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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, March 1, 2013, Vol.291, p.396(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.11.021 Byline: Fritz Kleinschroth (a), Caspar Schoning (b), James B. Kung'u (c), Ingo Kowarik (a), Arne Cierjacks (a) Keywords: Logging; Mountain forest; Mount Kenya; Regeneration; Root sucker; Seedling Abstract: a* Regeneration in Ocotea usambarensis is low 10years after logging cessation. a* Small trees are absent in formerly heavily logged areas. a* Root suckers are more abundant than seedlings. a* Vegetative regeneration and historical logging are negatively correlated. a* Enrichment plantings are recommended for forest recovery. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Ecology, Ecosystem Science/Plant Ecology, Technische Universitat Berlin, Rothenburgstr. 12, 12165 Berlin, Germany (b) Functional Biodiversity, Dahlem Centre of Plant Sciences, Institut fur Biologie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Konigin-Luise-Str. 1-3, 14195 Berlin, Germany (c) Department of Environmental Sciences, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Article History: Received 21 July 2012; Revised 13 November 2012; Accepted 18 November 2012
    Keywords: Timber ; Logging ; Ecosystems
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    In: Conservation Biology, April 2017, Vol.31(2), pp.469-480
    Description: Forest degradation in the tropics is often associated with roads built for selective logging. The protection of intact forest landscapes (IFL) that are not accessible by roads is high on the biodiversity conservation agenda and a challenge for logging concessions certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). A frequently advocated conservation objective is to maximize the retention of roadless space, a concept that is based on distance to the nearest road from any point. We developed a novel use of the empty‐space function – a general statistical tool based on stochastic geometry and random sets theory – to calculate roadless space in a part of the Congo Basin where road networks have been expanding rapidly. We compared the temporal development of roadless space in certified and uncertified logging concessions inside and outside areas declared IFL in 2000. Inside IFLs, road‐network expansion led to a decrease in roadless space by more than half from 1999 to 2007. After 2007, loss leveled out in most areas to close to 0 due to an equilibrium between newly built roads and abandoned roads that became revegetated. However, concessions in IFL certified by FSC since around 2007 continuously lost roadless space and reached a level comparable to all other concessions. Only national parks remained mostly roadless. We recommend that forest‐management policies make the preservation of large connected forest areas a top priority by effectively monitoring – and limiting – the occupation of space by roads that are permanently accessible.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Central Africa ; Forest Certification ; Logging Concessions ; Random Sets ; Road Density ; Road Networks ; Roadless Areas ; Sustainable Forest Management ; África Central ; Áreas Sin Carreteras ; Biodiversidad ; Certificación De Bosque ; Concesiones De Tala ; Conjuntos Aleatorios ; Densidad De Carreteras ; Redes De Caminos ; Manejo Sustentable De Bosques
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, August 2016, Vol.53(4), pp.1127-1137
    Description: Logging roads can trigger tropical forest degradation by reducing the integrity of the ecosystem and providing access for encroachment. Therefore, road management is crucial in reconciling selective logging and biodiversity conservation. Most logging roads are abandoned after timber harvesting; however, little is known about their long‐term impacts on forest vegetation and accessibility, especially in Central Africa. In 11 logging concessions in the Congo Basin, we field‐sampled a chronosequence of roads that, judging from satellite images, had been abandoned between 1985 and 2015. We assessed recovery of timber resources, tree diversity and above‐ground biomass in three zones: the road track, the road edge (where forest had been cleared during road construction) and the adjacent logged forest. The density of commercial timber species 〈15 cm d.b.h. was almost three times higher in the road track (321 individuals ha−1) and edge (267) than in the logged adjacent forest (97). Over time, tree species diversity converged to a comparable level between roads and adjacent forests, along with an increase in canopy closure. The average width of forest clearing for road construction was 20 m, covering a total 0·76% of the forest area inside concessions. After 15 years following abandonment, road tracks had recovered 24 Mg ha−1 of above‐ground woody biomass, which was 6% of that in the adjacent forest, while road edges had accumulated 167 Mg ha−1 (42%). Ten years after abandonment, roads were no longer penetrable by poachers on motorcycles. An exotic herb species was fully replaced by dominant Marantaceae that have even higher abundance in the adjacent forest. Synthesis and applications. Our evidence of vegetation recovery suggests that logging roads are mostly transient elements in the forest landscapes. However, given the slow recovery of biomass on abandoned road tracks, we advocate both reducing the width of forest clearing for road construction and reopening old logging roads for future harvests, rather than building new roads in intact forests. Road edges seem suitable for post‐logging silviculture which needs to be assisted by removing dominant herbs during the early years after abandonment while the road track is still accessible. Our evidence of vegetation recovery suggests that logging roads are mostly transient elements in the forest landscapes. However, given the slow recovery of biomass on abandoned road tracks, we advocate both reducing the width of forest clearing for road construction and reopening old logging roads for future harvests, rather than building new roads in intact forests. Road edges seem suitable for post‐logging silviculture which needs to be assisted by removing dominant herbs during the early years after abandonment while the road track is still accessible.
