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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(10), p.e44685
    Description: The western corn rootworm (WCR) is one of the economically most important pests of maize. A better understanding of microbial communities associated with guts and eggs of the WCR is required in order to develop new pest control strategies, and to assess the potential role of the WCR in the dissemination of microorganisms, e.g., mycotoxin-producing fungi. ; Total community (TC) DNA was extracted from maize rhizosphere, WCR eggs, and guts of larvae feeding on maize roots grown in three different soil types. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments, PCR-amplified from TC DNA, were used to investigate the fungal and bacterial communities, respectively. Microorganisms in the WCR gut were not influenced by the soil type. Dominant fungal populations in the gut were affiliated to spp., while was the most abundant bacterial genus. Identical ribosomal sequences from gut and egg samples confirmed a transovarial transmission of sp. Betaproteobacterial DGGE indicated a stable association of sp. with the WCR gut. Dominant egg-associated microorganisms were the bacterium sp. and the fungus ; The soil type-independent composition of the microbial communities in the WCR gut and the dominance of only a few microbial populations suggested either a highly selective environment in the gut lumen or a high abundance of intracellular microorganisms in the gut epithelium. The dominance of species in the guts indicated WCR larvae as vectors of mycotoxin-producing fungi. The stable association of sp. with WCR gut systems and the absence of corresponding sequences in WCR eggs suggested that this bacterium was postnatally acquired from the environment. The present study provided new insights into the microbial communities associated with larval guts and eggs of the WCR. However, their biological role remains to be explored.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Plant Biology ; Microbiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e37288
    Description: Larvae of the Western Corn Rootworm (WCR) feeding on maize roots cause heavy economical losses in the US and in Europe. New or adapted pest management strategies urgently require a better understanding of the multitrophic interaction in the rhizosphere. This study aimed to investigate the effect of WCR root feeding on the microbial communities colonizing the maize rhizosphere. ; In a greenhouse experiment, maize lines KWS13, KWS14, KWS15 and MON88017 were grown in three different soil types in presence and in absence of WCR larvae. Bacterial and fungal community structures were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments, PCR amplified from the total rhizosphere community DNA. DGGE bands with increased intensity were excised from the gel, cloned and sequenced in order to identify specific bacteria responding to WCR larval feeding. DGGE fingerprints showed that the soil type and the maize line influenced the fungal and bacterial communities inhabiting the maize rhizosphere. WCR larval feeding affected the rhiyosphere microbial populations in a soil type and maize line dependent manner. DGGE band sequencing revealed an increased abundance of in the rhizosphere of several maize lines in all soil types upon WCR larval feeding. ; The effects of both rhizosphere and WCR larval feeding seemed to be stronger on bacterial communities than on fungi. Bacterial and fungal community shifts in response to larval feeding were most likely due to changes of root exudation patterns. The increased abundance of suggested that phenolic compounds were released upon WCR wounding.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Genetics And Genomics ; Plant Biology ; Biotechnology ; Ecology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Pest Science, 2010, Vol.83(3), pp.257-264
    Description: The use of entomopathogenic nematodes is one potential non-chemical approach to control the larvae of the invasive western corn rootworm ( Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Europe. This study investigated the efficacy of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), Heterorhabditis megidis Poinar, Jackson and Klein (Rh., Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Rh., Steinernematidae) in reducing D. v. virgifera as a function of soil characteristics. A field experiment was repeated four times in southern Hungary using artificially infested maize plants potted into three different soils. Sleeve gauze cages were used to assess the number of emerging adult D. v. virgifera from the treatments and untreated controls. Results indicate that nematodes have the potential to reduce D. v. virgifera larvae in most soils; however, their efficacy can be higher in maize fields with heavy clay or silty clay soils than in sandy soils, which is in contrast to the common assumption that nematodes perform better in sandy soils than in heavy soils.
