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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 31 May 2016, Vol.113(22), pp.E3091-100
    Description: Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a naturally occurring neurodegenerative disease with similarities to some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Most dogs that develop DM are homozygous for a common superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) mutation. However, not all dogs homozygous for this mutation develop disease. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) breed comparing DM-affected and -unaffected dogs homozygous for the SOD1 mutation. The analysis revealed a modifier locus on canine chromosome 25. A haplotype within the SP110 nuclear body protein (SP110) was present in 40% of affected compared with 4% of unaffected dogs (P = 1.5 × 10(-5)), and was associated with increased probability of developing DM (P = 4.8 × 10(-6)) and earlier onset of disease (P = 1.7 × 10(-5)). SP110 is a nuclear body protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription. Our findings suggest that variations in SP110-mediated gene transcription may underlie, at least in part, the variability in risk for developing DM among PWCs that are homozygous for the disease-related SOD1 mutation. Further studies are warranted to clarify the effect of this modifier across dog breeds.
    Keywords: ALS ; Sod1 ; Sp110 ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ; Degenerative Myelopathy ; Dog Diseases -- Genetics ; Muscular Diseases -- Genetics ; Mutation -- Genetics ; Neurodegenerative Diseases -- Genetics ; Nuclear Proteins -- Genetics ; Spinal Cord Diseases -- Genetics ; Superoxide Dismutase -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Genetics, 2015, Vol. 11(11)
    Description: Canine mast cell tumours (CMCT) are one of the most common skin tumours in dogs with a major impact on canine health. Certain breeds have a higher risk of developing mast cell tumours, suggesting that underlying predisposing germ-line genetic factors play a role in the development of this disease. The genetic risk factors are largely unknown, although somatic mutations in the oncogene C-KIT have been detected in a proportion of CMCT, making CMCT a comparative model for mastocytosis in humans where C-KIT mutations are frequent. We have performed a genome wide association study in golden retrievers from two continents and identified separate regions in the genome associated with risk of CMCT in the two populations. Sequence capture of associated regions and subsequent fine mapping in a larger cohort of dogs identified a SNP associated with development of CMCT in the GNAI2 gene (p = 2.2x10(-16)), introducing an alternative splice form of this gene resulting in a truncated protein. In addition, disease associated haplotypes harbouring the hyaluronidase genes HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 on cfa20 and HYAL4, SPAM1 and HYALP1 on cfa14 were identified as separate risk factors in European and US golden retrievers, respectively, suggesting that turnover of hyaluronan plays an important role in the development of CMCT.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Biological Sciences ; Genetics ; Naturvetenskap ; Biologiska Vetenskaper ; Genetik
    ISSN: 1553-7390
    E-ISSN: 15537404
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Genome Research, 2015, Vol. 25(11), pp. 1634-1645
    Description: Lymphoma is the most common hematological malignancy in developed countries. Outcome is strongly determined by molecular subtype, reflecting a need for new and improved treatment options. Dogs spontaneously develop lymphoma, and the predisposition of certain breeds indicates genetic risk factors. Using the dog breed structure, we selected three lymphoma predisposed breeds developing primarily T-cell (boxer), primarily B-cell (cocker spaniel), and with equal distribution of B- and T-cell lymphoma (golden retriever), respectively. We investigated the somatic mutations in B- and T-cell lymphomas from these breeds by exome sequencing of tumor and normal pairs. Strong similarities were evident between B-cell lymphomas from golden retrievers and cocker spaniels, with recurrent mutations in TRAF3-MAP3K14 (28% of all cases), FBXW7 (25%), and POT1 (17%). The FBXW7 mutations recurrently occur in a specific codon; the corresponding codon is recurrently mutated in human cancer. In contrast, T-cell lymphomas from the predisposed breeds, boxers and golden retrievers, show little overlap in their mutation pattern, sharing only one of their 15 most recurrently mutated genes. Boxers, which develop aggressive T-cell lymphomas, are typically mutated in the PTEN-mTOR pathway. T-cell lymphomas in golden retrievers are often less aggressive, and their tumors typically showed mutations in genes involved in cellular metabolism. We identify genes with known involvement in human lymphoma and leukemia, genes implicated in other human cancers, as well as novel genes that could allow new therapeutic options.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Biological Sciences ; Biochemistry And Molecular Biology ; Naturvetenskap ; Biologiska Vetenskaper ; Biokemi Och Molekylärbiologi ; Medical And Health Sciences ; Clinical Medicine ; Cancer And Oncology ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Klinisk Medicin ; Cancer Och Onkologi
