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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(4), p.e18577
    Description: H5N1 influenza vaccines, including live intranasal, appear to be relatively less immunogenic compared to seasonal analogs. The main influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) was shown to be more susceptible to acidic pH treatment than that of human or low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The acidification machinery of the human nasal passageway in response to different irritation factors starts to release protons acidifying the mucosal surface (down to pH of 5.2). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of H5 HA to the acidic environment might be the reason for the low infectivity and immunogenicity of intranasal H5N1 vaccines for mammals. ; We demonstrate that original human influenza viruses infect primary human nasal epithelial cells at acidic pH (down to 5.4), whereas H5N1 HPAIVs lose infectivity at pH≤5.6. The HA of A/Vietnam/1203/04 was modified by introducing the single substitution HA2 58K→I, decreasing the pH of the HA conformational change. The H5N1 reassortants containing the indicated mutation displayed an increased resistance to acidic pH and high temperature treatment compared to those lacking modification. The mutation ensured a higher viral uptake as shown by immunohistochemistry in the respiratory tract of mice and 25 times lower mouse infectious dose. Moreover, the reassortants keeping 58K→I mutation designed as a live attenuated vaccine candidate lacking an NS1 gene induced superior systemic and local antibody response after the intranasal immunization of mice. ; Our finding suggests that an efficient intranasal vaccination with a live attenuated H5N1 virus may require a certain level of pH and temperature stability of HA in order to achieve an optimal virus uptake by the nasal epithelial cells and induce a sufficient immune response. The pH of the activation of the H5 HA protein may play a substantial role in the infectivity of HPAIVs for mammals.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Immunology ; Infectious Diseases
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 27 April 2011, Vol.29(19), pp.3517-3524
    Description: The isolation and cultivation of human influenza viruses in embryonated hen eggs or cell lines often leads to amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin (HA) molecule. We found that the propagation of influenza A H3N2 viruses on Vero cells may trigger the appearance of HA destabilising mutations, affecting viral resistance to low pH or high temperature treatment. Two ΔNS1 reassortants, containing the HA sequences identical to the original human H3N2 influenza virus isolates were constructed. Passages of these viruses on Vero cells led to the appearance of single mutations in the HA L194P or HA G75R subunits that impaired virus stability. The original HA sequences and the stable phenotypes of the primary isolates were preserved if reassortants were passaged by infection at pH 5.6 and cultivation in medium at pH 6.5. Corresponding ΔNS1 reassortants were compared for their immunogenicity in ferrets upon intranasal immunisation. Vaccine candidates containing HA mutations demonstrated significantly lower immunogenicity compared to those without mutations. Thus, the retaining of the original HA sequences of human viruses during vaccine production might be crucial for the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccines.
    Keywords: Influenza A Virus ; Ns1 Deletion ; Vero Cells ; Mutation in Ha ; Ha Stability ; Immunogenicity ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Virology, 2011, Vol. 85(21), p.11139
    Description: In general, antibiotics are not rated as substances that inhibit or support influenza virus replication. We describe here the enhancing effect of the polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) on influenza virus growth in Vero cells. We show that isolation rates of influenza A and B viruses from clinical samples can be dramatically enhanced by adding AmB to the culture medium. We demonstrate that AmB promotes the viral uptake and endocytic processing of the virus particles. This effect is specific for Vero and human nasal epithelial cells and was not observed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The effect of AmB was subtype specific and more prominent for human seasonal influenza strains but absent for H5N1 human viruses. The AmB-enhancing effect seemed to be solely due to the viral hemagglutinin function. Our results indicate that the use of AmB may facilitate influenza virus isolation and production in Vero cells.
