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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, 2015, Vol.117, p.193(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.06.007 Byline: Norbert Roder, Martin Henseler, Horst Liebersbach, Peter Kreins, Bernhard Osterburg Abstract: Agricultural production contributes 11% to the total German greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We compare the efficiency of three different land use based GHG abatement measures in combination and as separately applied measures: the production of short rotation coppices, of feedstocks for biomethane production, and peatland restoration. We evaluate these options with respect to the following criteria: cost efficiency (GHG abatement costs), abatement potential, and impact on agricultural production. We use the regional supply model RAUMIS to investigate the different abatement measures at the sector and regional level. Up to a reduction of GHG emission of 25*10.sup.12 g CO.sub.2eq peatland restoration is the most cost efficient option. Short rotation coppice allow some cost-efficient mitigation also only at limited scale. Energy maize is only an option if high abatement targets should be met. The joint implementation of several abatement strategies allows meeting specified targets at lower costs. The crowding out effect between the options is limited. The spatial analysis indicates measure specific regional competitiveness and application e.g. short rotation coppice in Eastern and Southern Germany, peat restoration in Northern Germany and energy maize production in central Germany. Article History: Received 28 October 2014; Revised 28 April 2015; Accepted 7 June 2015
    Keywords: Peat – Analysis ; Land Use – Analysis ; Greenhouse Gases – Analysis ; Air Pollution – Analysis ; Land Use Controls – Analysis
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science, Sept 28, 2012, Vol.337(6102), p.1684(5)
    Description: ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-[alpha]/beta]-inducible, ubiquitin-like intracellular protein. Its conjugation to various proteins (ISGylation) contributes to antiviral immunity in mice. Here, we describe human patients with inherited ISG15 deficiency and mycobacterial, but not viral, diseases. The lack of intraceilular ISG15 production and protein ISGylation was not associated with cellular susceptibility to any viruses that we tested, consistent with the lack of viral diseases in these patients. By contrast, the lack of mycobacterium-induced ISG15 secretion by leukocytes--granulocyte, in particular--reduced the production of IFN-[gamma] by lymphocytes, including natural killer cells, probably accounting for the enhanced susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. This experiment of nature shows that human ISGylation is largely redundant for antiviral immunity, but that ISG15 plays an essential role as an IFN-[gamma]--inducing secreted molecule for optimal antimycobacterial immunity. 10.1126/science.1224026
    Keywords: Protein Deficiency -- Observations ; Disease Susceptibility -- Research ; Interferon -- Properties
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecological economics : the transdisciplinary journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics, 2015, pp. 193-202
    ISSN: 09218009
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, September 2015, Vol.117, pp.193-202
    Description: Agricultural production contributes 11% to the total German greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We compare the efficiency of three different land use based GHG abatement measures in combination and as separately applied measures: the production of short rotation coppices, of feedstocks for biomethane production, and peatland restoration. We evaluate these options with respect to the following criteria: cost efficiency (GHG abatement costs), abatement potential, and impact on agricultural production. We use the regional supply model RAUMIS to investigate the different abatement measures at the sector and regional level. Up to a reduction of GHG emission of 25 ∗ 10 g CO peatland restoration is the most cost efficient option. Short rotation coppice allow some cost-efficient mitigation also only at limited scale. Energy maize is only an option if high abatement targets should be met. The joint implementation of several abatement strategies allows meeting specified targets at lower costs. The crowding out effect between the options is limited. The spatial analysis indicates measure specific regional competitiveness and application e.g. short rotation coppice in Eastern and Southern Germany, peat restoration in Northern Germany and energy maize production in central Germany.
    Keywords: Agricultural Production ; Regional Supply Model ; Agro-Economic Model ; Peatland Restoration ; Bioenergy ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology ; Economics
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    E-ISSN: 1873-6106
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Regional Environmental Change, 2011, Vol.11(3), pp.663-678
    Description: Agricultural land use has shifted towards more intensified production because the prices of agricultural products have increased during the past years. Just a few years ago, voluntary area set-aside was a lucrative alternative in some regions. But nowadays, land is re-cultivated again, inter alia with biomass crops. Consequently, this affects the soil and nutrient balances in agriculture. The global changes on the world markets influence agricultural production and thus the water cycle at the regional scale. In this paper, the regional developments and policy alternatives are discussed for the Elbe River Basin. The paper concludes that on average, no substantial effects of nitrogen surpluses are expected for the Elbe River Basin due to a continuing decline in animal herds. However, at the county level, nitrogen surpluses are likely to exceed the maximum threshold of 60 kg nitrogen per hectare (stipulated in the German Fertiliser Regulation) due to regional concentrations of animal production. A halving of the threshold to 30 kg per hectare shows that the marginal costs of nitrogen surplus reduction regionally exceeded 10 Euros per kilogram nitrogen.
