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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Current Genetics, 2005, Vol.48(6), pp.389-400
    Description: Diatom plastids probably evolved by secondary endocytobiosis from a red alga that was up by a eukaryotic host cell. Apparently, this process increased the complexity of the intracellular distribution of metabolic enzymes. We identified genes encoding fructose-bisphosphate aldolases (FBA) in two centric ( Odontella sinensis, Thalassiosira pseudonana ) and one pennate ( Phaeodactylum tricornutum ) diatoms and found that four different aldolases are present in both groups: two plastid targeted class II enzymes (FBAC1 and FBAC2), one cytosolic class II (FBA3) and one cytosolic class I (FBA4) enzyme. The pennate Phaeodactylum possesses an additional plastidic class I enzyme (FBAC5). We verified the classification of the different aldolases in the diatoms by enzymatic characterization of isolated plastids and whole cell extracts. Interestingly, our results imply that in plastids of centric and pennate diatoms mainly either class I or class II aldolases are active. We also identified genes for both class I and class II aldolases in red algal EST databases, thus presenting a fascinating example of the reutilization and recompartmentalization of different aldolase isoenzymes during secondary endocytobiosis but as well demonstrating the limited use of metabolic enzymes as markers for the interpretation of phylogenetic histories in algae.
    Keywords: Aldolase ; Diatom ; Intron ; Plastid ; Targeting
    ISSN: 0172-8083
    E-ISSN: 1432-0983
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2016, Vol.116(11), pp.2177-2186
    Description: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes.Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min−1 kg−1 peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90–95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output). The levels of sC, sT, their ratio (sT/sC) and sAA were determined before and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after each intervention. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress was characterized by blood lactate, blood pH, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake ( $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 ), ventilation (V E) and ventilatory equivalent (V E/ $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 ).sC increased 30 and 60 min after HIIT. However, 180 min post exercise, sC decreased below baseline levels in both conditions. sT increased 0 and 30 min after HIIT and 0 min after HVT. sAA and sT/sC ratio did not change significantly over time in HIIT nor HVT. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress, evidenced by blood lactate, HR, $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 , V E, and V E/ $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 was higher during HIIT compared to HVT.The metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress during HIIT was higher compared to HVT, but based on salivary analyses (cortisol, testosterone, alpha-amylase), we conclude no strong acute catabolic effects neither by HIIT nor by HVT.
    Keywords: Saliva ; Cortisol ; Testosterone ; Alpha-amylase ; Exercise
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Research in Sports Medicine, 02 July 2016, Vol.24(3), pp.272-282
    Description: We investigated alternatives to commonly used biomarkers of exercise-induced tissue damage. Over 5 days following two bouts of 100 drop-to-vertical jumps (inter-bout rest period of 3 weeks), myosin heavy chain 1, hydroxylysine (HYL), hydroxyproline (HYP), spermine (SPM) and spermine synthase...
    Keywords: Polyamines ; Spermine ; Myosin Heavy Chains ; Hydroxyproline ; Hydroxylysine ; Spermine Synthase ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1543-8627
    E-ISSN: 1543-8635
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in physiology, 2016, Vol.7, pp.92
    Description: The aim of the present study was to analyze the response of vascular circulating microRNAs (miRNAs; miR-16, miR-21, miR-126) and the VEGF mRNA following an acute bout of HIIT and HVT in children. Twelve healthy competitive young male cyclists (14.4 ± 0.8 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1) peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of high intensity 4 × 4 min intervals (HIIT) at 90-95% peak power output (PPO), each interval separated by 3 min of active recovery, and one high volume session (HVT) consisting of a constant load exercise for 90 min at 60% PPO. Capillary blood from the earlobe was collected under resting conditions, during exercise (d1 = 20 min, d2 = 30 min, d3 = 60 min), and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after the exercise to determine miR-16, -21, -126, and VEGF mRNA. HVT significantly increased miR-16 and miR-126 during and after the exercise compared to pre-values, whereas HIIT showed no significant influence on the miRNAs compared to pre-values. VEGF mRNA significantly increased during and after HIIT (d1, 30', 60', 180') and HVT (d3, 0', 60'). RESULTS of the present investigation suggest a volume dependent exercise regulation of vascular regulating miRNAs (miR-16, miR-21, miR-126) in children. In line with previous data, our data show that acute exercise can alter circulating miRNAs profiles that might be used as novel biomarkers to monitor acute and chronic changes due to exercise in various tissues.
