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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Industrial Crops & Products, 2015, Vol.66, p.206(4)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.12.024 Byline: Barbara Koblenz, Sabine Tischer, Jan Rucknagel, Olaf Christen Abstract: * In all study trials both manures stimulate the earthworm population. * Earthworm density under digestate was similar to conventional slurry. * Applying digestate and slurry had a positive impact earthworm density and biomass. * Mineral fertilizers had negatively affected earthworm fauna. * Community composition was strongly influenced by the application of digestate. Author Affiliation: (a) University of Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Agronomy and Organic Farming, Betty-Heimann-Stra[sz]e 5, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany (b) University of Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Soil Biogeochemistry, Germany Article History: Received 10 September 2014; Revised 20 November 2014; Accepted 13 December 2014
    Keywords: Organic Fertilizers ; Biogas ; Biomass Energy
    ISSN: 0926-6690
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 10 November 2017, Vol.63(13), pp.1785-1799
    Description: The short-term economic benefit has in recent years prompted farmers to grow oilseed rape (OSR) (Brassica napus L.) and thus the frequency of this crop increased in German crop rotations. Here, we investigate the impact of high-intensity OSR crop rotations on yield, yield formation, and blackleg disease (Leptosphaeria maculans) in a rotation experiment in the Hercynian dry region of Central Germany over two seasons (2014/2015 - 2015/2016). The preceding crop combinations compared were winter wheat (WW) (Triticum aestivum L.)-WW, WW-OSR, OSR-OSR, and an OSR monoculture. Furthermore, the fertilizer treatments 120 kg N ha −1 and 180 kg N ha −1 were analyzed. Higher OSR cropping intensity decreased seed yields, however, with a variation among years and oil yield was highest when OSR was following WW-WW over both years. Minor differences were observed among the yield components, but significantly less pods per m 2 were developed in a long-term OSR monoculture. The disease assessment clearly showed an increased blackleg incidence and severity when OSR was grown successively. Results of our study emphasize that high-intensity OSR production will very likely be unsustainable over the long term associated with yield losses and increased infestation levels of blackleg disease.
    Keywords: Brassica Napus L ; Crop Rotation ; Yield Components ; Leptosphaeria Maculans ; Nitrogen Fertilization ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0365-0340
    E-ISSN: 1476-3567
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Industrial Crops & Products, April 2015, Vol.66, pp.206-209
    Description: In recent years, the increasing number of biogas plants in operation has also led to a considerable rise in fermentative substrates, which are now widely used as agricultural fertilizers. The impact on earthworm fauna of using biogas digestate as a fertilizer has yet to be sufficiently researched. At two different tests sites, the short-term (four months after fertilization) and longer-term (three-year test period) influence of using fermented residues as a fertilizer was examined on earthworm density, biomass and community composition compared to using traditional fertilizers (cattle and pig slurry, chemical fertilizers as well as an unfertilized control). The crop grown was maize ( L.). Applying biogas digestate and slurry had a positive overall impact at both sites on earthworm density and biomass. Observing different fertilization regimes in the short term, the significantly highest earthworm density was seen where slurry had been applied. In the treatments with digestate and conventional slurry, earthworm biomass differed significantly in comparison with chemical fertilization and the untreated variant. After three years, earthworm biomass in the variants fertilized with conventional slurry and digestate tended to be higher than in the chemical fertilizer and untreated variants. Community composition was strongly influenced by the application of digestate. A decrease in the species was accompanied by an increase in . The earthworm population was supported equally positively at both sites by the variants with conventional slurry and digestate.
    Keywords: Biogas Digestate ; Slurry ; Earthworms ; Community Composition ; Biogas Plants ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0926-6690
    E-ISSN: 1872-633X
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Crop and Pasture Science, 2016, Vol.67(4), p.439-449
    Description: A rotational field experiment was established in the year 2002 at the experimental farm Etzdorf in the Hercynian dry region of central Germany. Since 2005 field measured datasets were used to determine the effect of different preceding crop combinations and different nitrogen (N) fertilisation treatments on the seed yield, oil content, oil yield and N-use efficiency of oilseed rape ( L.). The preceding crop combinations compared were winter wheat ( L.)-winter wheat (WW), WW-oilseed rape (OSR), OSR-OSR and an OSR monoculture. In addition to the preceding crop combination, N fertiliser treatments with either 120 kg N ha or 180 kg N ha were established in the year 2013.
    Keywords: canola; cropping system; oilseed brassicas; oilseed rape; yield components.