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Land use ; Global change ; Agricultural sector model ; Nitrogen surplus
    ISSN: 1436-3798
    E-ISSN: 1436-378X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Pediatrics, June 2012, Vol.160(6), pp.1055-1057
    Description: We describe a Turkish patient with tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency who suffered from disseminated Bacille Calmette-Guerin infection, neurobrucellosis, and cutaneous herpes zoster infection. Tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency should be considered in patients susceptible to herpes viruses and intramacrophage pathogens even in the absence of atopy, high serum IgE, and staphylococcal disease.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3476
    E-ISSN: 1097-6833
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biomass and Bioenergy, 2015, Vol.81, p.592(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.08.007 Byline: Martin Henseler, Norbert Roder, Horst Liebersbach, Peter Kreins, Bernhard Osterburg Abstract: In Northern and Central Europe, short-rotation coppices (SRC) have become a profitable agricultural production alternative, particularly for marginal fields with suitable groundwater levels. Furthermore, the replacement of fossil fuels by the wood chips produced in SRC contributes to the mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Due to heterogeneous regional production conditions, the impacts on the economy, production and GHG mitigation are expected to vary widely by region. Several studies investigate the specific agronomic, environmental and economic aspects of SRC. However, only a few studies present a concise analysis of more than one or all of these aspects or evaluate SRC as a mitigation strategy. This study complements the existing literature by estimating the mitigation potential from SRC in Germany. It presents an integrated modeling approach that considers agronomic and economic aspects and investigates the mitigation potential and the abatement cost efficiency arising from abatement-based payments. The simulation of different payment scenarios indicates that SRC could mitigate up to 15% of the German agricultural sector's GHG emissions. The integrated model approach links a site model and the agro-economic model RAUMIS and can be regarded as a fruitful development for addressing SRC-related research questions as well as a promising base for further work. Author Affiliation: (a) Thunen Institute of Rural Studies, Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Brunswick, Germany (b) EDEHN -- Equipe d'Economie Le Havre Normandie, Universite du Havre, 25 Rue Philippe Lebon, F-76600 Le Havre, France Article History: Received 16 January 2015; Revised 4 August 2015; Accepted 4 August 2015
    Keywords: Groundwater – Analysis ; Fossil Fuels – Analysis ; Greenhouse Gases – Analysis ; Air Pollution – Analysis
    ISSN: 0961-9534
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, 19 August 2015
    Description: Tuberculosis (TB) in children can be challenging to diagnose with microbiological certainty. Younger children are unable to expectorate sputum and the bacillary load is frequently low; few children with a clinical diagnosis of pulmonary TB have this confirmed microbiologically. Similarly, confirmation of extra-pulmonary TB, using other samples, can be difficult.1
    Keywords: Infectious Diseases ; Paediatric Practice
    ISSN: 0003-9888
    ISSN: 00039888
    E-ISSN: 1468-2044
    E-ISSN: 14682044
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 28 September 2012, Vol.337(6102), pp.1684-8
    Description: ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-α/β-inducible, ubiquitin-like intracellular protein. Its conjugation to various proteins (ISGylation) contributes to antiviral immunity in mice. Here, we describe human patients with inherited ISG15 deficiency and mycobacterial, but not viral, diseases. The lack of intracellular ISG15 production and protein ISGylation was not associated with cellular susceptibility to any viruses that we tested, consistent with the lack of viral diseases in these patients. By contrast, the lack of mycobacterium-induced ISG15 secretion by leukocytes-granulocyte, in particular-reduced the production of IFN-γ by lymphocytes, including natural killer cells, probably accounting for the enhanced susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. This experiment of nature shows that human ISGylation is largely redundant for antiviral immunity, but that ISG15 plays an essential role as an IFN-γ-inducing secreted molecule for optimal antimycobacterial immunity.
    Keywords: Cytokines -- Immunology ; Interferon-Gamma -- Immunology ; Mycobacterium Infections -- Immunology ; Ubiquitins -- Immunology ; Virus Diseases -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Water Resources Management, 2015, Vol.29(10), pp.3585-3600
    Description: Climate change is expected to impact agricultural production conditions and groundwater resources. The climate change impacts are expected to be of particular importance for the German region North Rhine-Westphalia. Due to a high population density and intensive partial irrigation of agricultural production, future resource conflicts for groundwater are expected. An integrated model framework consisting of climate, crop-soils and groundwater models represents the regional heterogeneous climatic, geographic and agronomic conditions. The integrated model framework simulates the irrigation demand and groundwater recharge. An ex-post comparison between the simulated reference period (1961 to 1990) and statistical data prove a good model validity. The climate change scenario for the future period 2051 to 2080 assumes decreasing precipitation and increasing transpiration. The simulated total irrigation demand increases by nearly 20 times compared to the reference period (1961 to 1990) and increases regionally to more than 40 mm/ha. Decreasing groundwater recharge results in a tenfold increased share of irrigation water from groundwater. This share accounts regionally for more than 30 %. The results indicate important impacts for both agricultural production and other groundwater users.
    Keywords: Climate change ; Irrigation ; Groundwater ; Integrated modelling ; Regional modelling ; Agricultural production
    ISSN: 0920-4741
    E-ISSN: 1573-1650
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