    Keywords: Amphotericin B -- Metabolism; Antifungal Agents -- Metabolism; Influenza A Virus -- Drug Effects; Influenza B Virus -- Growth & Development; Virus Replication -- Drug Effects; Virus Replication -- Growth & Development; Virus Replication -- Drug Effects;
    ISSN: 1098-5514
    ISSN: 10985514
    ISSN: 0022538X
    Source: American Society of Microbiology
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, November 2011, Vol.85(21), pp.11139-45
    Description: In general, antibiotics are not rated as substances that inhibit or support influenza virus replication. We describe here the enhancing effect of the polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) on influenza virus growth in Vero cells. We show that isolation rates of influenza A and B viruses from clinical samples can be dramatically enhanced by adding AmB to the culture medium. We demonstrate that AmB promotes the viral uptake and endocytic processing of the virus particles. This effect is specific for Vero and human nasal epithelial cells and was not observed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The effect of AmB was subtype specific and more prominent for human seasonal influenza strains but absent for H5N1 human viruses. The AmB-enhancing effect seemed to be solely due to the viral hemagglutinin function. Our results indicate that the use of AmB may facilitate influenza virus isolation and production in Vero cells.
    Keywords: Amphotericin B -- Metabolism ; Antifungal Agents -- Metabolism ; Influenza A Virus -- Drug Effects ; Influenza B Virus -- Drug Effects ; Virus Replication -- Drug Effects
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2009, Vol.4(6), p.e5984
    Description: We developed a novel intranasal influenza vaccine approach that is based on the construction of replication-deficient vaccine viruses that lack the entire NS1 gene (ΔNS1 virus). We previously showed that these viruses undergo abortive replication in the respiratory tract of animals. The local release of type I interferons and other cytokines and chemokines in the upper respiratory tract may have a “self-adjuvant effect”, in turn increasing vaccine immunogenicity. As a result, ΔNS1 viruses elicit strong B- and T- cell mediated immune responses. ; We applied this technology to the development of a pandemic H5N1 vaccine candidate. The vaccine virus was constructed by reverse genetics in Vero cells, as a 5∶3 reassortant, encoding four proteins HA, NA, M1, and M2 of the A/Vietnam/1203/04 virus while the remaining genes were derived from IVR-116. The HA cleavage site was modified in a trypsin dependent manner, serving as the second attenuation factor in addition to the deleted NS1 gene. The vaccine candidate was able to grow in the Vero cells that were cultivated in a serum free medium to titers exceeding 8 log TCIDml. The vaccine virus was replication deficient in interferon competent cells and did not lead to viral shedding in the vaccinated animals. The studies performed in three animal models confirmed the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. Intranasal immunization protected ferrets and mice from being infected with influenza H5 viruses of different clades. In a primate model (), one dose of vaccine delivered intranasally was sufficient for the induction of antibodies against homologous A/Vietnam/1203/04 and heterologous A/Indonesia/5/05 H5N1 strains. ; Our findings show that intranasal immunization with the replication deficient H5N1 ΔNS1 vaccine candidate is sufficient to induce a protective immune response against H5N1 viruses. This approach might be attractive as an alternative to conventional influenza vaccines. Clinical evaluation of ΔNS1 pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccine candidates are currently in progress.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Immunology -- Immunity To Infections ; Microbiology -- Immunity To Infections ; Virology -- Vaccines ; Infectious Diseases -- Respiratory Infections ; Infectious Diseases -- Viral Infections
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2017, Vol.74(10), pp.1907-1921
    Description: Retraction of mesenchymal stromal cells supports the invasion of colorectal cancer cells (CRC) into the adjacent compartment. CRC-secreted 12(S)-HETE enhances the retraction of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and therefore, 12(S)-HETE may enforce invasivity of CRC. Understanding the mechanisms of metastatic CRC is crucial for successful intervention. Therefore, we studied pro-invasive contributions of stromal cells in physiologically relevant three-dimensional in vitro assays consisting of CRC spheroids, CAFs, extracellular matrix and endothelial cells, as well as in reductionist models. In order to elucidate how CAFs support CRC invasion, tumour spheroid-induced CAF retraction and free intracellular Ca 2+ levels were measured and pharmacological- or siRNA-based inhibition of selected signalling cascades was performed. CRC spheroids caused the retraction of CAFs, generating entry gates in the adjacent surrogate stroma. The responsible trigger factor 12(S)-HETE provoked a signal, which was transduced by PLC, IP3, free intracellular Ca 2+ , Ca 2+ -calmodulin-kinase-II, RHO/ROCK and MYLK which led to the activation of myosin light chain 2, and subsequent CAF mobility. RHO activity was observed downstream as well as upstream of Ca 2+ release. Thus, Ca 2+ signalling served as central signal amplifier. Treatment with the FDA-approved drugs carbamazepine, cinnarizine, nifedipine and bepridil HCl, which reportedly interfere with cellular calcium availability, inhibited CAF-retraction. The elucidation of signalling pathways and identification of approved inhibitory drugs warrant development of intervention strategies targeting tumour–stroma interaction.
