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  • 1
    Language: German
    In: Marketing Review St. Gallen, 2006, Vol.23(2), pp.33-37
    Description: Der folgende Beitrag soll ein Warengruppenverständnis für Handel, Industrie und Wissenschaft, bezogen auf Bio-Produkte, aufbauen und strategische Ansätze zur Optimierung der Bio-Sortimente aufzeigen.
    Keywords: Economics / Management Science ; Marketing ; Business/Management Science, General ; Business;
    ISSN: 1865-6544
    E-ISSN: 1865-7516
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 April 2018, Vol.414, pp.15-27
    Description: More frequent and intensive droughts are projected to affect the vitality of major European tree species. Therefore, it is important to search for alternative, more drought-tolerant species to ensure ecological stability, biodiversity, and productivity of forests in future. Based on their relative abundance at very dry and warm sites, the otherwise rare and little-known, minor broadleaved species like , , , and are thought to be drought-tolerant. However, there is so far only limited scientific evidence to support that notion. Here we quantified the effect of extreme droughts (1947, 1976, and 2003) on radial growth of mature trees of the minor broadleaves in relation to the common companion species and in southwest Germany. Based on tree-ring analyses with a commensurate sample size for such rare species, the ability to resist and recover from drought, as well as the medium-term resilience of mature trees was studied. Likewise, the sensitivity of the species to temperature and precipitation was assessed. Radial growth was positively related to spring and summer precipitation for all species, whereas high summer temperatures led to decreased growth rates for , , and . Whereas appeared to be resistant and resilient in relation to drought, and were also resilient but less resistant to drought stress. A synoptic ranking of the drought tolerance of all tree species suggests that the minor broadleaved tree species are not more drought-tolerant than , except for . We conclude that cultivation of these minor species as well as should be expanded on xerix sites, where reaches its growth limits.
    Keywords: Sorbus ; Acer ; Drought Tolerance ; Resistance ; Resilience ; Climate Sensitivity ; Dendroecology ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2010, Vol.5(8), p.e12179
    Description: Chemoresistance is the principal reason for poor survival and disease recurrence in osteosarcoma patients. Inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase type II (IMPDH2) encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and has been linked to cell growth, differentiation, and malignant transformation. In a previous study we identified IMPDH2 as an independent prognostic factor and observed frequent IMPDH2 overexpression in osteosarcoma patients with poor response to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for direct involvement of IMPDH2 in the development of chemoresistance. ; Stable cell lines overexpressing and knock-down cells were generated using the osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 as parental cell line. Chemosensitivity, proliferation, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins were analyzed by flow cytometry, WST-1-assay, and western blot analysis. Overexpression of in Saos-2 cells induced strong chemoresistance against cisplatin and methotrexate. The observed chemoresistance was mediated at least in part by increased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and XIAP, reduced activation of caspase-9, and, consequently, reduced cleavage of the caspase substrate PARP. Pharmacological inhibition of IMPDH induced a moderate reduction of cell viability and a strong decrease of cell proliferation, but no increase in chemosensitivity. However, chemoresistant -overexpressing cells could be resensitized by RNA interference-mediated downregulation of . ; IMPDH2 is directly involved in the development of chemoresistance in osteosarcoma cells, suggesting that targeting of IMPDH2 by RNAi or more effective pharmacological inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy might be a promising means of overcoming chemoresistance in osteosarcomas with high IMPDH2 expression.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Oncology -- Pediatric Oncology ; Oncology -- Sarcomas ; Pathology -- Molecular Pathology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2013, Vol.27(6), pp.1609-1619
    Description: Sorbus torminalis L. (Crantz) is a rare species in Central European forests with very limited quantitative information on its regeneration and growth dynamics. Since coppicing is no longer practiced in the most parts of Central Europe, it is unclear whether S. torminalis , which has usually a shorter end height than companion species, can persist in high forest systems. Here, we quantified species frequency on three 1 ha sample plots of former oak coppice forest. To determine whether S. torminalis regenerated continuously and how it might compete with oaks, the age of 80 trees was determined, and diameter and height growth were reconstructed for the 20 largest trees by stem analysis. To assess its shade tolerance, photosynthesis was measured for leaves located in high and low light conditions. Dendrochronological data demonstrated that, over the last 80 years, continuous recruitment of S. torminalis occurred. Growth patterns and photosynthesis measurements suggest that S. torminalis is a highly shade-tolerant species. We conclude that abandonment of coppicing in these forests does not threaten the status of S. torminalis , which can persist beneath the canopy of oaks.
