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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, August, 2014, Vol.109, p.101(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.082 Byline: Claudia Lange, Bertram Kuch, Jorg W. Metzger Abstract: acents Identification of estrogen active ingredients of personal care products (deodorants). acents Investigation of different dispenser types of deodorants using a bioassay. acents Activity of sprays was higher than that of roll-ons and sticks. acents Estrogenic activities of fragrances are comparable to known endocrine disruptors. Article History: Received 14 August 2013; Revised 21 February 2014; Accepted 23 February 2014 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Handling Editor: A. Gies
    Keywords: Endocrine Disruptors ; Estrogens ; Deodorants (Toiletries) ; Toiletries Industry
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 January 2016, Vol.540, pp.444-454
    Description: Increasing numbers of organic micropollutants are emitted into rivers via municipal wastewaters. Due to their persistence many pollutants pass wastewater treatment plants without substantial removal. Transport and fate of pollutants in receiving waters and export to downstream ecosystems is not well understood. In particular, a better knowledge of processes governing their environmental behavior is needed. Although a lot of data are available concerning the ubiquitous presence of micropollutants in rivers, accurate data on transport and removal rates are lacking. In this paper, a mass balance approach is presented, which is based on the Lagrangian sampling scheme, but extended to account for precise transport velocities and mixing along river stretches. The calculated mass balances allow accurate quantification of pollutants' reactivity along river segments. This is demonstrated for representative members of important groups of micropollutants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, musk fragrances, flame retardants, and pesticides. A model-aided analysis of the measured data series gives insight into the temporal dynamics of removal processes. The occurrence of different removal mechanisms such as photooxidation, microbial degradation, and volatilization is discussed. The results demonstrate, that removal processes are highly variable in time and space and this has to be considered for future studies. The high precision sampling scheme presented could be a powerful tool for quantifying removal processes under different boundary conditions and in river segments with contrasting properties.
    Keywords: Micropollutants ; River Segments ; Mass Balances ; Removal Processes ; Diurnal Patterns ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, Jan, 2013, Vol.172, p.155(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.09.004 Byline: Marc Schwientek (a), Hermann Rugner (a), Barbara Beckingham (b), Bertram Kuch (c), Peter Grathwohl (a)(b) Abstract: Water quality of rivers depends often on the degree of urbanization and the population density in the catchment. This study shows results of a monitoring campaign of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and suspended particles in water samples in adjacent catchments in Southern Germany with similar geology and climate but different degrees of urbanization. Defined linear relationships between total concentrations of PAHs in water and the amount of suspended solids were obtained indicating predominance of particle-facilitated transport. The slopes of these regressions correspond to the average contamination of suspended particles (C.sub.sus) and thus comprise a very robust measure of sediment pollution in a river. For the first time, we can show that C.sub.sus is distinct in the different catchments and correlates to the degree of urbanization represented by the number of inhabitants per total flux of suspended particles. Author Affiliation: (a) Water & Earth System Science (WESS) Competence Cluster, Keplerstr. 17, 72074 Tubingen, Germany (b) Center of Applied Geoscience, Eberhard Karls University of Tubingen, Holderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tubingen, Germany (c) Institute of Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management, University of Stuttgart, Bandtale 2, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany Article History: Received 7 June 2012; Revised 24 August 2012; Accepted 8 September 2012
    Keywords: Rivers ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Jan 23, 2015, Vol.282, p.34(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.06.027 Byline: Claudia Lange, Bertram Kuch, Jorg W. Metzger Abstract: * Investigation of synthetic musks in water samples and fishes in a small catchment. * Effects can be observed better in small water bodies (e.g. source characterization). * Combined sewer overflow cause episodic and highly dynamic concentration peaks. * Degradation of HHCB depends on the water temperature. * Fishes are suitable indicators of bioaccumulative substance entry in surface waters. Author Affiliation: Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management, University of Stuttgart, Chair of Hydrochemistry and Hydrobiology in Sanitary Engineering, Bandtale 2, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany Article History: Received 11 December 2013; Revised 3 June 2014; Accepted 6 June 2014
    Keywords: Water Resource Management
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, August 2014, Vol.108, pp.101-106
    Description: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether different kinds of underarm deodorants commercially available in Germany might contain substances with estrogenic potential which after use enter the aquatic environment wastewater. Twenty five deodorants produced by ten different manufacturers in the form of sprays, roll-ons and sticks were investigated using an -test system (E-Screen assay) for the determination of estrogenic activity based on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Seven out of ten spray deodorant samples showed a quantifiable estrogenic activity. In the case of the sticks and roll-ons it was only one out of six and one out of nine, respectively. The 17β-estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs) of the samples ranged from 0.1 ng g to 9 ng g deodorant. Spray deodorant samples showed the highest activities in the E-Screen assay compared to the stick and roll-on deodorants. In order to identify substances possibly contributing to the observed biological activity the samples were additionally analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained results of this non-target screening led to the selection of 62 single substances present in the deodorants which for their part were analyzed by E-Screen assay. Eight of these single substances, all of them fragrances, showed estrogenic effects with estradiol equivalence factors (EEFs) similar to parabens, a group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters commonly used as preservatives in personal care products, which are known to have a slight estrogenic effect. Thus, these fragrances are obviously responsible to a substantial degree for the observed estrogenic activity of the deodorants.
