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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, May 2012, Vol.142(5), pp.909-15
    Description: Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DP) on cognition. We evaluated the association between empirically derived DP in midlife and cognitive performance 13 y later. Dietary data were based on 24-h dietary records obtained from a subsample of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant Study. Cognitive performance was assessed via a battery of neuropsychological tests that included verbal fluency, the RI-48 cued recall test, the trail-making test, and forward and backward digit span. Three composite variables, for global cognitive function, verbal memory, and executive functioning, were built. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for baseline characteristics (age, gender, intervention group, education, alcohol and energy intake, number of dietary records, physical activity, BMI, tobacco use, self-reported memory troubles, diabetes, hypertension, and, for women, menopausal status and hormone therapy use), follow-up time, history of cardiovascular disease, and depressive symptoms. Adjusted means ± SEM of composite variables across quartiles (Q4 vs. Q1) of DP were estimated using ANCOVA. A healthy and a traditional DP were identified. In the multivariate model, the healthy pattern was associated with better global cognitive function (50.1 ± 0.7 vs. 48.9 ± 0.7; P-trend = 0.001) and verbal memory (49.7 ± 0.4 vs. 48.7 ± 0.4; P-trend = 0.01). These relationships were stronger in participants scoring below the gender-specific median values for energy intake (〈2490 kcal for men and 〈1810 for women) than in those scoring at or above those values. Adherence to a healthy DP in middle life may help preserve global cognitive function, especially verbal memory, when total energy intake is regulated.
    Keywords: Antioxidants -- Administration & Dosage ; Cognition -- Physiology ; Cognition Disorders -- Prevention & Control ; Feeding Behavior -- Physiology ; Vitamins -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, January 2012, Vol.142(1), pp.76-83
    Description: Polyphenols, and in particular flavonoids, are omnipresent plant-food components displaying biochemical properties possibly beneficial to brain health. We sought to evaluate the long-term association between total and class-specific polyphenol intake and cognitive performance. Polyphenol intake was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database applied to at least six 24-h dietary records collected in 1994-1996 as part of the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants) study. The cognitive performance of 2574 middle-aged adults participating in the cohort was assessed in 2007-2009 using the following four neuropsychological tests: phonemic and semantic fluency, the RI-48 Cued Recall test, the Trail Making test, and Forward and Backward Digit Span. Inter-correlations among the test scores were estimated with principal component analysis. Associations between polyphenol intake and cognition were assessed by multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA. In multivariate models, high total polyphenol intake was associated with better language and verbal memory (P = 0.01) but not with executive functioning (P = 0.09). More specifically, intake of catechins (P = 0.001), theaflavins (P = 0.002), flavonols (P = 0.01), and hydroxybenzoic acids (P = 0.0004) was positively associated with language and verbal memory, especially with episodic memory assessed by the RI-48 test. In contrast, negative associations between scores on executive functioning and intake of dihydrochalcones (P = 0.01), catechins (P = 0.01), proanthocyanidins (P = 0.01), and flavonols (P = 0.01) were detected. High intake of specific polyphenols, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, may help to preserve verbal memory, which is a salient vulnerable domain in pathological brain aging. Further investigations are needed to clarify the observed negative associations regarding executive functioning.
    Keywords: Cognition ; Polyphenols -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Nutrition, June, 2011, Vol.141(6), p.1134(6)
    Description: A decrease in metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence may lower the cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden. The predictive value of nutritional recommendations for the incidence of MetS has not yet been evaluated. We assessed, in a population-based study, the association between the French National Nutrition and Health Program Guideline Score (PNNS- GS) and 6-y risk of MetS. Participants in the Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants study were followed-up from 1994-1996 to 2001-2002. MetS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. We also defined "mild" and "severe" MetS as waist criteria plus 2, or more than 2, other criteria. Prospective associations between the PNNS-GS at baseline (either as a continuous variable or in quartiles) and incident MetS were assessed using binary or multinomial logistic regression to provide OR and 95% Cl in participants free of MetS at baseline (n = 2763). In multivariate models, each unit increase in the PNNS-GS score was associated with a 9% lower risk of MetS (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.83-1.00). This association was even stronger with the risk of severe MetS (OR = 0.76; 95% Cl = 0.63-0.91). After adjustment for baseline and change in BMI, this association remained significant for severe MetS but did not reach significance for overall MetS. These findings support a potential beneficial impact of nutritional guidelines upon primary prevention of MetS. Improvement in compliance with nutritional recommendations may help to reduce the burden of CVD disease in the general population. J. Nutr. 141: 1134-1139, 2011. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.136317.
