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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, May 2014, Vol.144(5), pp.599-607
    Description: Lupin kernel fiber beneficially modifies blood lipids because of its bile acid-binding capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of a lupin kernel fiber preparation on cardiovascular diseases and to clarify possible mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 60 moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (plasma total cholesterol: 〉5.2 mmol/L) passed 3 intervention periods in different orders with a 2-wk washout phase between each. Participants consumed either a high-fiber diet containing 25-g/d lupin kernel fiber (LF) or citrus fiber (CF), or a low-fiber control diet (CD) for 4 wk each. Anthropometric, plasma, and fecal variables were assessed at baseline and after the interventions. Contrary to the CF period, total (9%) and LDL (12%) cholesterol as well as triacylglycerols (10%) were lower after the LF period when compared with the CD period [P ≤ 0.02, adjusted for baseline, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)]. HDL cholesterol remained unchanged. Moreover, the LF period reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) when compared with baseline. Bile acid binding could not be shown because the excretion of total bile acids remained constant after the high-fiber diets. However, the LF period resulted in an enhanced formation of the main short-chain fatty acids in comparison with the CD period. During the CF period, only acetate increased significantly. Both high-fiber diets led to higher satiety and modified nutritional behavior, resulting in significantly lower body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with the CD period. The blood lipid-lowering effects of LF are apparently not a result of bile acid binding. Rather, we hypothesize for the first time, to our knowledge, that the blood lipid-lowering effects of LF may be mainly attributed to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, specifically propionate and acetate. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01035086.
    Keywords: Cholesterol, LDL -- Blood ; Dietary Fiber -- Pharmacology ; Fatty Acids, Volatile -- Biosynthesis ; Hypercholesterolemia -- Drug Therapy ; Lupinus -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Chemistry, Jan 20, 2015, Vol.87(2), p.937(8)
    Description: The article discusses the designing of an ultrasensitive protocol for surface plasma resonance (SPR) detection of adenosine with the cascade amplification process. It was ascertained that DNA s1 is released from the aptamer and then hybridizes with hairpin DNA (HP1) upon recognition of the aptamer to target adenosine. It was also suggested that the products of the upstream cycle (T-NESA) (DNA s2 and s3) could act as the oDNA triggero of the downstream cycle (NESA and HCR) to generate further signal amplification.
    Keywords: Raman Spectroscopy – Usage ; Pathogenic Microorganisms – Research ; Ascites – Research
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Human Genetics, 2011, Vol.130(3), pp.369-376
    Description: In terms of sample exchange, international collaborations between biobanks, or between biobanks and their research partners, have two important aspects. First, the donors’ consent usually implies that the scope and purpose of any sample transfer to third parties is subject to major constraints. Since the legal, ethical and political framework of biobanking may differ substantially, even between countries of comparable jurisdictional systems, general rules for the international sharing of biomaterial are difficult, if not impossible, to define. Issues of uncertainty include the right to transfer the material, the scope of research allowed, and intellectual property rights. Since suitable means of international law enforcement may not be available in the context of biobanking, collaborators are advised to clarify any residual uncertainty by means of bilateral contracts, for example, in the form of material transfer agreements. Second, biobank partners may rightly expect that the biomaterial they receive for further analysis attains a certain level of quality. This implies that a biobank has to implement stringent quality control measures covering, in addition to the material transfer itself, the whole process of material acquisition, transport, pre-analytical handling and storage. Again, it may be advisable for biobank partners to claim contractual warranties for the type and quality of the biomaterial they wish to acquire.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Law -- Analysis ; Biological Products -- Analysis ; Universities And Colleges -- Analysis ; Medical Informatics -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0340-6717
    E-ISSN: 1432-1203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 19 June 2012, Vol.84(12), pp.5335-42
    Description: The first response to infection in the blood is mediated by leukocytes. As a result crucial information can be gained from a hemogram. Conventional methods such as blood smears and automated sorting procedures are not capable of recording detailed biochemical information of the different leukocytes. In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the differences between the leukocyte subtypes which have been obtained from healthy donors. Raman imaging was able to visualize the same morphological features as standard staining methods without the need of any label. Unsupervised statistical methods such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were able to separate Raman spectra of the two most abundant leukocytes, the neutrophils and lymphocytes (with a special focus on CD4(+) T-lymphocytes). For the same cells a classification model was built to allow an automated Raman-based differentiation of the cell type in the future. The classification model could achieve an accuracy of 94% in the validation step and could predict the identity of unknown cells from a completely different donor with an accuracy of 81% when using single spectra and with an accuracy of 97% when using the majority vote from all individual spectra of the cell. This marks a promising step toward automated Raman spectroscopic blood analysis which holds the potential not only to assign the numbers of the cells but also to yield important biochemical information.