    Keywords: 17β-Estradiol ; Deodorants ; Endocrine Disruptors ; E-Screen Assay ; Xenoestrogens ; Personal Care Products ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 23 January 2015, Vol.282, pp.34-40
    Description: The polycyclic musks tonalide (acetyl hexamethyltetraline = 1-(3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-6,7-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone, AHTN), galaxolide (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta( )-2-benzopyrane, HHCB) and the degradation product HHCB-lactone were determined in water samples and brown trouts ( ) of the river Ammer, a small catchment in the state of Baden-Württemberg, south-west Germany. The Ammer receives the effluent discharge of two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with 90,000 population equivalents. The wastewater contributes 14% of the total discharge of the river (average 1.0 m /s). Water samples were collected monthly at 12 sampling points from June 2010 to May 2011. Downstream the WWTPs the median concentrations of HHCB, AHTN and HHCB-lactone were 0.26 μg/L, 0.06 μg/L and 1.0 μg/L, respectively. The effluent of the WWTPs was identified as main source of the synthetic musks in the surface water. The ratio of HHCB-lactone/HHCB showed significant seasonal variations indicating the influence of the water temperature on the degradation of HHCB in the surface water. A total of 251 trout was caught in two campaigns in October 2010 at 12 sampling points. The median concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the trouts downstream the WWTPs significantly increased to 10.8 μg/g lipid weight (LW) and 3.7 μg/g LW, respectively.
    Keywords: Bioaccumulation ; Fish ; Musk Fragrances ; Surface Water ; Wastewater Treatment ; Engineering ; Law
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    E-ISSN: 1873-3336
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, June 5, 2014, Vol.9(6)
    Description: Many studies about endocrine pollution in the aquatic environment reveal changes in the reproduction system of biota. We analysed endocrine activities in two rivers in Southern Germany using three approaches: (1) chemical analyses, (2) in vitro bioassays, and (3) in vivo investigations in fish and snails. Chemical analyses were based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. For in vitro analyses of endocrine potentials in water, sediment, and waste water samples, we used the E-screen assay (human breast cancer cells MCF-7) and reporter gene assays (human cell line HeLa-9903 and MDA-kb2). In addition, we performed reproduction tests with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to analyse water and sediment samples. We exposed juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) to water downstream of a wastewater outfall (Schussen River) or to water from a reference site (Argen River) to investigate the vitellogenin production. Furthermore, two feral fish species, chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus), were caught in both rivers to determine their gonadal maturity and the gonadosomatic index. Chemical analyses provided only little information about endocrine active substances, whereas the in vitro assays revealed endocrine potentials in most of the samples. In addition to endocrine potentials, we also observed toxic potentials (E-screen/reproduction test) in waste water samples, which could interfere with and camouflage endocrine effects. The results of our in vivo tests were mostly in line with the results of the in vitro assays and revealed a consistent reproduction-disrupting (reproduction tests) and an occasional endocrine action (vitellogenin levels) in both investigated rivers, with more pronounced effects for the Schussen river (e.g. a lower gonadosomatic index). We were able to show that biological in vitro assays for endocrine potentials in natural stream water reasonably reflect reproduction and endocrine disruption observed in snails and field-exposed fish, respectively.
    Keywords: Trout -- Analysis ; Trout -- Methods ; Chromatography -- Analysis ; Chromatography -- Methods ; Fishes -- Analysis ; Fishes -- Methods ; Aquatic Ecosystems -- Analysis ; Aquatic Ecosystems -- Methods ; Sediments (Geology) -- Analysis ; Sediments (Geology) -- Methods
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric Environment, 2010, Vol.44(31), pp.3823-3832
    Description: This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722–4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM , it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.
    Keywords: Wood-Fired Heating ; Methoxyphenols ; Levoglucosan ; Dehydroabietic Acid ; Wood Smoke Pollution ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    E-ISSN: 1873-2844
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental pollution, 2013, Vol.172, pp.155-162
    Description: Water quality of rivers depends often on the degree of urbanization and the population density in the catchment. This study shows results of a monitoring campaign of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and suspended particles in water samples in adjacent catchments in Southern Germany with similar geology and climate but different degrees of urbanization. Defined linear relationships between total concentrations of PAHs in water and the amount of suspended solids were obtained indicating predominance of particle-facilitated transport. The slopes of these regressions correspond to the average contamination of suspended particles (Cₛᵤₛ) and thus comprise a very robust measure of sediment pollution in a river. For the first time, we can show that Cₛᵤₛ is distinct in the different catchments and correlates to the degree of urbanization represented by the number of inhabitants per total flux of suspended particles. ; p. 155-162.
    Keywords: Geology ; Water Quality ; Sediment Contamination ; Monitoring ; Population Density ; Watersheds ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Rivers ; Urbanization ; Climate
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, January 2013, Vol.172, pp.155-162
    Description: Water quality of rivers depends often on the degree of urbanization and the population density in the catchment. This study shows results of a monitoring campaign of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and suspended particles in water samples in adjacent catchments in Southern Germany with similar geology and climate but different degrees of urbanization. Defined linear relationships between total concentrations of PAHs in water and the amount of suspended solids were obtained indicating predominance of particle-facilitated transport. The slopes of these regressions correspond to the average contamination of suspended particles ( ) and thus comprise a very robust measure of sediment pollution in a river. For the first time, we can show that is distinct in the different catchments and correlates to the degree of urbanization represented by the number of inhabitants per total flux of suspended particles. ► PAHs in water samples show a linear correlation with the total suspended solids. ► PAHs on suspended solids correspond to mean concentrations in sediments sampled. ► Degree of urban pressure per particle flux drives PAH loads on suspended particles. ► Dilution of particle associated pollutants requires “clean background” particles. Particle-facilitated transport of PAHs was found to relate to urban population pressure relative to suspended particle loading in contrasting catchments.
    Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Land Use ; Suspended Solids ; Water Quality ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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