    Keywords: Coppice ; Age structure ; Growth ; Light ecology ; Sorbus torminalis ; Wild Service Tree
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 October 2016, Vol.7(10), p.239
    Description: Widespread and economically important European tree species such as Norway spruce, Scots pine, and European beech are projected to be negatively affected by the increasing intensity and frequency of dry and hot conditions in a future climate. Hence, there is an increasing need to investigate...
    Keywords: Acer ; Sorbus ; Regeneration ; Drought Tolerance ; Resistance ; Recovery ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 6
    Language: French
    In: Revue Forestière Française, 2015, Issue 3, p.239
    Description: L’Alisier torminal [Sorbus torminalis L. (Crantz)] quoique rare est relativement présent dans les taillis de chênes d’Europe centrale. Les connaissances sur sa régénération et sa croissance sont peu nombreuses malgré un bois de haute valeur. Le taillis étant actuellement en forte régression, des interrogations se posent vis-à-vis de la persistance de la population de S. torminalis en tant que couvert forestier continu ou de la nécessité du taillis pour préserver l’espèce. Sur trois parcelles expérimentales d’un hectare de taillis de chênes situées en Allemagne, la présence de l’espèce a été quantifiée. L’âge de 62 arbres a été déterminé. La croissance en diamètre et hauteur a été reconstruite par analyses des cernes de croissance sur 20 arbres. Les résultats suggèrent que le taillis favorise l’établissement de S. torminalis et que l’Alisier est extrêmement tolérant à l’ombre et à la compétition. Lors des 80 dernières années, une régénération apparaît continuellement. L’arrêt du taillis ne serait donc pas une menace pour S. torminalis.
    Keywords: Forestry;
    ISSN: 0035-2829
    E-ISSN: 1951-6827
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    In: Synthesis, 2003, Issue 5, pp.0699-0706
    Description: β-Galactosidase from Bacillus circulans (EC 3.2.1.23) catalyses the transfer of galactose units to various glucose and galactose derivatives, forming β1→4 linkages. The synthesis of several biologically relevant tri- and tetrasaccharides {β- d -Gal p -(1→4)-β- d -Gal p -(1→4)-α,β- d -Glc p ( 2 ), β- d -Gal p -(1→4)-α- d -Glc p -(1→4)- d -Glc p -ol/Man p -ol ( 4 ), β- d -Gal p -(1→4)-α- d -Glc p -(1→6)-β- d -Fru f ( 6 ), β- d -Gal p -(1→4)-α- d -Glc p -(1↔2)-β- d -Fru f ( 8 ), β- d -Gal p -(1→4)-α- d -Glc p -(1↔2)-β- d -Fru f -(1↔2)-β- d -Fru f ( 10 ), β- d -Gal p -(1→4)-α- d -Glc p -(1→6)-[α- d -Glc p -(1↔2)]-β- d -Fru f ( 12a ), β- d -Gal p -(1→4)-α- d -Glc p -(1↔2)-[α- d -Glc p -(1→6)]-β- d -Fru f ( 12b ), α- d -Gal p -(1→6)-[β- d -Gal p -(1→4)]-α- d -Glc p -(1↔2)-β- d -Fru f ( 14a ), β- d -Gal p -(1→4)-α- d -Gal p -(1→6)-α- d -Glc p -(1↔2)-β- d -Fru f ( 14b )} has been achieved in 11-59% yields by application of this enzyme.
