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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Clinical chemistry, February 2012, Vol.58(2), pp.465-8
    Description: Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma can be clinically useful for detecting prenatal disorders and pregnancy monitoring. More sensitive, specific, and quantitative detection of cffDNA in maternal plasma may expand the clinical utility of such measurements. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay [Y chromosome repetitive sequence (YRS) assay] based on a highly repetitive short sequence specific for the Y chromosome. Both standard qPCR and digital qPCR were performed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of this new assay against already established male DNA-specific assays. The YRS assay was at least 10-fold more sensitive than the currently most sensitive DYS14 assay. The YRS assay was able to detect 0.5 genome equivalents (GE) per PCR reaction when fetal DNA was present at 0.2% of the total DNA. The background noise for the YRS assay was much lower than for the DYS14 assay in analyses of plasma samples from pregnancies with female fetuses. The YRS assay is a substantial improvement for quantifying rare male fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The higher sensitivity and specificity may expand the clinical and research utility of cffDNA.
    Keywords: Fetus ; DNA -- Blood ; Pregnancy -- Blood
    ISSN: 00099147
    E-ISSN: 1530-8561
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 2010, Vol.375(9713), pp.440-442
    Description: [...] as operative vaginal delivery rates continue to fall, there should be no compromise in the level of training in the conduct of and careful selection of patients for instrumental deliveries.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(12), p.e115229
    Description: Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses,...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, June 2015, Vol.145(6), pp.1303-10
    Description: Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence fetal growth. However, the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and birth size outcomes is less clear. We examined the associations between maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy and infant birth size. Pregnant women (n = 835) from the Singapore GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) mother-offspring cohort were studied. At 26-28 wk of gestation, the macronutrient intake of women was ascertained with the use of 24 h dietary recalls and 3 d food diaries. Weight, length, and ponderal index of their offspring were measured at birth. Associations were assessed by substitution models with the use of multiple linear regressions. Mean ± SD maternal energy intake and percentage energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates per day were 1903 ± 576 kcal, 15.6% ± 3.9%, 32.7% ± 7.5%, and 51.6% ± 8.7% respectively. With the use of adjusted models, no associations were observed for maternal macronutrient intake and birth weight. In male offspring, higher carbohydrate or fat intake with lower protein intake was associated with longer birth length (β = 0.08 cm per percentage increment in carbohydrate; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13; β = 0.08 cm per percentage increment in fat; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.13) and lower ponderal index (β = -0.12 kg/m(3) per percentage increment in carbohydrate; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.05; β = -0.08 kg/m(3) per percentage increment in fat; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.003), but this was not observed in female offspring (P-interaction 〈 0.01). Maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy was not associated with infant birth weight. Lower maternal protein intake was significantly associated with longer birth length and lower ponderal index in male but not female offspring. However, this finding warrants further confirmation in independent studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
    Keywords: Birth Length ; Birth Weight ; Macronutrients ; Ponderal Index ; Pregnancy Diet ; Protein ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group ; Birth Weight ; Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Dietary Proteins -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of perinatal medicine, November 2010, Vol.38(6), pp.609-12
    Description: to compare insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) (non-phosphorylated), placental alpha-microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) and nitrazine test to diagnose premature rupture of membrane to allow gestation-specific management. we recruited 100 women with signs or symptoms of premature rupture of membranes (PROM), between 17 and 37 weeks at a tertiary referral center. in 100 women in whom PAMG-1 was performed, sensitivity was 92.7%, specificity was 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 100% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 95.2%. IGFBP-1 was performed in 94 women, the sensitivity was 87.5%, specificity was 94.4%, PPV was 92.1% and NPV was 91.1%. In 98 women in whom nitrazine test was performed, the sensitivity was 85%, specificity was 39.7%, PPV was 49.3% and NPV was 79.3%. PAMG-1 was the most accurate test in diagnosing rupture of membranes and had the highest sensitivity, specificity, PPVs and NPVs.
