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  • 1
    In: Chemical Communications, 2014, Vol.50(97), pp.15419-15422
    Description: A chemical route to periodic hole arrays in gold films whose holes are loaded with single gold nanoparticles is presented, paving the road to mass production of highly sensitive plasmonic sensors on large areas.
    Keywords: Nanopores ; Gold -- Chemistry ; Metal Nanoparticles -- Chemistry ; Surface Plasmon Resonance -- Instrumentation;
    ISSN: 1359-7345
    E-ISSN: 1364-548X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2012, Vol.22(41), p.21987
    Description: The synthesis and the mesomorphic properties of novel imidazolium salts with mesogenic 2-phenylpyrimidine or 2-alkylpyrimidinecarboxylic acid central cores are reported. The mesogenic units are connected to the imidazolium head groups viaan alkoxy spacer. In order to adjust the...
    Keywords: Carboxylates ; Derivatives ; Differential Scanning Calorimetry ; Orientation ; Phase Shift ; Phases ; Shape Memory Alloys ; Spacers ; Thin Films, Surfaces, and Interfaces (So) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (MD) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (Ep) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (Ed) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (EC);
    ISSN: 0959-9428
    E-ISSN: 1364-5501
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 3
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Acta Crystallographica Section E, 01 April 2014, Vol.70(4), pp.m117-m118
    Description: The title complex, [Cu4I4(C12H27P)4], crystallizes with six molecules in the unit cell and with three independent one-third molecule fragments, completed by application of the relevant symmetry operators, in the asymmetric unit. The tetranuclear...
    Keywords: Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 1600-5368
    E-ISSN: 1600-5368
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pediatrics, 2012, Vol.171(2), pp.289-299
    Description: To estimate the development of prevalence rates for overweight and obesity in children starting school in Germany, data for children’s height and weight out of the compulsory school enrolment examinations (SEE), conducted annually in every German federal state, were available. A former analysis of these data showed a marked increase of prevalence of overweight and obesity until 2004. The aim of this project was to give an updated overview on the development of prevalence rates for overweight and obesity in children upon school entry by including recent data until 2008. Data on measured height and weight from the yearly conducted SEE were obtained from all 16 German federal states. Overweight and obesity were defined by BMI 〉 90th and BMI 〉 97th age- and gender-related percentiles of German reference values, respectively. In 2008, the prevalence for overweight varied from 8.4% in Saxony to 11.9% in Bremen and Thuringia. The current prevalence rates for obesity ranged from 3.3% in Brandenburg and Saxony till 5.4% in Saarland. The current data from SEE by the majority of the individual states showed that the prevalence for both overweight and obesity did not increase any more after 2004 and is even declining in some states compared to the former data inquiry. Absolute decrease of prevalence rates was up to 3% for overweight and 1.8% for obesity. Conclusion : The current data from the SEE of individual German states are based on census and showed by the majority that the prevalence of overweight and obese children starting school did not increase anymore and even declined in the last 4 years, respectively. It is supposed that the measures for prevention initiated in the 1990s and implemented afterwards have contributed to this positive development in Germany.
    Keywords: Prevalence ; Overweight ; Obesity ; Children ; School enrolment examination
    ISSN: 0340-6199
    E-ISSN: 1432-1076
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  • 6
    In: Medicine, 2016, Vol.95(49), pp.e5608-e5608
    Description: ABSTRACT: There are only few studies on latent trajectories of body mass index (BMI) and their association with diabetes incidence and mortality in adults.We used data of the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Prevention Program and included individuals (N=24,875) with BMI measurements over a 12-year period. Trajectory classes were identified using growth mixture modeling for predefined age groups (〈50, 50–65, 〉65 years of age) and men, women separately. Poisson models were applied to estimate incidence and prevalence of diabetes for each trajectory class. Relative all-cause mortality and diabetes-related mortality was estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression.We identified 4 trajectory classes for the age groups 〈50 years and 50 to 65 years, and 3 for age groups 〉65 years. For all age groups, a stable BMI trajectory class was the largest, with about 90% of men and 70% to 80% of women. For the low stable BMI classes, the corresponding fasting glucose levels were the lowest. The highest diabetes prevalences were observed for decreasing trajectories. During subsequent follow-up of mean 8.1 (SD 2.0) years, 2741 individuals died. For men 〈50 years, highest mortality was observed for steady weight gainers. For all other age-sex groups, mortality was the highest for decreasing trajectories.We found considerably heterogeneity in BMI trajectories by sex and age. Stable weight, however, was the largest class over all age and sex groups, and was associated with the lowest diabetes incidence and mortality suggesting that maintaining weight at a moderate level is an important public health goal.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0025-7974
