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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 December 2016, Vol.214(11), pp.1621-1628
    Description: Previous studies have demonstrated that Neisseria gonorrhoeae sialylates the terminal N-acetyllactosamine present on its lipooligosaccharide (LOS) by acquiring CMP-N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid upon entering human cells during infection. This renders the organism resistant to killing by complement in normal human serum. N-acetyllactosamine residues on LOS must be free of N-acetyl-5-neuraminc acid (Neu5Ac; also known as "sialic acid") in order for organisms to bind to and enter urethral epithelial cells during infection in men. This raises the question of how the gonococcus infects men if N-acetyllactosamine residues are substituted by Neu5Ac during infection in women. Here, we demonstrate that women with gonococcal infections have levels of sialidases present in cervicovaginal secretions that can result in desialylation of (sialylated) gonococcal LOS. The principle sialidases responsible for this desialylation appear to be bacterial in origin. These studies suggest that members of the cervicovaginal microbiome can modify N. gonorrhoeae, which will enhance successful transmission to men.
    Keywords: N-Acetyllactosamine ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae ; Cervicovaginal Secretions ; Lipooligosacharide ; Sialidase ; Sialyltransferase ; Disease Transmission, Infectious ; Microbiota ; Gonorrhea -- Transmission ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Metabolism ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae -- Metabolism ; Neuraminidase -- Metabolism ; Vagina -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(5), p.e0197010
    Description: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) has been shown to form biofilms, comprised of extracellular DNA (eDNA), in the middle ear and bronchus during clinical infections. Studies in our laboratory have shown that NTHi possesses a homolog of Staphylococcus aureus thermonuclease (staphylococcal thermonuclease), NTHi nuclease (NTHi Nuc, HI_1296). This enzyme had similar size, heat stability, and divalent cation requirements to those of the staphylococcal homolog as determined by light scattering and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis suggested an overall shape and substrate-binding site comparable to those of staphylococcal nuclease. However, NTHi Nuc was approximately 25-fold more active in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) activity assay than staphylococcal thermonuclease. Homology modeling implicates shorter NTHi Nuc loops near the active site for this enhanced activity.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, 04 January 2016, Vol.84(3), pp.765-74
    Description: Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease.
    Keywords: Haemophilus -- Metabolism ; Haemophilus Infections -- Microbiology ; Haemophilus Influenzae -- Metabolism ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Chemistry ; N-Acetylneuraminic Acid -- Analysis ; Phosphorylcholine -- Analysis
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, March 2015, Vol.83(3), pp.950-7
    Description: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) forms biofilms in the middle ear during human infection. The biofilm matrix of NTHI contains extracellular DNA. We show that NTHI possesses a potent nuclease, which is a homolog of the thermonuclease of Staphylococcus aureus. Using a biofilm dispersal assay, studies showed a biofilm dispersal pattern in the parent strain, no evidence of dispersal in the nuclease mutant, and a partial return of dispersion in the complemented mutant. Quantitative PCR of mRNA from biofilms from a 24-h continuous flow system demonstrated a significantly increased expression of the nuclease from planktonic organisms compared to those in the biofilm phase of growth (P 〈 0.042). Microscopic analysis of biofilms grown in vitro showed that in the nuclease mutant the nucleic acid matrix was increased compared to the wild-type and complemented strains. Organisms were typically found in large aggregates, unlike the wild-type and complement biofilms in which the organisms were evenly dispersed throughout the biofilm. At 48 h, the majority of the organisms in the mutant biofilm were dead. The nuclease mutant formed a biofilm in the chinchilla model of otitis media and demonstrated a propensity to also form similar large aggregates of organisms. These studies indicate that NTHI nuclease is involved in biofilm remodeling and organism dispersal.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Genetics ; Biofilms -- Growth & Development ; Deoxyribonucleases -- Genetics ; Haemophilus Influenzae -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(6), p.e0179621