    ISSN: 1836-0947
    E-ISSN: 1836-5795
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: 2015
    Keywords: Aporrectodea Caliginosa ; Slurry ; Biomass ; Biogas ; Biogas Digestate ; Cattle ; Corn ; Earthworms ; Community Composition ; Earthworms ; Mineral Fertilizers ; Zea Mays ; Slurries ; Biogas Plants ; Pig Manure ; Community Structure
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, January 2018, Vol.175, pp.205-216
    Description: In recent years, there has been an increased application of conservation-oriented tillage techniques, where instead of being turned the soil is only loosened or not tilled at all. Strip tillage, a special form of conservation tillage, results in small-scale structural differences, since tillage is performed only within the seed row, while the soil between seed rows is not tilled. However, tillage always impacts upon physical soil properties and processes. A combined application of conventional soil mechanical methods and X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) is employed here in order to investigate small-scale structural differences in a chernozem (texture 0–30 cm: silt loam) located in central Germany under strip tillage (within and between seed rows) compared to no tillage and mulch tillage. Apart from recording changes over time (years: 2012, 2014, 2015) to dry bulk density and saturated conductivity at soil depths 2–8 and 12–18 cm, stress-strain tests were conducted to map mechanical behaviour for a load range of 5–550 kPa at a soil depth of 12–18 cm (year 2015). Mechanical precompression stress was determined from the stress-dry bulk density curves. In addition, computed tomography scans were created followed by quantitative image analysis of the morphometric parameters mean macropore diameter, macroporosity, connectivity and anisotropy of the same soil samples. For strip tillage between seed rows and no tillage, a significant increase in dry bulk density was observed over time compared to strip tillage within the seed row and mulch tillage. This was more pronounced at a soil depth of 2–8 cm than at 12–18 cm. Despite higher dry bulk density, strip tillage between the seed row displayed also an increasing saturated conductivity compared to strip tillage within the seed row and mulch tillage. The computed tomography scans showed that the macropores became more compressed and soil aggregates were pushed together as mechanical stress increased, with the aggregate arrangement being transformed down into a coherent soil mass. The soil mechanical and morphometric parameters supported each other in terms of what they revealed about the mechanical properties of the soil structures. For instance, in the strip tillage between seed rows and no tillage treatments, the lack of soil tillage not only resulted in higher dry bulk densities, but also higher aggregate densities, mechanical precompression stress values, mean macropore diameters as well as lower macroporosity and connectivity values compared to mulch tillage and strip tillage within the seed row. The computed tomography parameters are therefore highly suitable for providing Supplementary information about the compaction process. Overall, this study showed that strip tillage combines the advantages of no tillage and a deeper, soil conservation-oriented primary tillage because, on a small scale, it creates two distinct soil structures which are beneficial in terms of optimal plant growth as well as mechanical resistance by driving over the soil.
    Keywords: Pre-Compression Stress ; Dry Bulk Density ; Aggregate Density ; Image Analysis ; Soil Compaction ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: European journal of agronomy, 2016, Vol.77, pp.28-37
    Description: In Central Europe, various plant species including large-grain legumes and their mixtures are grown as catch crops, particularly between grains harvested early and subsequent summer crops. This article investigates the question of how soil structure in the topsoil is influenced when catch cropping with large-grain legumes (experimental factor A: without catch crop, with catch crop) under different ploughless tillage conditions during catch crop seeding (experimental factor B: deep tillage/25–30cm, shallow tillage/8–10cm). Five one-year trials were performed using standard machinery at various sites in Germany. Soil core samples extracted from the topsoil in the spring after catch crop cultivation served to identify air capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity and precompression stress. The above-ground and below-ground biomass yields of the catch crops were also determined at most of the sites. In addition, the soil compaction risk for the working steps in the experiments was calculated using the REPRO model.The dry matter yield of the catch crops varied considerably between the individual trial sites and years. In particular, high levels of dry matter were able to form in the case of early seeding and a sufficient supply of precipitation. The soil structure was only rarely affected positively by catch crop cultivation, and catch crops did not contribute in the short term to loosening already compacted topsoils. In contrast, mechanical soil stresses caused by driving over the ground and additional working steps used in cultivating catch crops often led to lower air capacity in these treatments. This is consistent with the soil compaction risks calculated using the REPRO model, which were higher in the treatments with catch cropping. Catch crop cultivation also only resulted in improved mechanical stability at one location. The positive effect of deep ploughless tillage on air capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, however, became more clearly evident regardless of catch crop cultivation. In order for catch crop cultivation with large-grain legumes to be able to have a favourable impact on soil structure, it is therefore important that cultivating them does not result in any new soil compaction. In the conditions evaluated, deep tillage was more effective at loosening compacted topsoil than growing catch crops. ; p. 28-37.