    Keywords: Children ; Endurance ; Exercise ; Micrornas ; Training Adaptation
    ISSN: 1664-042X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC Sports Science, Medicine, and Rehabilitation, 2013, Vol. 5(1)
    Description: Background:This study examined the effects of different levels of compression (0, 20 and 40 mmHg) produced byleg garments on selected psycho-physiological measures of performance while exposed to passive vibration (60 Hz,amplitude 4-6 mm) and performing 3-min of alpine skiing tuck position.Methods:Prior to, during and following the experiment the electromygraphic (EMG) activity of different muscles,cardio-respiratory data, changes in total hemoglobin, tissue oxygenation and oscillatory movement ofm. vastuslateralis, blood lactate and perceptual data of 12 highly trained alpine skiers were recorded. Maximal isometric kneeextension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance were assessed before and after the experiment.Results:Thekneeangle(−10°) and oscillatory movement (−20-25.5%) were lower with compression (P〈0.05inall cases). The EMG activities of thetibialis anterior(20.2-28.9%),gastrocnemius medialis(4.9-15.1%),rectus femoris(9.6-23.5%), andvastus medialis(13.1-13.7%) muscles were all elevated by compression (P〈 0.05 in all cases).Total hemoglobin was maintained during the 3-min period of simulated skiing with 20 or 40 mmHg compression,but the tissue saturation index was lower (P〈 0.05) than with no compression. No differences in respiratory parameters,heart rate or blood lactate concentration were observed with or maximal isometric knee extension and flexionstrength, balance, and jumping performance following simulated skiing for 3 min in the downhill tuck positionwere the same as in the absence of compression.Conclusions:These findings demonstrate thatwith leg compression, alpine skiers could maintain a deeper tuckposition with less perceived exertion and greater deoxygenation of thevastus lateralismuscle, with nodifferences in whole-body oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. These changes occurred withoutcompromising maximal leg strength, jumping performance or balance. Accordingly, our results indicate that theuse of lower leg compression in the range of 20-40 mmHg may improve alpine skiing performance by allowing adeeper tuck position and lowering perceived exertion.
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap
    ISSN: 2052-1847
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Orthopedic Reviews, 01 October 2014, Vol.6(3)
    Description: The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if there is a repeated bout effect for cartilage tissue, evident in the marker serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP). Ten healthy male subjects (26.4±3.14 years) performed two high impact interventions (100 drop jumps with a 30 second interval) carried out at a 3 week interval. After each intervention, sCOMP and muscle soreness were assessed on 8 and 6 occasions respectively. Muscle soreness was determined via a visual analog scale with a maximum pain score of 10. sComp levels did not show a blunted response after the second bout (Bout 1: 12.2±3.3 U/L−1; Bout 2: 13.1±4.0 U/L−1; P〉0.05). Remarkably, sCOMP increased from baseline levels by 16% after bout 1 and 15% after bout 2. Muscle soreness was blunted following the second intervention (Bout 1: 5.0±1.8; Bout 2: 1.6±0.8). Unlike the known repeated bout effect for muscle damage markers, sCOMP levels do not show a blunted response after two similar loading interventions. This information on biomarker behavior is essential to clinicians attempting to use this marker as an indicator of cartilage damage associated with the development or progression of osteoarthritis.