    Description: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, has a number of factors known to contribute to pathogenesis; however, a full understanding of these processes and their regulation has proven to be elusive. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of bacterial proteins are now recognized as one mechanism of protein regulation. In the present study, Western blot analyses, with an anti-acetyl-lysine antibody, indicated that a large number of gonococcal proteins are post-translationally modified. Previous work has shown that Nε-lysine acetylation can occur non-enzymatically with acetyl-phosphate (AcP) as the acetyl donor. In the current study, an acetate kinase mutant (1291ackA), which accumulates AcP, was generated in N. gonorrhoeae. Broth cultures of N. gonorrhoeae 1291wt and 1291ackA were grown, proteins extracted and digested, and peptides containing acetylated-lysines (K-acetyl) were affinity-enriched from both strains. Mass spectrometric analyses of these samples identified a total of 2686 unique acetylation sites. Label-free relative quantitation of the K-acetyl peptides derived from the ackA and wild-type (wt) strains demonstrated that 109 acetylation sites had an ackA/wt ratio〉2 and p-values 〈0.05 in at least 2/3 of the biological replicates and were designated as "AckA-dependent". Regulated K-acetyl sites were found in ribosomal proteins, central metabolism proteins, iron acquisition and regulation proteins, pilus assembly and regulation proteins, and a two-component response regulator. Since AckA is part of a metabolic pathway, comparative growth studies of the ackA mutant and wt strains were performed. The mutant showed a growth defect under aerobic conditions, an inability to grow anaerobically, and a defect in biofilm maturation. In conclusion, the current study identified AckA-dependent acetylation sites in N. gonorrhoeae and determined that these sites are found in a diverse group of proteins. This work lays the foundation for future studies focusing on specific acetylation sites that may have relevance in gonococcal pathogenesis and metabolism.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 15 December 2008, Vol.198(12), pp.1856-61
    Description: Neisseria gonorrhoeae forms a biofilm in flow cells on glass coverslips as well as on primary cervical epithelial cells. Electron microscopic studies of cervical biopsy specimens from 10 patients with culture-proven N. gonorrhoeae infection revealed evidence of biofilm formation in 3 of the biopsy specimens. These biofilms showed gonococci in networks of bacterial membrane within the biofilm structure. This finding was also observed in biofilms formed over glass cover slips and after infection of primary cervical tissue in vitro. The importance of membranous networks in Neisseria biofilm formation was demonstrated with N. gonorrhoeae strain 1291-msbB, which shows a markedly decreased ability to bleb. This mutant formed significantly less biofilm over glass surfaces and cervical epithelial cells, and complementation showed reversion to wild-type biofilms. Gonoccal biofilms, as part of the cervical infection, may be involved in the mechanisms by which asymptomatic infections, persistence, and increased antibiotic resistance occur.
    Keywords: Biofilms -- Growth & Development ; Cervix Uteri -- Cytology ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae -- Physiology ; Uterine Cervicitis -- Microbiology
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Virology, November 2016, Vol.498, pp.128-135
    Description: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the common commensal and opportunistic pathogen, non-typeable (NTHi) both serve as a frequent cause of respiratory infection in children. Although it is well established that some respiratory viruses can increase host susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, few studies have examined how commensal bacteria could influence a secondary viral response. Here, we examined the impact of NTHi exposure on a subsequent RSV infection of human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-). Co-culture of 16HBE14o- cells with NTHi resulted in inhibition of viral gene expression following RSV infection. 16HBE14o- cells co-cultured with heat-killed NTHi failed to protect against an RSV infection, indicating that protection requires live bacteria. However, NTHi did not inhibit influenza A virus replication, indicating that NTHi-mediated protection was RSV-specific. Our data demonstrates that prior exposure to a commensal bacterium such as NTHi can elicit protection against a subsequent RSV infection.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Influenzae ; Respiratory Syncytial Virus ; Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells ; Biology
    ISSN: 0042-6822
    E-ISSN: 1096-0341
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, Feb, 1996, Vol.178(3-4), p.808(9)
    Description: A study was conducted to determine the role of the pili expressed by Haemophilus ducreyi in the pathogenesis of the genital ulcer disease chancroid. A gene encoding the 24K protein of fine, tangled pili, termed ftpA, was isolated and examined by molecular techniques. The results showed that the FtpA protein lacked homology with other pilins, but shared homoloy with proteins that polymerize ordered rings in Escherichia coli and Treponema pallidum.