    Keywords: Catch Crops ; Dry Matter Content ; Topsoil ; Soil Compaction ; Precompression Stress ; Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity ; Belowground Biomass ; Sowing ; Harvest Date ; Spring ; Models ; Risk ; Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity ; Dry Matter Accumulation ; Soil Structure ; Soil Structure ; Air Capacity ; Grains ; Deep Tillage ; Summer ; Air ; Legumes
    ISSN: 1161-0301
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Agronomy, July 2016, Vol.77, pp.28-37
    Description: In Central Europe, various plant species including large-grain legumes and their mixtures are grown as catch crops, particularly between grains harvested early and subsequent summer crops. This article investigates the question of how soil structure in the topsoil is influenced when catch cropping with large-grain legumes (experimental factor A: without catch crop, with catch crop) under different ploughless tillage conditions during catch crop seeding (experimental factor B: deep tillage/25–30 cm, shallow tillage/8–10 cm). Five one-year trials were performed using standard machinery at various sites in Germany. Soil core samples extracted from the topsoil in the spring after catch crop cultivation served to identify air capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity and precompression stress. The above-ground and below-ground biomass yields of the catch crops were also determined at most of the sites. In addition, the soil compaction risk for the working steps in the experiments was calculated using the REPRO model. The dry matter yield of the catch crops varied considerably between the individual trial sites and years. In particular, high levels of dry matter were able to form in the case of early seeding and a sufficient supply of precipitation. The soil structure was only rarely affected positively by catch crop cultivation, and catch crops did not contribute in the short term to loosening already compacted topsoils. In contrast, mechanical soil stresses caused by driving over the ground and additional working steps used in cultivating catch crops often led to lower air capacity in these treatments. This is consistent with the soil compaction risks calculated using the REPRO model, which were higher in the treatments with catch cropping. Catch crop cultivation also only resulted in improved mechanical stability at one location. The positive effect of deep ploughless tillage on air capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, however, became more clearly evident regardless of catch crop cultivation. In order for catch crop cultivation with large-grain legumes to be able to have a favourable impact on soil structure, it is therefore important that cultivating them does not result in any new soil compaction. In the conditions evaluated, deep tillage was more effective at loosening compacted topsoil than growing catch crops.
    Keywords: Soil Structure ; Air Capacity ; Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity ; Precompression Stress ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1161-0301
    E-ISSN: 1873-7331
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, June 2017, Vol.169, pp.54-64
    Description: Greenhouse gases (GHG) cause damage to the biosphere and atmosphere, and essentially lead to a reduction in fertilization efficiency. Different slurry application techniques can influence the emission of GHG. In the years 2014 and 2015, two parallel trials (sites: Lückstedt and Kossebau) and one lysimeter trial (site: Falkenberg) were set up in Central Germany (federal state: Saxony-Anhalt) in order to investigate the influence of the slurry strip-till method on ammonia (NH ) and nitrous oxide (N O) emissions when compared to surface slurry incorporation. The effect of the nitrification inhibitor (NI) (PIADIN ) on GHG emissions was also examined. NH was measured using a combination of passive samplers and the Dräger Tube method (DTM). N O was measured using the closed chamber method (CCM) both in the maize row and in the interrow space. In the two years of the experiment, NH volatilization fluctuated between 0.6 and 3.5 kg NH -N ha . In 2014, the slurry strip-till treatments in Lückstedt emitted significantly less NH than surface slurry incorporation. In 2015, at the Kossebau site NH volatilization was significantly lower in the treatments with NI than those with no NI. In both years, N O emissions were between 0.5 kg and 2 kg N O-N ha . In the lysimeter trial, in 2014 significantly higher N O emissions were detected in the unfertilized control than in the fertilized treatments. In the plot trial in Kossebau, in 2015 significantly lower N O emissions were recorded in the row than interrow. These differences are probably due to the uptake of mineral nitrogen by the plants in the row as a starting material for nitrification and denitrification. In Kossebau there were significant correlations between N O emissions and soil temperature. As regards the slurry strip-till method, no significant reduction in N O emissions was observed in comparison to surface slurry incorporation. The influence of the slurry strip-till method on NH and N O emissions depends on annual weather conditions and it cannot generally be regarded as preferable to conventional, surface slurry incorporation.
    Keywords: Greenhouse Gases ; Nitrous Oxide ; Ammonia ; Slurry-Strip-Till ; Lysimeter ; Nitrification Inhibitor ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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