    Keywords: Western corn rootworm ; Heterorhabditis bacteriophora ; Heterorhabditis megidis ; Steinernema feltiae ; Inundative biological control ; Soil texture ; Zea mays
    ISSN: 1612-4758
    E-ISSN: 1612-4766
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in microbiology, 2013, Vol.4, pp.357
    Description: The complex interactions among the maize pest Western Corn Rootworm (WCR), Glomus intraradices (GI-recently renamed Rhizophagus intraradices) and the microbial communities in both rhizosphere and endorhiza of maize have been investigated in view of new pest control strategies. In a greenhouse experiment, different maize treatments were established: C (control plants), W (plants inoculated with WCR), G (plants inoculated with GI), GW (plants inoculated with GI and WCR). After 20 days of WCR root feeding, larval fitness was measured. Dominant arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil and maize endorhiza were analyzed by cloning of 18S rRNA gene fragments of AMF, restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. Bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and endorhiza were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments, PCR amplified from total community DNA, respectively. GI reduced significantly WCR larval development and affected the naturally occurring endorhiza AMF and bacteria. WCR root feeding influenced the endorhiza bacteria as well. GI can be used in integrated pest management programs, rendering WCR larvae more susceptible to predation by natural enemies. The mechanisms behind the interaction between GI and WCR remain unknown. However, our data suggested that GI might act indirectly via plant-mediated mechanisms influencing the endorhiza microbial communities.
    Keywords: 16s Rrna Gene ; 18s Rrna Gene Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism ; Glomus Intraradices ; Its ; Western Corn Rootworm ; Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis ; Endorhiza ; Rhizosphere
    ISSN: 1664-302X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Keywords: 570 Biowissenschaften ; Biologie ; Agricultural Sciences ; Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera ; Westlicher Maiswurzelbohrer ; Fusarium Veticillioides ; Bodentyp ; Systemische Besiedlung ; Oberirdische Besiedlung ; Bt Mais ; Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera ; Western Corn Rootworm ; Fusarium Verticillioides ; Maize Cultivar ; Soil Type ; Systemic Colonization ; Aboveground Colonization ; Bt Maize ; 42.60 Zoologie: Allgemeines ; 48.54 Pflanzenpathologie ; Yek 100: Pflanzenpathologie {Acker- Und Pflanzenbau} ; Yek 160: Tierische Schädlinge {Acker- Und Pflanzenbau}
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings. Biological sciences, 27 June 2018, Vol.285(1881)
    Description: Trophically transmitted parasites frequently increase their hosts' risk-taking behaviour, to facilitate transmission to the next host. Whether such elevated risk-taking can spill over to uninfected group members is, however, unknown. To investigate this, we confronted groups of 6 three-spined sticklebacks, , containing 0, 2, 4 or 6 experimentally infected individuals with a simulated bird attack and studied their risk-taking behaviour. As a parasite, we used the tapeworm , which increases the risk-taking of infected sticklebacks, to facilitate transmission to its final host, most often piscivorous birds. Before the attack, infected and uninfected individuals did not differ in their risk-taking. However, after the attack, individuals in groups with only infected members showed lower escape responses and higher risk-taking than individuals from groups with only uninfected members. Importantly, uninfected individuals adjusted their risk-taking behaviour to the number of infected group members, taking more risk with an increasing number of infected group members. Infected individuals, however, did not adjust their risk-taking to the number of uninfected group members. Our results show that behavioural manipulation by parasites does not only affect the infected host, but also uninfected group members, shedding new light on the social dynamics involved in host-parasite interactions.
    Keywords: Gasterosteus Aculeatus ; Schistocephalus Solidus ; Behavioural Manipulation ; Group Behaviour ; Quorum Decision ; Risk-Taking Behaviour ; Host-Parasite Interactions ; Risk-Taking ; Smegmamorpha ; Social Behavior
    ISSN: 09628452
    E-ISSN: 1471-2954
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Kidney International, April 2004, Vol.65(4), pp.1180-1190
    Description: Gene expression of adenosine receptors along the nephron. In view of the multiple effects of adenosine on kidney function, this study aimed to determine the expression of adenosine receptors (AR) along the rat and mouse nephron. For this purpose, we semiquantified mRNA abundance for adenosine A1-, A2A-, A2B-, and A3 receptors by RNAse protection and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the kidney zones and in the different nephron segments of mice and rats. We found very similar expression patterns for rat and mice. For the kidney zones A1-AR mRNA and A2A-AR mRNA abundance displayed a marked difference, with an increase from cortex to the inner medulla. This was not seen for A2B receptors, which showed in general a rather weak expression. Along the nephron, A1-AR was strongly expressed in the thin limbs of Henle and in the collecting duct system and to a lesser extent in the medullary thick ascending limb. A2A-AR mRNA was clearly detected in glomeruli but not in other nephron segments. A2B-AR mRNA was strongly expressed in the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle and in the distal convoluted tubule. A3-AR mRNA was not found in any nephron segment. Our data demonstrate a distinct mutual expression of the AR subtypes along the nephron. A1 receptors are expressed in medullary tubular structures, while A2B receptors are predominant in cortical tubular structures. A2A receptor expression in the kidney appears to be restricted to vascular cells.