    Keywords: Spectrum Analysis, Raman ; Cell Separation -- Methods ; Lymphocytes -- Cytology ; Neutrophils -- Cytology
    ISSN: 00032700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 15 October 2013, Vol.85(20), pp.9610-6
    Description: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common infection. Up to every second woman will experience at least one UTI episode during her lifetime. The gold standard for identifying the infectious microorganisms is the urine culture. However, culture methods are time-consuming and need at least 24 h until the results are available. Here, we report about a culture independent identification procedure by using Raman microspectroscopy in combination with innovative chemometrics. We investigated, for the first time directly, urine samples by Raman microspectroscopy on a single-cell level. In a first step, a database of eleven important UTI bacterial species, which were grown in sterile filtered urine, was built up. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to generate a statistical model, which allows a classification of this data set with an accuracy of 92% on a species level. This model was afterward used to identify infected urine samples of ten patients directly without a preceding culture step. Thereby, we were able to determine the predominant bacterial species (seven Escherichia coli and three Enterococcus faecalis ) for all ten patient samples. These results demonstrate that Raman microspectroscopy in combination with support vector machines allow an identification of important UTI bacteria within two hours without the need of a culture step.
    Keywords: Bacteria -- Isolation & Purification ; Spectrum Analysis, Raman -- Methods ; Urinary Tract Infections -- Microbiology
    ISSN: 00032700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Gene, 01 March 2012, Vol.495(1), pp.89-92
    Description: Infantile nephropatic cystinosis is a rare, recessive, and genetically homogeneous disorder impairing renal function. It is caused by mutations in . Several large copy number aberrations have been identified but, for the majority of these, heterozygous patients and carriers can not easily be identified. We therefore developed a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay targeting eight of the twelve exons. We show that this assay is valid in detecting known deletions in both the homozygous and heterozygous state. The application to a family previously found mutation-negative by conventional screening revealed a novel large deletion which, as the first of its kind, does not involve the coding region. We conclude that our assay represents a valid tool for further completing the mutation spectrum and for simplified carrier testing in cystinosis families harboring copy number mutations. More generally, our study exemplifies the use of synthetic, homemade MLPA probesets as cheap, efficient, and rapidly available screening tools for small genes and/or very rare diseases. ► Cystinosis can be caused by hard-to-detect copy number mutations in . ► MLPA represents an appropriate tool for unraveling this class of mutations. ► We developed and validated a -specific MLPA assay. ► Our assay identified a novel -deletion in a previously unresolved case. ► This deletion, as the first of its kind, does not affect the coding sequence.
    Keywords: Copy Number ; Ctns ; Cystinosis ; Deletion ; Mlpa ; Engineering ; Biology ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    E-ISSN: 1879-0038
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(8), p.e104222
    Description: Cardiac surgery is accompanied by an increase of oxidative stress, a significantly reduced antioxidant (AOX) capacity, postoperative inflammation, all of which may promote the development of organ dysfunction and an increase in mortality. Selenium is an essential co-factor of various antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized a less pronounced decrease of circulating selenium levels in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery due to less intraoperative oxidative stress.In this prospective randomised, interventional trial, 40 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly assigned to undergo either on-pump or OPCAB-surgery, if both techniques were feasible for the single patient. Clinical data, myocardial damage assessed by myocard specific creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), circulating whole blood levels of selenium, oxidative stress assessed by asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels, antioxidant capacity determined by glutathionperoxidase (GPx) levels and perioperative inflammation represented by interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured at predefined perioperative time points.At end of surgery, both groups showed a comparable decrease of circulating selenium concentrations. Likewise, levels of oxidative stress and IL-6 were comparable in both groups. Selenium levels correlated with antioxidant capacity (GPx: r = 0.720; p〈0.001) and showed a negative correlation to myocardial damage (CK-MB: r =  -0.571, p〈0.001). Low postoperative selenium levels had a high predictive value for the occurrence of any postoperative complication.OPCAB surgery is not associated with less oxidative stress and a better preservation of the circulating selenium pool than on-pump surgery. Low postoperative selenium levels are predictive for the development of complications.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01409057.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, July, 2011, Vol.400(9), p.2755(7)