    Keywords: Hemophilus Infections -- Genetic Aspects
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 08 February 2013, Vol.431(2), pp.215-220
    Description: ► AniA of is surface exposed. ► The -linked monosaccharide of the AniA glycoprotein is immunodominant. ► Removal of the glycan results in the generation of a non-native immune response. ► This immune response is towards the AniA polypeptide. ► The non-native immune response produces antibodies capable of functional blocking. AniA of the pathogenic is glycosylated in its C-terminal repeat region by the pilin glycosylation ( ) pathway. AniA appears to be unique among bacterial nitrite reductases as it contains an N-terminal extension that includes a lipid modification site as well as a C-terminal extension that is glycosylated. Immunising with various glycoforms of the AniA protein demonstrated a strong humoral immune response to the basal monosaccharide. In addition, when animals were immunised with a truncated form of AniA, completely lacking the glycosylated C-terminal region, the antibody response was directed against AniA regardless of the glycosylation state of the protein. Immuno-SEM confirmed that AniA is expressed on the cell surface in . Antisera generated against a truncated, non-glycosylated, recombinant form of the AniA protein are capable of blocking nitrite reductase function in a whole cell assay. We propose that recombinant modified AniA has potential as a vaccine antigen for .
    Keywords: Glycosylation ; Ania ; Nitrite Reductase ; Neisseria Meningitidis ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    E-ISSN: 1090-2104
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: BMC Microbiology, Dec 31, 2014, Vol.14(1)
    Description: Background Non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) is a nasopharyngeal commensal that can become an opportunistic pathogen causing infections such as otitis media, pneumonia, and bronchitis. NTHi is known to form biofilms. Resistance of bacterial biofilms to clearance by host defense mechanisms and antibiotic treatments is well-established. In the current study, we used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to compare the proteomic profiles of NTHi biofilm and planktonic organisms. Duplicate continuous-flow growth chambers containing defined media with either "light" (L) isoleucine or "heavy" (H) .sup.13C.sub.6-labeled isoleucine were used to grow planktonic (L) and biofilm (H) samples, respectively. Bacteria were removed from the chambers, mixed based on weight, and protein extracts were generated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on the tryptic peptides and 814 unique proteins were identified with 99% confidence. Results Comparisons of the NTHi biofilm to planktonic samples demonstrated that 127 proteins showed differential expression with p-values [less than or equai to]0.05. Pathway analysis demonstrated that proteins involved in energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and purine, pyrimidine, nucleoside, and nucleotide processes showed a general trend of downregulation in the biofilm compared to planktonic organisms. Conversely, proteins involved in transcription, DNA metabolism, and fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism showed a general trend of upregulation under biofilm conditions. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-MS was used to validate a subset of these proteins; among these were aerobic respiration control protein ArcA, NAD nucleotidase and heme-binding protein A. Conclusions The present proteomic study indicates that the NTHi biofilm exists in a semi-dormant state with decreased energy metabolism and protein synthesis yet is still capable of managing oxidative stress and in acquiring necessary cofactors important for biofilm survival. Keywords: Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, Metabolic labeling, Biofilms, Mass spectrometry
    Keywords: Heme -- Comparative Analysis ; Heme -- Health Aspects ; Hemophilus Infections -- Comparative Analysis ; Hemophilus Infections -- Health Aspects ; Microbial Drug Resistance -- Comparative Analysis ; Microbial Drug Resistance -- Health Aspects
    ISSN: 1471-2180
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