    Keywords: Nutritional Requirements -- Health Aspects ; Cardiovascular Diseases -- Prevention ; Metabolic Syndrome X -- Prevention ; Nutritional Guidelines
    ISSN: 0022-3166
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Archives of internal medicine, 09 April 2012, Vol.172(7), pp.540-7
    Description: To advance knowledge about the cancer-chemopreventive potential of individual nutrients, we investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplements on cancer outcomes among survivors of cardiovascular disease. This was an ancillary study of the Supplementation With Folate, Vitamins B(6) and B(12) and/or Omega-3 Fatty Acids (SU.FOL.OM3) secondary prevention trial (2003-2009). In all, 2501 individuals aged 45 to 80 years were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of the following 4 daily supplementation groups: (1) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (0.56 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B(6); 3 mg) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12); 0.02 mg); (2) eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (600 mg) in a 2:1 ratio; (3) B vitamins and ω-3 fatty acids; or (4) placebo. Overall and sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs regarding the cancer outcomes were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. After 5 years of supplementation, incident cancer was validated in 7.0% of the sample (145 events in men and 29 in women), and death from cancer occurred in 2.3% of the sample. There was no association between cancer outcomes and supplementation with B vitamins (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.85-1.55]) and/or ω-3 fatty acids (HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.87-1.58]). There was a statistically significant interaction of treatment by sex, with no effect of treatment on cancer risk among men and increased cancer risk among women for ω-3 fatty acid supplementation (HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.33-6.89]). We found no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins and/or ω-3 fatty acids on cancer outcomes in individuals with prior cardiovascular disease. Trial Registration  isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN41926726.
    Keywords: Dietary Supplements ; Anticarcinogenic Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 -- Therapeutic Use ; Folic Acid -- Therapeutic Use ; Neoplasms -- Epidemiology ; Secondary Prevention -- Methods ; Vitamin B 12 -- Therapeutic Use ; Vitamin B 6 -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 00039926
    E-ISSN: 1538-3679
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  • 5
    In: Age and Ageing, 2015, Vol. 44(4), pp.648-654
    Description: Background: longitudinal data as regards the link between the cumulative effect of cardiometabolic disorders and cognition are relatively scant and heterogeneous. Objective: we examined the cross-time associations of MetS status with cognitive performance in ageing adults. Design and methods: using data from the French SU.VI.MAX cohort, we studied 2,788 adults. The presence of abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and elevated blood pressure was clinically evaluated in 1994–96. Cognitive performance was assessed after a mean of 13 years via a battery of six validated instruments. The standardised individual test scores were summed up to provide a composite cognitive performance measure; principal component analysis was performed to define performance scores on verbal memory and executive functioning. Associations between MetS and subsequent cognitive performance were examined via ANCOVA, providing estimates of mean difference and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: MetS status at midlife was not associated with subsequent cognitive function. However, a 1-unit increase in the number of cardiometabolic disorders present was associated with a decrease in the composite cognitive score (mean difference = −0.36; 95% CI: −0.68, −0.05). Significant associations were also found with several cardiometabolic disorders (hyperglycaemia, central obesity and dyslipidaemia) and specific cognitive domains. Conclusion: this study supports the existence of a cross-time, cumulative effect of cardiometabolic disorders present at midlife and subsequent cognitive performance. Given the worldwide population ageing and the increase in MetS prevalence, there is an urgent need for recommendations as regards cognitive ageing.
    Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome ; Cardiometabolic Disorders ; Memory ; Executive Function ; Glycaemia ; Cognition ; Prospective Cohort ; Older People
    ISSN: 0002-0729
    E-ISSN: 1468-2834
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  • 6
    In: British Journal of Nutrition, 2011, Vol.105(5), pp.776-786
    Description: Few studies have specifically focused on characteristics associated with consumption of combined fatty-salted and fatty-sweetened foods, whereas their identification could be useful for defining effective public health measures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and health characteristics and consumption of these types of food in a general sample of French adults. Dietary intake was assessed using a minimum of six 24 h dietary records collected over a 2-year period in 6240 subjects aged 35–60 years who participated in the Supplémentation en VItamines Minéraux et AntioXydants cohort study. Associations of individual characteristics with high and intermediate consumption of fatty-sweetened and fatty-salted foods were assessed using multivariate polytomic logistic regression models. Risk of moderate or high consumption of fatty-salted foods decreased with increasing age. Current smokers, drinkers, individuals with overweight and with hypertension were more likely to consume moderate or high amounts of such foods. Risk of moderate or high consumption of fatty-sweetened foods decreased with increasing age. Women, individuals living as a couple, moderate drinkers and persons with low or medium physical activity level were more likely to consume moderate or high amounts of such foods. Lower educated subjects, current smokers, heavy drinkers and individuals with severe hypertriacylglycerolaemia were less likely to have moderate or high consumption. Consumption of fatty-sweetened and fatty-salted foods varied according to demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics. Common unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, low physical activity and alcohol drinking, associated with high consumption of these food groups, may help to effectively target public health efforts.