    Keywords: Biomass ; Congo Basin ; Invasive Herbs ; Rain Forest Resilience ; Regeneration ; Road Ecology ; Selective Logging ; Soil Compaction ; Sustainable Forest Management ; Tree Diversity
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 March 2013, Vol.291, pp.396-403
    Description: ► Regeneration in is low 10 years after logging cessation. ► Small trees are absent in formerly heavily logged areas. ► Root suckers are more abundant than seedlings. ► Vegetative regeneration and historical logging are negatively correlated. ► Enrichment plantings are recommended for forest recovery. East African montane forests have been subjected to heavy logging, particularly of Engl., formerly one of the dominant tree species of moist mid-altitude forests. At Mt. Kenya, logging was suspended in 2000 after a conspicuous decline in population size, but the success of this conservation measure has not yet been evaluated. Given that a management scheme of forests based on vegetative regeneration has been suggested, we hypothesized that natural regeneration mainly by root suckers would be sufficient for a recovery of this species. Demography and regeneration (both sexual and vegetative) of were studied in 45 study plots between 1700 and 2500 m asl along a gradient of historical logging intensity, while taking altitude and light incidence into account as predictor variables. The diameter distribution showed a high percentage of old individuals and rather low recruitment in . In heavily logged areas (removed basal area 〉25 m ha ), smaller trees (〈50 cm DBH, 〉130 cm high) were completely absent. The number of seedlings was low and independent of logging intensity. It increased with higher light incidence. The number of root suckers was 5.6-fold the number of seedlings, underscoring the importance of vegetative reproduction. However, number of root suckers and logging intensity were negatively correlated. We conclude that regeneration of at Mt. Kenya is generally low and negatively influenced by historical logging. Therefore, natural regeneration is inadequate for the recovery of this valuable timber species, and additional conservation measures such as enrichment planting should be considered.