    E-ISSN: 15365964
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  • 7
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2003, Vol.348(20), pp.1967-1976
    Description: Background The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has recently been identified as a new clinical entity. SARS is thought to be caused by an unknown infectious agent. Methods Clinical specimens from patients with SARS were searched for unknown viruses with the use of cell cultures and molecular techniques. Results A novel coronavirus was identified in patients with SARS. The virus was isolated in cell culture, and a sequence 300 nucleotides in length was obtained by a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)–based random-amplification procedure. Genetic characterization indicated that the virus is only distantly related to known coronaviruses (identical in 50 to 60 percent of the nucleotide sequence). On the basis of the obtained sequence, conventional and real-time PCR assays for specific and sensitive detection of the novel virus were established. Virus was detected in a variety of clinical specimens from patients with SARS but not in controls. High concentrations of viral RNA of up to 100 million molecules per milliliter were found in sputum. Viral RNA was also detected at extremely low concentrations in plasma during the acute phase and in feces during the late convalescent phase. Infected patients showed seroconversion on the Vero cells in which the virus was isolated. Conclusions The novel coronavirus might have a role in causing SARS. This study used cell culture and molecular techniques to identify the infectious agent associated with SARS. A novel coronavirus was found in multiple samples from 18 patients but in no specimens from control subjects. In the patients there were high concentrations of viral RNA in sputum, a finding consistent with a highly infectious agent. Low concentrations of viral RNA were also detected in stool. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was recently identified as a new clinical entity.1,2 Patients present with fever, dry cough, dyspnea, headache, and hypoxemia. Typical laboratory findings are lymphopenia and mildly elevated aminotransferase levels. Death may result from progressive respiratory failure due to alveolar damage.3 SARS appears to be caused by an unknown infectious agent that is transmitted from human to human. The World Health Organization (WHO) had recorded 2353 cases by April 4, 2003. About 4 percent of patients with SARS have died.4 The SARS epidemic started in Asia, with the majority of cases occurring in China and . . .
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 19 August 2019, Vol.58(34), pp.11625-11630
    Description: We describe a new technique in protein synthesis that extends the existing repertoire of methods for protein modification: A chemoselective reaction that induces reactivity for a subsequent bioconjugation. An azide‐modified building block reacts first with an ethynylphosphonite through a Staudinger‐phosphonite reaction (SPhR) to give an ethynylphosphonamidate. The resulting electron‐deficient triple bond subsequently undergoes a cysteine‐selective reaction with proteins or antibodies. We demonstrate that ethynylphosphonamidates display excellent cysteine‐selective reactivity combined with superior stability of the thiol adducts, when compared to classical maleimide linkages. This turns our technique into a versatile and powerful tool for the facile construction of stable functional protein conjugates. ! Ethynylphosphonamidates can be chemoselectively incorporated into a given molecule through a Staudinger‐phosphonite reaction, and they react specifically with cysteine residues on proteins to give thiol adducts that are stable under physiological conditions. This enables the facile fusion of complex molecules to proteins.
    Keywords: Bioconjugation ; Bioorganic Chemistry ; Bioorthogonal Chemistry ; Cysteine-Selective Modification ; Protein Modification
    ISSN: 1433-7851
    E-ISSN: 1521-3773
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  • 9
    Language: German
    In: Angewandte Chemie, 19 August 2019, Vol.131(34), pp.11751-11756
    Description: Wir beschreiben eine neue Methode zur Proteinsynthese, die das bestehende Repertoire an Möglichkeiten zur Proteinmodifikation erweitert: Eine chemoselektive Reaktion induziert Reaktivität für eine nachfolgende Biokonjugation. Hierbei reagiert ein azidmodifizierter Baustein zunächst mit einem Ethinylphosphonit in einer Staudinger‐Phosphonit‐Reaktion (SPhR) zu einem Ethinylphosphonamidat. Die so entstehende elektronenarme Dreifachbindung modifiziert anschließend in einer cysteinselektiven Reaktion Proteine und Antikörper. Wir zeigen, dass Ethinylphosphonamidate eine herausragende Selektivität für Cysteine aufweisen, gepaart mit einer überragenden Stabilität der Thiol‐Addukte im Vergleich zu klassischen Maleimid‐Konjugaten. Diese Erkenntnis macht unsere Technik zu einer vielseitigen und leistungsstarken Methode für die mühelose Herstellung von stabilen, funktionalen Proteinkonjugaten. ! Ethinylphosphonamidate können chemoselektiv in gewünschte Verbindungen eingebaut werden und reagieren spezifisch mit Cysteinen von Proteinen zu Thiol‐Addukten, die eine hervorragende Stabilität unter physiologischen Bedingungen aufweisen. Die modulare Konjugation ermöglicht eine einfache Verbindung von komplexen Molekülen mit Proteinen.