    Keywords: Transglycosylations ; Β-galactosidase ; Bacillus Circulans ; Enzymes ; Tri- And Tetrasaccharides
    ISSN: 0039-7881
    E-ISSN: 1437-210X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Forest Research, 01 July 2017, Vol.60(1), pp.101-126
    Description: We compared results derived using three different approaches to assess the suitability of common tree species on the Franconian Plateau in southern Germany under projected warmer and drier climate conditions in the period 2061-2080. The study area is currently a relatively warm and dry region...
    Keywords: Broadleaf Forests, Climate Modelling, Dendrochronology, Drought Tolerance, Ecological Niche, Ellenberg Indicator Values ; Forestry
    ISSN: 1844-8135
    E-ISSN: 2065-2445
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  • 9
    In: Journal of Neurochemistry, June 1994, Vol.62(6), pp.2375-2386
    Description: Although ample evidence has been accumulated on the structure and functional role of endothelial cells in blood‐brain barrier mechanisms, little is known about the contribution that cerebral pericytes provide to this phenomenon. We have reported recently on a monoclonal antibody specific for cerebral pericytes at blood‐brain barrier sites. To confirm the pericytic localization of this antigen, and in order to elucidate its biochemical identity, we have performed immunocytochemical, biochemical, and molecular biological studies. By immunocytochemistry on the light microscopic as well as electron microscopic level, we provide definite evidence that the 140‐kDa antigen recognized by this monoclonal antibody is confined to cerebral pericytes, whereas endothelial cells are devoid of this antigen. N‐Terminal sequencing of the corresponding immunocrossreacting renal protein revealed that the protein detected by the monoclonal antibody is identical to aminopeptidase N. By means of the reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction, the identity of the 140‐kDa antigen as aminopeptidase N could also be verified for cerebral microvascular cells. Cerebral pericytic aminopeptidase N may be involved in neurotransmitter (enkephalin) metabolism at the blood‐brain interface. By taking into account that brain pericytes have been found to express further plasma membrane‐bound enzymes, these results strongly suggest the contribution of cerebral pericytes in the metabolic concert of the homeo‐static balance regulated by the blood‐brain barrier.
    Keywords: Rat ; Blood‐Brain Barrier ; Pericytes ; Amino ; Peptidase N ; Neuropeptide Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022-3042
    E-ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, 2009, Vol.43(15), pp.1185-1194
    Description: Studies of schizophrenia with functional MRI have shown hyper- and hypoactivations in various brain regions including the prefrontal cortex. Functional anomalies have also been reported in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients. The aim of this study was to examine working memory related brain functions in healthy subjects, schizophrenic patients and unaffected relatives and to determine the influence of psychopathology on these processes. A parametric -back working memory task and functional MRI were used to examine 61 patients with schizophrenia, 11 nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients and a comparison group of 61 healthy subjects. The results indicated increased as well as decreased brain functions in schizophrenic patients compared to the control group depending on the task difficulty and the performance: during the attention task (0-back), which served as control condition, behavioral responses of patients and healthy subjects hardly differed but BOLD responses were considerably enhanced in schizophrenic patients. With increasing task difficulty differences between groups in BOLD responses diminished whereas behavioral deficits of patients increased. The examination of attention-independent working memory-functions (2- vs. 0-back) produced hypoactivations in patients, especially in frontal, temporal and subcortical brain regions. Furthermore, positive symptoms were associated with parietal dysfunctions. Behavioral performance and neural responses of unaffected relatives of schizophrenic patients were intermediate between schizophrenic patients and controls indicating slight brain dysfunctions. In addition, compensatory strategies were demonstrated. These findings suggest that the genetic risk for schizophrenia is accompanied by neural inefficiency which is associated with cognitive deficits, especially in difficult tasks.
    Keywords: Working Memory ; Schizophrenia ; Neural Inefficiency ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3956
    E-ISSN: 1879-1379
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