    Keywords: Biomarker, Joint, Mechanical Loading, Exercise
    ISSN: 2035-8237
    E-ISSN: 2035-8164
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in physiology, 2016, Vol.7, pp.643
    Description: mircoRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression, are stably secreted into the blood and circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) may play an important role in cell-cell communication. Furthermore, c-miRNAs might serve as novel biomarkers of the current vascular cell status. Here, we examined how the levels of three vascular c-miRNAs (c-miR-16, c-miR-21, c-miR-126) are acutely affected by different exercise intensities and volumes. 12 subjects performed 3 different endurance exercise protocols: 1. High-Volume Training (HVT; 130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO); 2. High-Intensity Training (HIT; 4 × 4 min at 95% PPO); 3. Sprint-Interval Training (SIT; 4 × 30 s all-out). c-miRNAs were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR with TaqMan probes at time points pre, 0', 30', 60', and 180' after each intervention. The expression of miR-126 and miR-21 was analyzed , in human coronary artery endothelial cells, human THP-1 monocytes, human platelets, human endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To investigate the transfer of miRNAs via EMPs, VSMCs were incubated with EMPs. HVT and SIT revealed large increases on c-miR-21 [1.9-fold by HVT (cohen's = 0.85); 1.5-fold by SIT (cohen's = 0.85)] and c-miR-126 [2.2-fold by SIT (cohen's = 1.06); 1.9-fold by HVT (cohen's = 0.85)] post-exercise compared to pre-values, while HIT revealed only small to moderate changes on c-miRs-21 (cohen's = -0.28) and c-miR-126 (cohen's = 0.53). c-miR-16 was only slightly affected by SIT (1.4-fold; cohen's = 0.57), HVT (1.3-fold; cohen's = 0.61) or HIT (1.1-fold; cohen's = 0.2). Further experiments revealed that miR-126 and miR-21 are mainly of endothelial origin. Importantly, under conditions of endothelial apoptosis, miR-126 and miR-21 are packed from endothelial cells into endothelial microparticles, which were shown to transfer miR-126 into target vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, we found that HVT and SIT are associated with the release of endothelial miRNAs into the circulation, which can function as intercellular communication devices regulating vascular biology.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis ; Endothelial Microparticles ; Mir-126 ; Mir-16 ; Mir-21
    ISSN: 1664-042X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(11), p.e112583
    Description: In patients with liver cirrhosis procoagulant and anticoagulant changes occur simultaneously. During primary hemostasis, platelets adhere to subendothelial structures, via von Willebrand factor (vWF). We aimed to investigate the influence of vWF on primary hemostasis in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore we assessed in-vitro bleeding time as marker of primary hemostasis in cirrhotic patients, measuring the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100) closure times with collagen and epinephrine (Col-Epi, upper limit of normal ≤ 165 s) or collagen and ADP (Col-ADP, upper limit of normal ≤ 118 s). If Col-Epi and Col-ADP were prolonged, the PFA-100 was considered to be pathological. Effects of vWF on primary hemostasis in thrombocytopenic patients were analyzed and plasma vWF levels were modified by adding recombinant vWF or anti-vWF antibody. Of the 72 included cirrhotic patients, 32 (44.4%) showed a pathological result for the PFA-100. They had mean closure times (± SD) of 180 ± 62 s with Col-Epi and 160 ± 70 s with Col-ADP. Multivariate analysis revealed that hematocrit (P = 0.027) and vWF-antigen levels (P = 0.010) are the predictors of a pathological PFA-100 test in cirrhotic patients. In 21.4% of cirrhotic patients with platelet count ≥ 150/nL and hematocrit ≥ 27.0%, pathological PFA-100 results were found. In thrombocytopenic (〈 150/nL) patients with cirrhosis, normal PFA-100 results were associated with higher vWF-antigen levels (462.3 ± 235.9% vs. 338.7 ± 151.6%, P = 0.021). These results were confirmed by multivariate analysis in these patients as well as by adding recombinant vWF or polyclonal anti-vWF antibody that significantly shortened or prolonged closure times, respectively. In conclusion, primary hemostasis is impaired in cirrhotic patients. The effect of reduced platelet count in cirrhotic patients can at least be partly compensated by increased vWF levels. Recombinant vWF could be an alternative to platelet transfusions in the future.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Nov 14, 2014, Vol.9(11)