    ISSN: 1088-9051
    E-ISSN: 15495469
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Genetics, 2016, Vol. 12(5)
    Description: Gliomas are the most common form of malignant primary brain tumors in humans and second most common in dogs, occurring with similar frequencies in both species. Dogs are valuable spontaneous models of human complex diseases including cancers and may provide insight into disease susceptibility and oncogenesis. Several brachycephalic breeds such as Boxer, Bulldog and Boston Terrier have an elevated risk of developing glioma, but others, including Pug and Pekingese, are not at higher risk. To identify glioma-associated genetic susceptibility factors, an across-breed genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 39 dog glioma cases and 141 controls from 25 dog breeds, identifying a genome-wide significant locus on canine chromosome (CFA) 26 (p = 2.8 x 10(-8)). Targeted re-sequencing of the 3.4 Mb candidate region was performed, followed by genotyping of the 56 SNVs that best fit the association pattern between the re-sequenced cases and controls. We identified three candidate genes that were highly associated with glioma susceptibility: CAMKK2, P2RX7 and DENR. CAMKK2 showed reduced expression in both canine and human brain tumors, and a non-synonymous variant in P2RX7, previously demonstrated to have a 50% decrease in receptor function, was also associated with disease. Thus, one or more of these genes appear to affect glioma susceptibility.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Biological Sciences ; Genetics ; Naturvetenskap ; Biologiska Vetenskaper ; Genetik
    ISSN: 1553-7390
    E-ISSN: 15537404
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLOS Genetics, 2015, Vol. 11(2)
    Description: Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute similar to 20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6x10(-7) and 2.7x10(-6), respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangio-sarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Biological Sciences ; Genetics ; Naturvetenskap ; Biologiska Vetenskaper ; Genetik
    ISSN: 1553-7390
    E-ISSN: 15537404
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nature Communications, 2017, Vol. 8
    Description: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a severe psychiatric disorder linked to abnormalities in glutamate signaling and the cortico-striatal circuit. We sequenced coding and regulatory elements for 608 genes potentially involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder in human, dog, and mouse. Using a new method that prioritizes likely functional variants, we compared 592 cases to 560 controls and found four strongly associated genes, validated in a larger cohort. NRXN1 and HTR2A are enriched for coding variants altering postsynaptic protein-binding domains. CTTNBP2 (synapse maintenance) and REEP3 (vesicle trafficking) are enriched for regulatory variants, of which at least six (35%) alter transcription factor-DNA binding in neuroblastoma cells. NRXN1 achieves genome-wide significance (p = 6.37 x 10(-11)) when we include 33,370 population-matched controls. Our findings suggest synaptic adhesion as a key component in compulsive behaviors, and show that targeted sequencing plus functional annotation can identify potentially causative variants, even when genomic data are limited.
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Basic Medicine ; Medical Genetics ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Medicinska Och Farmaceutiska Grundvetenskaper ; Medicinsk Genetik
    ISSN: 2041-1723
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Genetics 11(11), - (2015)
    Description: Canine mast cell tumours (CMCT) are one of the most common skin tumours in dogs with a major impact on canine health. Certain breeds have a higher risk of developing mast cell tumours, suggesting that underlying predisposing germ-line genetic factors play a role in the development of this disease. The genetic risk factors are largely unknown, although somatic mutations in the oncogene C-KIT have been detected in a proportion of CMCT, making CMCT a comparative model for mastocytosis in humans where C-KIT mutations are frequent. We have performed a genome wide association study in golden retrievers from two continents and identified separate regions in the genome associated with risk of CMCT in the two populations. Sequence capture of associated regions and subsequent fine mapping in a larger cohort of dogs identified a SNP associated with development of CMCT in the GNAI2 gene (p = 2.2x10-16), introducing an alternative splice form of this gene resulting in a truncated protein. In addition, disease associated haplotypes harbouring the hyaluronidase genes HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 on cfa20 and HYAL4, SPAM1 and HYALP1 on cfa14 were identified as separate risk factors in European and US golden retrievers, respectively, suggesting that turnover of hyaluronan plays an important role in the development of CMCT.
