the legacy of local and broad-scale influences. Concern and debate about the condition of quaking aspen in the intermountain West of North America have led to many studies examining aspen recruitment at local to landscape scales. Patterns of aspen mortality and recruitment may reflect local conditions, or may show broad synchrony if regional-scale drivers are important. This paper aggregates historical aspen establishment data from 12 case studies from nine locations in a meta-analysis of emergent patterns of aspen dynamics at sub-continental or mesoscales (10 –10 km ). Aspen establishment data were reported in multiple forms among studies, so the meta-analysis included two approaches (1) a quantitative analysis of percent aspen establishment in decadal time bins for 1820–1999 for six studies that reported data in a format suited for this approach and (2) a qualitative ranking of 19th and 20th century peaks in aspen establishment for all 12 studies. Aspen forests ranging from Wyoming to northern Arizona experienced two peaks in establishment between 1820 and the 1980s. The first peak began in the 1860s, reached its maximum in the 1880s, and gradually declined to an end the 1910s. The second peak began abruptly in the 1970s and continued through the 1980s. I speculate that the late-1800s peak in aspen recruitment was driven primarily by the occurrence of the last historical fires throughout the intermountain West and that the 1970s and 1980s peak was driven by improved moisture conditions brought about by a shift to a positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and a persistent negative phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The overarching implication of large-scale synchrony in aspen dynamics is that current aspen ecosystem condition is not solely the result of local-scale histories of browsing or fire, but is more likely the interwoven legacy of these local factors combined with broad factors such as climate and Euro-American settlement.
    Keywords: Meta-Analysis ; Population Dynamics ; Pacific Decadal Oscillation ; Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation ; Climate ; Fire ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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