    Keywords: Adenosine ; Nephron Segments ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0085-2538
    E-ISSN: 1523-1755
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 2018, Vol.45(8), pp.1364-1371
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-018-4003-6 Byline: Michael E. Autenrieth (1), Christof Seidl (2,3), Frank Bruchertseifer (4), Thomas Horn (1), Florian Kurtz (1), Benedikt Feuerecker (3), Calogero D'Alessandria (3), Christian Pfob (3), Stephan Nekolla (3), Christos Apostolidis (4), Saed Mirzadeh (5), Jurgen E. Gschwend (1), Markus Schwaiger (3), Klemens Scheidhauer (3), Alfred Morgenstern (4) Keywords: Alpha-emitter 213.sup.Bi; 225.sup.Ac/ [.sup.213]Bi generator; Targeted therapy; Bladder cancer; Feasibility; Adverse effects; Therapeutic efficacy Abstract: Purpose Patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment are usually treated with cystectomy. Therefore, new treatment options with preservation of the urinary bladder are needed. The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a novel targeted alpha-emitter immunotherapy for CIS after BCG treatment failure. Methods A pilot study was conducted in 12 patients (age range 64--86 years, ten men, two women) with biopsy-proven CIS of the bladder refractory to BCG treatment. The patients were treated intravesically with a single instillation (one patient was treated twice) of the alpha-emitter 213.sup.Bi coupled to an anti-EGFR antibody (366--821 MBq). The primary aims of the study were to determine the feasibility of treatment with the 213.sup.Bi-immunoconjugate and evaluation of adverse effects. Therapeutic efficacy was monitored by histological mapping of the urinary bladder 8 weeks after treatment and at different time points thereafter. Results The study proved that intravesical instillation of the 213.sup.Bi-immunoconjugate targeting EGFR is feasible. No adverse effects were observed and all blood and urine parameters determined remained in their normal ranges. Therapeutic efficacy was considered satisfactory, in that three of the 12 patients showed no signs of CIS 44, 30 and 3 months after treatment. Conclusion Intravesical instillation of 213.sup.Bi-anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody was well tolerated and showed therapeutic efficacy. Repeated instillation and/or instillation of higher activities of the 213.sup.Bi-immunoconjugate might lead to better therapeutic outcomes. A phase I clinical trial is planned. Author Affiliation: (1) 0000000123222966, grid.6936.a, Department of Urology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany (2) 0000000123222966, grid.6936.a, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675, Munich, Germany (3) 0000000123222966, grid.6936.a, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany (4) grid.443865.8, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security, Karlsruhe, Germany (5) 0000 0004 0446 2659, grid.135519.a, Nuclear Security and Isotope Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 38731-6229, USA Article History: Registration Date: 23/03/2018 Received Date: 01/12/2017 Accepted Date: 23/03/2018 Online Date: 11/04/2018 Article note: Michael E. Autenrieth, Christof Seidl, Frank Bruchertseifer, Klemens Scheidhauer and Alfred Morgenstern contributed equally to this work.
    Keywords: Alpha-emitter Bi ; Ac/Bi generator ; Targeted therapy ; Bladder cancer ; Feasibility ; Adverse effects ; Therapeutic efficacy
    ISSN: 1619-7070
    E-ISSN: 1619-7089
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  • 9
    Keywords: Behavioral Manipulation ; Group Behavior ; Risk-Taking Behaviour ; Quorum Decision ; Gasterosteus Aculeatus ; Schistocephalus Solidus
    Source: DataCite
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  • 10
    Keywords: Behavioral Manipulation ; Group Behavior ; Risk-Taking Behaviour ; Quorum Decision ; Gasterosteus Aculeatus ; Schistocephalus Solidus
    Source: DataCite
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