    Keywords: Biokonjugationen ; Bioorganische Chemie ; Cysteinselektive Reaktionen ; Proteinmodifikationen
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    E-ISSN: 1521-3757
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  • 10
    Dissertation
    Dissertation
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
    Language: English
    Description: In der vorliegenden Arbeit diente das Kapsid der Bakteriophage Qbeta als multivalentes Gerüst und ermöglichte die Bildung eines monodispersen multivalenten Systems, welches mit Homopropargylglycin als unnatürliche Aminosäure modifiziert wurde. Das so eingeführte Alkin ermöglichte kupferkatalysierte Alkin-Azid-Cycloaddition zur Anbindung von Sialinsäuregrupen. Die entsprechende Synthese der hierzu kompatiblen Azid-modifizierten Sialinsäurederivate war eine der Hauptaufgaben dieser Arbeit. Zu diesem Zweck wurde das einfach zugängliche 5-N-Acetyladamantanylthiosialosid als Glykosylierungsdonor in der alpha-selektiven Synthese von Sialosiden evaluiert. Eine effiziente Aktivierung dieses Donors wurde unter optimierten Bedingungen bei -78°C mit N-Iodsuccinimid und Trifluormethansulfonsäure erreicht, was zu hohen alpha-Selektivitäten und Gesamtausbeuten der gewünschten Sialoside führte. Insbesondere Azidoethylenglykol-verknüpfte Sialinsäuren wurden synthetisiert, die für nachfolgende Biokonjugationsreaktionen an das Qbeta-Kapsid verwendet wurden. Die so dargestellten Sialinsäure-modifizierten Qbeta-Kapsidpartikel wurden dann eingehend mit Hilfe mehrerer biophysikalischer und biologischer Tests hinsichtlich ihrer Fähigkeit an Hämagglutinin zu binden und eine Influenza-Infektion zu inhibieren charakterisiert. Niedrige nanomolare Affinitäten wurden in diesen Assays gemessen. Eine sehr effiziente Infektionshemmung in vergleichbaren Konzentrationsbereichen konnte in einem in vitro Zell-, sowie einem in vivo Maus- als auch einem menschlichen ex vivo Modellsystem beobachtet werden. Verschiedene pathologisch relevante Influenzastämme konnten über die hier vorgestellte Strategie ebenfalls gebunden werden. Die monodisperse und definierte Struktur des Qbeta-Gerüsts erlaubte es außerdem ein theoretisches Modell der zugrundeliegenden Bindungsmodi zu erstellen. In this thesis, the bacteriophage Qbeta capsid served as a multivalent scaffold and facilitated the generation of a monodisperse multivalent system which was modified with homopropargylglycine as an unnatural amino acid. The introduced alkyne enabled copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition to attach sialic acid groups. The corresponding synthesis of the compatible azide-modified sialic acid derivatives was one of the main tasks of this work. For this purpose, the straightforwardly accessible 5-N-acetyladamantanyl thiosialoside was evaluated as a glycosylation donor in the alpha-selective synthesis of sialosides. Efficient activation of this donor was achieved under optimized conditions at -78°C with N-iodosuccinimide and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid which led to high alpha selectivities and overall yields of the desired sialosides. Particularly azidoethylene glycol-linked sialic acids were synthesized which were used for subsequent bioconjugation reactions to the Qbeta capsid. These synthesized sialic acid-modified Qbeta capsid particles were then thoroughly characterized by multiple biophysical and biological assays regarding their ability to bind to hemagglutinin and to inhibit influenza infection. Low nanomolar affinities were measured in these assays. A very efficient infection inhibition in a comparable concentration range was observed in in vitro cellular, in vivo mouse and ex vivo human model systems. Several pathologically relevant influenza strains could also be bound with the strategy presented here. The monodisperse and defined structure of the Qbeta scaffold additionally allowed for the establishment of a theoretical model describing the underlying binding modes.
    Keywords: Multivalenz ; Influenza ; Sialinsäure ; Glykosylierung ; Multivalency ; Influenza ; Sialic Acid ; Glycosylation ; 547 Organische Chemie ; 572 Biochemie ; 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie ; Ddc:547 ; Ddc:572 ; Ddc:570
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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