    Description: Byline: Anne Marz (1), Bettina Monch (2), Petra Rosch (1), Michael Kiehntopf (2), Thomas Henkel (3), Jurgen Popp (1,3) Keywords: SERS; Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip; Enzyme activity; Thiopurine methyltransferase; 6-Mercaptopurine Abstract: In this contribution, the great potential of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for the detection of analyte molecules in a complex environment is demonstrated. Using LOC-SERS, the enzyme activity of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is analysed and identified in lysed red blood cells. The conversion of 6-mercaptopurine to 6-methylmercaptopurine catalysed by TPMT is observed as it gives evidence for the enzyme activity. Being able to determine the TPMT activity before starting a treatment using 6-mercaptopurine, an optimized dosage can be applied to each patient and serious toxicity appearing within thiopurine treatment will be prevented. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Physical Chemisty, Friedrich Schiller University, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743, Jena, Germany (2) Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747, Jena, Germany (3) Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Albert Einstein Strasse 9, 07745, Jena, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 15/02/2011 Received Date: 26/11/2010 Accepted Date: 14/02/2011 Online Date: 26/02/2011 Article note: Published in the special issue Biophotonics with Guest Editors Jurgen Popp and Reiner Salzer.
    Keywords: Raman Spectroscopy ; Microfluidics ; Transferases
    ISSN: 1618-2642
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Foodborne pathogens and disease, August 2011, Vol.8(8), pp.875-85
    Description: The genus Campylobacter contains several, widespread pathogens causing food-borne diseases of zoonotic nature in humans. In case of outbreaks, the differentiation of closely related Campylobacter is essential for epidemiological studies, which investigate the routes of geographical spread and ways of transmission. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have shown that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is a valuable tool for speciation of bacteria such as Campylobacter. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI)-TOF-MS is a specific MALDI-TOF application that combines a chip-based chromatographic enrichment of proteins with TOF-MS. This pilot study aims at investigating for the first time whether SELDI-TOF-MS can be applied for discrimination of Campylobacter at the level of species and even strains. Campylobacter type-strains and isolates from different regions were cultured and subsequently subjected to physicochemical lysis. Protein lysates were then applied on CM10 and IMAC30 ProteinChip Array surfaces and analyzed using a PCS 4000 SELDI Protein Chip System (Bio-Rad Laboratories). By comparison of the spectra from Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter upsaliensis, and Campylobacter lari, 166 and 160 different protein peaks were observed (p〈0.05) using CM10 and IMAC30 chips, respectively. Development of classification trees, comprising 2-4 of these peaks, allows for discrimination of different Campylobacter species and even strains. Moreover, species and strains can be sufficiently separated from each other by hierarchical cluster analysis. Thus, SELDI-TOF-MS is a promising tool to differentiate Campylobacter species and even strains. Species/strain-specific ions observed in addition to well-established markers identified by MALDI-TOF might be of value for future Campylobacter-identifying algorithms. To further clarify the potential advantages of this method, our results have to be validated against several independent test datasets of, preferably, a multitude of prospectively collected different isolates and compared with other typing techniques.
    Keywords: Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization ; Campylobacter -- Classification
    ISSN: 15353141
    E-ISSN: 1556-7125
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2011, Vol.400(9), pp.2755-2761
    Description: In this contribution, the great potential of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for the detection of analyte molecules in a complex environment is demonstrated. Using LOC-SERS, the enzyme activity of thiopurine S -methyltransferase (TPMT) is analysed and identified in lysed red blood cells. The conversion of 6-mercaptopurine to 6-methylmercaptopurine catalysed by TPMT is observed as it gives evidence for the enzyme activity. Being able to determine the TPMT activity before starting a treatment using 6-mercaptopurine, an optimized dosage can be applied to each patient and serious toxicity appearing within thiopurine treatment will be prevented.
    Keywords: SERS ; Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip ; Enzyme activity ; Thiopurine methyltransferase ; 6-Mercaptopurine
    ISSN: 1618-2642
    E-ISSN: 1618-2650
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