    Keywords: 3D invasion model ; Tumour progression ; ECM ; Arachidonic acid metabolite ; Signal transduction
    ISSN: 1420-682X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9071
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Oncology, Vol.50(5), pp.1879-1888
    Description: Lymph node metastasis of breast cancer is a clinical marker of poor prognosis. Yet, there exist no therapies targeting mechanisms of intravasation into lymphatics. Herein we report on an effect of the antidyslipidemic drug fenofibrate with vasoprotective activity, which attenuates breast cancer intravasation in vitro , and describe the potential mechanisms. To measure intravasation in a 3-dimensional co-culture model MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 breast cancer spheroids were placed on immortalised lymphendothelial cell (LEC) monolayers. This provokes the formation of circular chemorepellent induced defects (CCIDs) in the LEC barrier resembling entry ports for the intravasating tumour. Furthermore, the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, CD31 and FAK was investigated in LECs by western blotting as well as cell-cell adhesion and NF-κB activity by respective assays. In MDA-MB231 cells the activity of CYP1A1 was measured by EROD assay. Fenofibrate inhibited CCID formation in the MDA-MB231/LEC- and MCF-7/LEC models and the activity of NF-κB, which in turn downregulated ICAM-1 in LECs and the adhesion of cancer cells to LECs. Furthermore, CD31 and the activity of FAK were inhibited. In MDA-MB231 cells, fenofibrate attenuated CYP1A1 activity. Combinations with other FDA-approved drugs, which reportedly inhibit different ion channels, attenuated CCID formation additively or synergistically. In summary, fenofibrate inhibited NF-κB and ICAM-1, and inactivated FAK, thereby attenuating tumour intravasation in vitro . A combination with other FDA-approved drugs further improved this effect. Our new concept may lead to a novel therapy for cancer patients.
    Keywords: Fenofibrate ; Adhesion ; Icam-1 ; Fak ; Breast Cancer Intravasation ; 3d-Model
    ISSN: 1019-6439
    E-ISSN: 1791-2423
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Minerals, June 2018, Vol.8(6), p.234
    Description: Danburite is a calcium borosilicate that forms within the transition zones of metacarbonates and pegmatites as a late magmatic accessory mineral. We present here trace element contents obtained by femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-mass spectrometry for danburite...
    Keywords: Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Geochemistry ; Pegmatites ; Skarn ; Danburite ; Trace Elements ; Ree Femtosecond La-Icp-MS ; Chns Elemental Analyzer ; Geology
    ISSN: 2075-163X
    E-ISSN: 2075-163X
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  • 9
    Book
    Book
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science
    Description: Intro -- Preface -- Organization -- Table of Contents -- Cognitive Models -- Using a Parameterized Memory Model to Modulate NPC AI -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Related Work -- 3 MemorySystem -- 3.1 Memory Representation -- 3.2 Sensory Memory -- 3.3 Working Memory -- 3.4 Long-term Memory -- 4 Example and Analysis...
    Keywords: Computer Science ; Artificial Intelligence (Incl. Robotics) ; User Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction ; Simulation and Modeling ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642404146
    ISBN: 3642404146
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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