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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Pediatrics, August 2016, Vol.175, pp.7-9
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.05.022 Byline: Martin Kharrazi Author Affiliation: Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California Article Note: (footnote) The comments in this editorial are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position of the California Department of Public Health. The author declares no conflicts of interest.
    Keywords: DNA Testing ; Immunoreactive Trypsinogen ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3476
    E-ISSN: 1097-6833
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, June, 2013, Vol.90, p.177(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.03.018 Byline: Ali Kharrazi, Elena Rovenskaya, Brian D. Fath, Masaru Yarime, Steven Kraines Abstract: Sustainability as a concept has multiple disparate perspectives stemming from different related disciplines which either maintain ambiguous interpretations or concentrate on metrics pertaining to single aspects of a system. Given the embedded multi-dimensionality of sustainability, systemic approaches are needed that can cope with interactions of different dimensions. Past efforts for measuring sustainability holistically have taken an accounting approach based on the availability and efficiency of resource flows. However, an accounting approach fails to fully incorporate the intensive parameters pertaining to sustainability. An ecological information-based approach is a promising holistic measurement which incorporates both intensive and extensive dimensions of sustainability. This paper evaluates this approach by applying it to six economic resource trade flow networks: virtual water, oil, world commodity, OECD+BRIC commodity, OECD+BRIC foreign direct investment, and iron and steel. From the perspective of biomimicry, it appears that these networks can achieve higher levels of efficiency without weakening their robustness to resource delivery. The trends of measured efficiency and redundancy of the studied networks are demonstrated to be useful in reflecting long term changes while the trend in robustness levels were found to exhibit similar behavior to an ecosystem in its early phase of development. Article History: Received 6 January 2013; Revised 19 March 2013; Accepted 22 March 2013
    Keywords: Foreign Investments -- Environmental Aspects ; Sustainable Development -- Environmental Aspects
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Psychological Reports, August 2010, Vol.107(1), pp.303-317
    Description: To examine the correlations among environmental perceptions, motivational beliefs, and self-regulated learning of Tehran third-year high school boys based on a proposed model, multistage cluster-sampling method gave a sample of 685 students. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990), Students' Achievement Goal Orientations (Midgley, Kaplan, Middleton, Maehr, Urdan, Anderman, et al., 1998), Students' Perceptions of Classroom Activities (Gentry, Gable, & Rizza, 2002), and Perceptions of Parents Scales (Grolnick, Deci, & Ryan, 1997) were administered. Analysis showed relations among components of self-regulated learning, family environmental perceptions, perceptions of classroom activities, and motivational beliefs. Structural equation modeling indicated the proposed model had an acceptable fit to the data. All paths or structural coefficients of the proposed model were statistically significant.
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 0033-2941
    E-ISSN: 1558-691X
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  • 4
    In: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, September 2015, Vol.63(9), pp.1913-1917
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jgs.13591/abstract Byline: Rebekah J. Kharrazi, Denis Nash, Thelma J. Mielenz Keywords: falls; older adults; mortality trends; mortality coding Objectives To investigate whether changes in death certificate coding and reporting practices explain part or all of the recent increase in the rate of fatal falls in adults aged 65 and older in the United States. Design Trends in coding and reporting practices of fatal falls were evaluated under mortality coding schemes for International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Ninth Revision (1992-1998) and Tenth Revision (1999-2005). Setting United States, 1992 to 2005. Participants Individuals aged 65 and older with falls listed as the underlying cause of death (UCD) on their death certificates. Measurements The primary outcome was annual fatal falls rates per 100,000 U.S. residents aged 65 and older. Coding practice was assessed through analysis of trends in rates of specific UCD fall ICD e-codes over time. Reporting quality was assessed by examining changes in the location on the death certificate where fall e-codes were reported, in particular, the percentage of fall e-codes recorded in the proper location on the death certificate. Results Fatal falls rates increased over both time periods: 1992 to 1998 and 1999 to 2005. A single falls e-code was responsible for the increasing trend of fatal falls overall from 1992 to 1998 (E888, other and unspecified fall) and from 1999 to 2005 (W18, other falls on the same level), whereas trends for other falls e-codes remained stable. Reporting quality improved steadily throughout the study period. Conclusion Better reporting quality, not coding practices, contributed to the increasing rate of fatal falls in older adults in the United States from 1992 to 2005.
