Atmospheric Environment, 2014, Vol.84, p.35(4)
To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.11.037 Byline: Jan Reent Koster, Klaus Dittert, Karl-Hermann Muhling, Henning Kage, Andreas Pacholski Abstract: Anaerobic digestates (AD) from biogas production are applied to agricultural land as organic fertilizers, but pose an ammonia (NH.sub.3) emission source. However, data about NH.sub.3 emissions of cold season AD land spreading is still lacking. Therefore, in the present study NH.sub.3 emissions of AD application under winter conditions were determined. AD was applied via trail hoses to a field plot of 27 ha in Northern Germany during the winter with temperatures around the freezing point and partly frozen soil. NH.sub.4.sup.+ N application rate was, including a preceding urea application, 123 kg NH.sub.4.sup.+ and urea N ha.sup.-1. The NH.sub.3 volatilization was monitored using Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy in combination with a micrometeorological transport model. Cumulative NH.sub.3 volatilization during the six day measurements was 17.5 kg NH.sub.3 N ha.sup.-1 which corresponds to 33.1% of the NH.sub.4.sup.+ N in applied AD. This NH.sub.3 loss is relatively high for low temperature conditions and was most likely caused by the frozen soil restricting AD infiltration. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Kiel University, Hermann-Rodewald-Str. 2, 24118 Kiel, Germany (b) Department of Crop Science, Section of Plant Nutrition and Crop Physiology, University of Goettingen, Carl-Sprengel-Weg 1, 37075 Goettingen, Germany (c) Agronomy and Crop Science, Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Kiel University, Hermann-Rodewald-Stra[sz]e 9, 24118 Kiel, Germany (d) Graduate School/Inkubator, Leuphana University Luneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Luneburg, Germany Article History: Received 1 August 2013; Revised 11 November 2013; Accepted 14 November 2013
Biogas – Analysis ; Biogas – Environmental Aspects ; Biomass Energy – Analysis ; Biomass Energy – Environmental Aspects ; Ammonia – Analysis ; Ammonia – Environmental Aspects ; Urea – Analysis ; Urea – Environmental Aspects ; Organic Fertilizers – Analysis ; Organic Fertilizers – Environmental Aspects
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