    Keywords: Logging ; Mountain Forest ; Mount Kenya ; Regeneration ; Root Sucker ; Seedling ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nature ecology & evolution, September 2018, Vol.2(9), pp.1340-1342
    ISSN: Nature Ecology & Evolution
    E-ISSN: 2397-334X
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  • 6
    Description: Selective logging prevails in tropical forests around the world, posing urgent questions about how to reconcile timber extraction with biodiversity conservation. Roads are those elements of selective logging that are most costly, most visible and they probably have the most far-reaching environmental impacts. While many studies have outlined road related threats to forest ecosystems, little is known about the persistence of logging roads in the forest landscape. This is especially important in Central Africa, where selective logging is the most important type of land use, both in terms of spatial extent and financial yield. In this thesis I analyze the temporal and spatial dynamics of logging road networks in a part of the Congo Basin and apply these findings to make suggestions for forest management. In five chapters I am approaching the subject from different angles and on different scales: In the introductory chapter, I compare the content and the orientation of scientific literature on logging roads in tropical forests. In general I identified two strains in the literature, one focusing specifically on road related impacts on forest ecosystems and the other giving technical advice in road planning, building and maintenance in order to improve efficiency and reduce impacts. A third, partially distinct direction of research is oriented on the characterization of the spatial distribution and coverage of forest road networks on larger scale to monitor forest exploitation and related degradation. The second chapter presents a methodology to identify roads in CentralAfrican forests based on remote sensing with LANDSAT images. In a time series approach, I used survival analysis to evaluate the temporal dynamics of secondary logging roads over the last 30 years and showed how road persistence differs depending on environmental variables such as geological substrates. The third chapter approaches the persistence of logging roads from a field based perspective. I carried out vegetation inventories on a chronosequence of roads abandoned between 1985 and 2015. The results showed that road tracks and edges are suitable habitats for commercial species regeneration with rapid changes in the environmental conditions occurring over time. During 30 years after abandonment about one third of the biomass lost for road building has re-captured in subsequent vegetation development. The fourth chapter analyses the extent of logging road networks in the overall forest landscape. I used the mathematically well-defined Empty Space Function as a novel way to calculate roadless space. I demonstrated how roadless space in intact forest landscapes (declared in 2000) has diminished in general but in particular in FSC-certified logging concessions. I recommend that forest management should make the preservation of large connected forest areas a top priority by effectively monitoring - and limiting - the occupation of space by roads that are accessible at the same time. The concluding chapter develops management suggestions to apply the findings. I showed that re-opening logging roads in subsequent harvests is rather the exception than the rule. Evaluating benefits, opportunities, costs and risks, I conclude that re-opening roads should be given a higher priority in forest management. Re-using logging roads can spare forests within the same area by avoiding new forest clearing in the vicinity and at a larger scale by sparing unlogged forests from new logging disturbance by intensifying operations on previously logged forests. As a vision for road management, I suggest to actively manage logging roads as transient elements in the landscape until they are reopened. Permanent access roads should only be built in the periphery of continuous forest blocks. As a perspective for further research, I discuss the trade-offs between the need of roads for development and the environmental impacts. As an example for this, I present evidence for the first major road corridor crossing the Congo Basin that is already under construction. To limit the impacts on the forest, large-scale conservation corridors have to be established, requiring supra-regional landscape planning.
    Keywords: 333.95
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 7
    In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, February 2016, Vol.14(1), pp.9-10
    Keywords: Ecology;
    ISSN: 1540-9295
    E-ISSN: 1540-9309
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Description: Selective logging prevails in tropical forests around the world, posing urgent questions about how to reconcile timber extraction with biodiversity conservation. Roads are those elements of selective logging that are most costly, most visible and they probably have the most far-reaching environmental...
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Biodiversity and Ecology ; Environmental Sciences ; Environmental and Society ; Environmental Sciences ; Environmental Engineering ; Road Ecology ; Tropical Forest ; Selective Logging ; Forest Degradation ; Roadless Space ; Land-Sparing Vs. Land Sharing ; Spatial Analyses ; Landscape Planning ; Ecologie Routière ; Forêt Tropicale ; Exploitation Sélective ; Dégradation ; Répartition de L'Usage de La Terre ; Régénération ; Analyses Spatiales ; Aménagement Du Territoire ; Environmental Sciences
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 9
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Dryad Digital Repository
    Keywords: Road Ecology ; Forest Management ; Reduced Impact Logging ; Clearing Width ; Forest Resilience ; Forest Degradation ; Deforestation ; Pan Tropical ; Tropics
    ISSN: 0006-3606
    Source: DataCite
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  • 10
    In: Ecosphere, April 2015, Vol.6(4), pp.1-17
    Description: Logging roads in the Congo Basin are often associated with forest degradation through fragmentation and access for other land uses. However, in concessions managed for timber production, secondary roads are usually closed after exploitation and are expected...
    Keywords: Central Africa ; Deforestation ; Geological Substrate ; Gis ; Land Cover Change ; Landsat ; Land Sharing–Land Sparing ; Regeneration ; Road Ecology ; Selective Logging ; Survival Analysis ; Tropical Rain Forest
    ISSN: 2150-8925
    E-ISSN: 2150-8925
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