    Description: In patients with liver cirrhosis procoagulant and anticoagulant changes occur simultaneously. During primary hemostasis, platelets adhere to subendothelial structures, via von Willebrand factor (vWF). We aimed to investigate the influence of vWF on primary hemostasis in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore we assessed in-vitro bleeding time as marker of primary hemostasis in cirrhotic patients, measuring the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100) closure times with collagen and epinephrine (Col-Epi, upper limit of normal [less than or equal to]165 s) or collagen and ADP (Col-ADP, upper limit of normal [less than or equal to]118 s). If Col-Epi and Col-ADP were prolonged, the PFA-100 was considered to be pathological. Effects of vWF on primary hemostasis in thrombocytopenic patients were analyzed and plasma vWF levels were modified by adding recombinant vWF or anti-vWF antibody. Of the 72 included cirrhotic patients, 32 (44.4%) showed a pathological result for the PFA-100. They had mean closure times (#177; SD) of 180#177;62 s with Col-Epi and 160#177;70 s with Col-ADP. Multivariate analysis revealed that hematocrit (P = 0.027) and vWF-antigen levels (P = 0.010) are the predictors of a pathological PFA-100 test in cirrhotic patients. In 21.4% of cirrhotic patients with platelet count [greater than or equal to]150/nL and hematocrit [greater than or equal to]27.0%, pathological PFA-100 results were found. In thrombocytopenic (150/nL) patients with cirrhosis, normal PFA-100 results were associated with higher vWF-antigen levels (462.3#177;235.9% vs. 338.7#177;151.6%, P = 0.021). These results were confirmed by multivariate analysis in these patients as well as by adding recombinant vWF or polyclonal anti-vWF antibody that significantly shortened or prolonged closure times, respectively. In conclusion, primary hemostasis is impaired in cirrhotic patients. The effect of reduced platelet count in cirrhotic patients can at least be partly compensated by increased vWF levels. Recombinant vWF could be an alternative to platelet transfusions in the future.
    Keywords: Collagen – Analysis ; Von Willebrand Factor – Analysis ; Epinephrine – Analysis ; Anticoagulants – Analysis ; Liver Cirrhosis – Analysis ; Blood Tests – Analysis
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, March 7, 2013, Vol.8(3), p.e58734
    Description: Background Aims Primary sclerosing cholangitis predominantly affects males and is an important indication for liver transplantation. The rs738409 variant (I148M) of the PNPLA3 gene is associated with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease and we evaluated its impact on the disease course of PSC. Methods The I148M polymorphism was genotyped in 121 German PSC patients of a long-term prospective cohort and 347 Norwegian PSC patients. Results In the prospective German cohort, actuarial survival free of liver transplantation was significantly reduced for I148M carriers (p = 0.011) compared to wildtype patients. This effect was restricted to patients with severe disease, as defined by development of dominant stenosis (DS) requiring endoscopic intervention. DS patients showed markedly decreased survival (p = 0.004) when carrying the I148M variant (I148M: mean 13.8 years; 95% confidence interval: 11.6-16.0 vs. wildtype: mean 18.6 years; 95% confidence interval: 16.3-20.9) while there was no impact on survival in patients without a DS (p = 0.87). In line with previous observations of sex specific effects of the I148M polymorphism, the effect on survival was further restricted to male patients (mean survival 11.9 years; 95% confidence interval: 10.0-14.0 in I148M carriers vs. 18.8 years; 95% confidence interval: 16.2-21.5 in wildtype; p0.001) while female patients were unaffected by the polymorphism (p = 0.65). These sex specific findings were validated in the Norwegian cohort (p = 0.013). Conclusions In male PSC patients with severe disease with bile duct stenosis requiring intervention, the common I148M variant of the PNPLA3 gene is a risk factor for reduced survival.
    Keywords: Stenosis -- Genetic Aspects ; Stenosis -- Development And Progression ; Stenosis -- Risk Factors ; Liver Cirrhosis -- Genetic Aspects ; Liver Cirrhosis -- Development And Progression ; Liver Cirrhosis -- Risk Factors ; Liver Transplantation ; Genes ; Liver
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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