    Keywords: Alternative Splicing ; Animals ; Dog Diseases ; Dogs ; Gtp-Binding Protein Alpha Subunit, Gi2 ; Genetic Predisposition To Disease ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Germ-Line Mutation ; Mastocytoma ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Source: Utrecht University
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Keywords: Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; Neuroscience Center Zurich ; Center for Integrative Human Physiology ; 610 Medicine & health
    Source: University of Zurich
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Genetics, 2019, Vol. 15(3)
    Description: Mast cell tumours are the most common type of skin cancer in dogs, representing a significant concern in canine health. The molecular pathogenesis is largely unknown, but breed-predisposition for mast cell tumour development suggests the involvement of inherited genetic risk factors in some breeds. In this study, we aimed to identify germline risk factors associated with the development of mast cell tumours in Labrador Retrievers, a breed with an elevated risk of mast cell tumour development. Using a methodological approach that combined a genome-wide association study, targeted next generation sequencing, and TaqMan genotyping, we identified a synonymous variant in the DSCAM gene on canine chromosome 31 that is associated with mast cell tumours in Labrador Retrievers. DSCAM encodes a cell-adhesion molecule. We showed that the variant has no effect on the DSCAM mRNA level but is associated with a significant reduction in the level of the DSCAM protein, suggesting that the variant affects the dynamics of DSCAM mRNA translation. Furthermore, we showed that the variant is also associated with mast cell tumours in Golden Retrievers, a breed that is closely related to Labrador Retrievers and that also has a predilection for mast cell tumour development. The variant is common in both Labradors and Golden Retrievers and consequently is likely to be a significant genetic contributor to the increased susceptibility of both breeds to develop mast cell tumours. The results presented here not only represent an important contribution to the understanding of mast cell tumour development in dogs, as they highlight the role of cell adhesion in mast cell tumour tumourigenesis, but they also emphasise the potential importance of the effects of synonymous variants in complex diseases such as cancer. Author summary The combination of various genetic and environmental risk factors makes the understanding of the molecular circuitry behind complex diseases, like cancer, a major challenge. The homogeneous nature of pedigree dog breed genomes makes these dogs ideal for the identification of both simple disease-causing genetic variants and genetic risk factors for complex diseases. Mast cell tumours are the most common type of canine skin cancer, and one of the most common cancers affecting dogs of most breeds. Several breeds, including Labrador Retrievers (which represent one of the most popular dog breeds), have an elevated risk of mast cell tumour development. Here, by using a methodological approach that combined different techniques, we identified a common inherited synonymous variant, that predisposes Labrador Retrievers to mast cell tumour development. Interestingly, we showed that this variant, despite its synonymous nature, appears to have an effect on translation dynamics as it is associated with reduced levels of DSCAM, a cell adhesion molecule. The results presented here reveal dysregulation of cell adhesion to be an important factor in mast cell tumour pathogenesis, and also highlight the important role that synonymous variants can play in complex diseases.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Biological Sciences ; Immunology ; Naturvetenskap ; Biologiska Vetenskaper ; Immunologi
    ISSN: 1553-7390
    E-ISSN: 15537404
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Genes, 2019, Vol. 10(6)
    Description: Dogs are an unparalleled natural model for investigating the genetics of health and disease, particularly for complex diseases like cancer. Comprehensive genomic annotation of regulatory elements active in healthy canine tissues is crucial both for identifying candidate causal variants and for designing functional studies needed to translate genetic associations into disease insight. Currently, canine geneticists rely primarily on annotations of the human or mouse genome that have been remapped to dog, an approach that misses dog-specific features. Here, we describe BarkBase, a canine epigenomic resource available at barkbase.org. BarkBase hosts data for 27 adult tissue types, with biological replicates, and for one sample of up to five tissues sampled at each of four carefully staged embryonic time points. RNA sequencing is complemented with whole genome sequencing and with assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq), which identifies open chromatin regions. By including replicates, we can more confidently discern tissue-specific transcripts and assess differential gene expression between tissues and timepoints. By offering data in easy-to-use file formats, through a visual browser modeled on similar genomic resources for human, BarkBase introduces a powerful new resource to support comparative studies in dogs and humans.
    Keywords: Dog ; Expression ; Genome ; Annotation ; Atac-Seq ; Rna-Seq ; Epigenomic ; Canine ; Comparative ; Natural Sciences ; Biological Sciences ; Genetics ; Naturvetenskap ; Biologiska Vetenskaper ; Genetik
    ISSN: 2073-4425
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