    Keywords: Falls ; Older Adults ; Mortality Trends ; Mortality Coding
    ISSN: 0002-8614
    E-ISSN: 1532-5415
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2014, Vol.29(7), pp.976-978
    Description: This discussion focuses on the challenges of using prospectively collected electronic health record (EHR) data as outcomes in clinical trials, with a particular emphasis on the issue of missing data. Our discussion is motivated by the article in this issue: ‘Translating the Hemoglobin A1C with More Easily Understood Feedback: A Randomized Controlled Trial’ by Gopalan et al.1 In the spirit of open science, the authors generously shared their study protocol, statistical analysis plan and analysis data set. Using their data set, we conducted analyses to help emphasize important statistical issues. This editorial should not be considered a criticism of their paper; rather, their study is used as a reference to expand on the challenges of missing data in EHRs and to provide suggestions for future studies.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0884-8734
    E-ISSN: 1525-1497
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, 2016, Vol.88, pp.271-277
    Keywords: Petroleum Industry – International Trade ; Petroleum Industry – Political Aspects ; Petroleum – Prices and Rates
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, January 2016, Vol.88, pp.271-277
    Description: Oil trade is one of the most vital networks in the global economy. In this paper, we analyze the 1998–2012 oil trade networks using the point-wise mutual information (PMI) method and determine the pairwise trade preferences and dependencies. Using examples of the USA's trade partners, this research demonstrates the usefulness of the PMI method as an additional methodological tool to evaluate the outcomes from countries' decisions to engage in preferred trading partners. A positive PMI value indicates trade preference where trade is larger than would be expected. For example, in 2012 the USA imported 2,548.7 kbpd despite an expected 358.5 kbpd of oil from Canada. Conversely, a negative PMI value indicates trade dis-preference where the amount of trade is smaller than what would be expected. For example, the 15-year average of annual PMI between Saudi Arabia and the U.S.A. is −0.130 and between Russia and the USA −1.596. We reflect the three primary reasons of discrepancies between actual and neutral model trade can be related to position, price, and politics. The PMI can quantify the political success or failure of trade preferences and can more accurately account temporal variation of interdependencies.
    Keywords: Trade Dependency ; Point-Wise Mutual Information ; Crude Oil Trade ; Network Analysis ; Energy Policy ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 December 2016, Vol.572, pp.688-696
    Description: One of the most critical challenges in the anthropocentric age is the sustainable management of the planet's increasingly strained water resources. In this avenue, there is a need to advance holistic approaches and objective tools which allow policy makers to better evaluate system-level properties and trade-offs of water resources. This research contributes to the expanding literature in this area by examining the changes to system-level network configurations of the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin from 2000 to 2009. Specifically, through the ecological network analysis (ENA) approach, this research examines changes to the system-level properties of efficiency, redundancy, and evaluates the trade-offs to the resiliency of ecosystem water services of the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin. Our results indicate that while the efficiency of the middle reaches has increased from 2000 to 2009 by 6% and 78% more water is released to the lower reaches, the redundancy of the system has also decreased by 6%. The lower level of redundancy, particularly due to the changes in the groundwater body levels, has critical long-term consequences for the resilience of the water ecosystem services of the middle reaches. In consideration of these holistic trade-offs, two hypothetical alternative scenarios, based on water recycling and saving strategies, are developed to improve the long-term health and resilience of the water system.
    Keywords: Ecological Network Analysis ; Sustainability ; Water Resource Management ; Heihe River Basin ; Resilience ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2016, Vol.46(2), pp.478-488
    Description: We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD (n = 2586) and of non-cases (n = 600,103). Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated by logistic regression. Lower uE3 (AOR for 〈 10th percentile vs. 25th–74th percentiles = 1.21, 95 % CI 1.06–1.37), and higher MSAFP (AOR = 1.21, 95 % CI 1.07–1.37 for 〉 90th percentile) were significantly associated with ASD. A U-shaped relationship was seen for hCG (AOR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.02–1.32 for 〈 10th percentile; AOR = 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05–1.36 for 〉 90th percentile). Our results further support prenatal hormone involvement in ASD risk.
    Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder ; Steroid hormones ; Estrogen ; Alpha-fetoprotein ; hCG ; Prenatal screening ; Estriol
    ISSN: 0162-3257
    E-ISSN: 1573-3432
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, 2015, Vol.118, p.123(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.07.019 Byline: Yadong Yu, Hongtao Ren, Ali Kharrazi, Tieju Ma, Bing Zhu Abstract: Exploring the socioeconomic drivers of environmental pressures in cities is vital for national and global environmental management. The unique features of the mega-city of Chongqing make it a valuable case study to examine environmental pressures from rapid economic development at the city level. This paper reveals the socioeconomic drivers of environmental pressures in Chongqing during the period of 2000-2010 for energy consumption and air, water, and land emissions. Results indicate that Chongqing's environmental pressures increased for energy consumption and CO.sub.2 emissions while decreased for SO.sub.2, soot, waste water, and solid waste discharge. The main direct contributors, from the producer perspective, to the overall change of environmental pressures were the manufacturing, electricity and water, and construction sectors. From the consumer perspective, the most significant contributors were gross fixed capital formation and net export. In general, changes of per capita final demand and environmental pressure intensity were the most prominent drivers for increasing and reducing environmental pressure. Final demand structure and final demand composition also contributed towards stabilizing environmental pressures while production structure and residential population had a negligible effect. In this light, we suggest approaches for policymakers to systemically balance between different drivers and to reduce environmental pressures in cities. Article History: Received 22 January 2015; Revised 12 June 2015; Accepted 19 July 2015 Article Note: (footnote) [star] Supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M561420), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities in China (WN1424001), and National Nature Science Foundation of China (71125002).
    Keywords: Motor Vehicle Drivers – Case Studies ; Energy Consumption – Case Studies
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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