    Keywords: Dietary Surveys And Nutritional Epidemiology; Fatty-sweetened Foods; Fatty-salted Foods; Lifestyle; Socio-economic Factors; Demographic Factors
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    E-ISSN: 1475-2662
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, January 2011, Vol.93(1), pp.200-10
    Description: BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the long-term effect of overall nutritional recommendations on cognition. OBJECTIVE: In a French cohort of middle-aged adults, we evaluated the association between the French National Nutrition and...
    Keywords: Aged ; Antioxidants ; Minerals ; Prospective Studies ; Cognition ; Dietary Supplements ; Double-Blind Method ; Female ; Guideline Adherence ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Life Sciences ; Food and Nutrition
    ISSN: 00029165
    E-ISSN: 19383207
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Preventive Medicine, Nov, 2013, Vol.57(5), p.488(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.06.030 Byline: Camille Lassale, Pilar Galan, Katia Castetbon, Sandrine Peneau, Caroline Mejean, Serge Hercberg, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot Abstract: The impact of diet quality and physical activity (PA) on weight might be different according to socioeconomic status. Our aim was to estimate associations between adherence to nutritional guidelines and BMI and the interaction with socioeconomic characteristics. Article Note: (footnote) [star] Grant support: This work was supported by grants from the Region Ile de France and Fondation Coeur et Arteres. The NutriNet-Sante study is being supported and granted by the following institutions: Ministere de la Sante (DGS), Institut de Veille Sanitaire (InVS), Institut National de la Prevention et de l'Education pour la Sante (INPES), Fondation pour la Recherche Medicale (FRM), Institut de Recherche en Sante Publique (IRESP), Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM) and Universite Paris 13.
    Keywords: Nutritional Requirements ; Body Weight
    ISSN: 0091-7435
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American journal of public health, November 2014, Vol.104(11), pp.e170-7
    Description: We examined the association between individual and clustered lifestyle behaviors in middle age and later in cognitive functioning. Middle-aged participants (n = 2430) in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant study self-reported their low physical activity, sedentary behavior, alcohol use, smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and low fish consumption. We assessed cognition 13 years later via 6 neuropsychological tests. After standardization, we summed the scores for a composite cognitive measure. We estimated executive functioning and verbal memory scores using principal component analysis. We estimated the mean differences (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) in cognitive performance by the number of unhealthy behaviors using analysis of covariance. We identified latent unhealthy behavior factor via structural equation modeling. Global cognitive function and verbal memory were linearly, negatively associated with the number of unhealthy behaviors: adjusted mean differences = -0.36 (95% CI = -0.69, -0.03) and -0.46 (95% CI = -0.80, -0.11), respectively, per unit increase in the number of unhealthy behaviors. The latent unhealthy behavior factor with low fruit and vegetable consumption and low physical activity as main contributors was associated with reduced verbal memory (RMSEA = 0.02; CFI = 0.96; P = .004). No association was found with executive functioning. Comprehensive public health strategies promoting healthy lifestyles might help deter cognitive aging.
    Keywords: Cognition ; Life Style
    ISSN: 00900036
    E-ISSN: 1541-0048
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, November 2011, Vol.94(5), pp.1295-303
    Description: Current hypotheses suggest that intake of fruit and vegetables (FVs) protects against age-related cognitive impairment. We examined the 13-y association between FV intake and cognitive performance in a sample of French adults. A total of 2533 subjects aged 45-60 y at baseline, who were part of the Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals 2 (SU.VI.MAX 2) cohort, were selected. FV intake was estimated at baseline in participants who had completed at least six 24-h dietary records. Cognitive performance was assessed 13 y after baseline and included an evaluation of verbal memory (RI-48 cued recall, semantic, and phonemic fluency tests) and executive function (trail-making and forward and backward digit span tests). Principal components analysis was performed to account for correlations in test scores. The relation between cognitive performance and quartiles of FV intake was assessed by multivariate linear regression analyses. Intakes of FVs (P-trend = 0.02), fruit alone (P-trend = 0.04), vitamin C-rich FVs (P-trend = 0.03), vitamin C (P-trend = 0.005), and vitamin E (P-trend = 0.04) were positively associated with verbal memory scores. In contrast, intakes of FVs (P-trend = 0.006), vegetables alone (P-trend = 0.03), and β-carotene-rich FVs (P-trend = 0.02) were negatively associated with executive functioning scores. FVs might have a differential effect on cognition according to groups of FVs and type of cognitive function. Further research using sensitive and reliable measures of various types of cognitive function is needed to clarify the effect of individual FV groups and nutrients. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.
    Keywords: Diet ; Dietary Supplements ; Fruit ; Vegetables ; Cognition Disorders -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00029165
    E-ISSN: 1938-3207
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