    Keywords: Reagent Strips ; Alpha-Globulins -- Analysis ; Azo Compounds -- Chemistry ; Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture -- Diagnosis ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 -- Analysis
    ISSN: 03005577
    E-ISSN: 1619-3997
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(10), p.e47816
    Description: We studied a sample of 75 Chinese, 73 Malay, and 29 Indian healthy neonates taking part in a cohort study to examine potential differences in neonatal brain morphology and white matter microstructure as a function of ethnicity using both structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We first examined the differences in global size and morphology of the brain among the three groups. We then constructed the T2-weighted MRI and DTI atlases and employed voxel-based analysis to investigate ethnic differences in morphological shape of the brain from the T2-weighted MRI, and white matter microstructure measured by fractional anisotropy derived from DTI. Compared with Malay neonates, the brains of Indian neonates’ tended to be more elongated in anterior and posterior axis relative to the superior-inferior axis of the brain even though the total brain volume was similar among the three groups. Although most anatomical regions of the brain were similar among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates, there were anatomical variations in the spinal-cerebellar and cortical-striatal-thalamic neural circuits among the three populations. The population-related brain regions highlighted in our study are key anatomical substrates associated with sensorimotor functions.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Social And Behavioral Sciences ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Mental Health ; Physiology ; Neuroscience ; Pediatrics And Child Health ; Neurological Disorders ; Non-clinical Medicine ; Radiology And Medical Imaging
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Affective Disorders, 15 September 2016, Vol.202, pp.91-94
    Description: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common during pregnancy and the postnatal period. A risk factor for mood disorders is poor sleep quality. In this study we investigate the effects of poor subjective prenatal sleep quality on postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, independent of prenatal depression or anxiety, amongst pregnant women in the general population. We analysed data from a subset of women taking part in a prospective cohort study, Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes. The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory between 26 and 28 weeks of pregnancy (Time 1) and at 3 months postpartum (Time 2), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at Time 1. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between subjective prenatal sleep quality and postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, while adjusting for prenatal depressive/anxiety symptoms and education. Although borderline-high depressive/anxiety symptoms were the strongest predictors of postnatal depressive/anxiety, independent of this, poor subjective sleep quality during pregnancy was also associated with borderline-high postnatal depressive symptoms, but not with postnatal anxiety. Sleep quality and prenatal/postnatal mood were derived from self-reported questionnaires, which may be more susceptible to bias. Although treatment of symptoms of prenatal depression and anxiety will be the most important for reducing postnatal depression and anxiety, in addition to that, future studies may explore treatments improving prenatal sleep quality, particularly for women with antenatal depressive symptoms.
    Keywords: Maternal Sleep ; Depression ; Anxiety ; Pregnancy ; Mental Health
    ISSN: 0165-0327
    E-ISSN: 1573-2517
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Affective Disorders, 2016, Vol.202, pp.91-94
    Description: Background Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common during pregnancy and the postnatal period. A risk factor for mood disorders is poor sleep quality. In this study we investigate the effects of poor subjective prenatal sleep quality on postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, independent of prenatal depression or anxiety, amongst pregnant women in the general population. Methods We analysed data from a subset of women taking part in a prospective cohort study, Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes. The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory between 26 and 28 weeks of pregnancy (Time 1) and at 3 months postpartum (Time 2), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at Time 1. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between subjective prenatal sleep quality and postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, while adjusting for prenatal depressive/anxiety symptoms and education. Results Although borderline-high depressive/anxiety symptoms were the strongest predictors of postnatal depressive/anxiety, independent of this, poor subjective sleep quality during pregnancy was also associated with borderline-high postnatal depressive symptoms, but not with postnatal anxiety. Limitations Sleep quality and prenatal/postnatal mood were derived from self-reported questionnaires, which may be more susceptible to bias. Conclusion Although treatment of symptoms of prenatal depression and anxiety will be the most important for reducing postnatal depression and anxiety, in addition to that, future studies may explore treatments improving prenatal sleep quality, particularly for women with antenatal depressive symptoms.
    Keywords: Anxiety ; Depression ; Maternal Sleep ; Mental Health ; Pregnancy ; Clinical Psychology ; Psychiatry And Mental Health
    ISSN: 0165-0327
    ISSN: 1573-2517
    Source: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(7), p.e39744
    Description: Babies born at lower gestational ages or smaller birthweights have a greater risk of poorer health in later life. Both the causes of these sub-optimal birth outcomes and the mechanism by which the effects are transmitted over decades are the subject of extensive study. We investigated whether a transcriptomic signature of either birthweight or gestational age could be detected in umbilical cord RNA. ; The gene expression patterns of 32 umbilical cords from Singaporean babies of Chinese ethnicity across a range of birthweights (1698–4151 g) and gestational ages (35–41 weeks) were determined. We confirmed the differential expression pattern by gestational age for 12 genes in a series of 127 umbilical cords of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity. ; We found that the transcriptome is substantially influenced by gestational age; but less so by birthweight. We show that some of the expression changes dependent on gestational age are enriched in signal transduction pathways, such as Hedgehog and in genes with roles in cytokine signalling and angiogenesis. We show that some of the gene expression changes we report are reflected in the epigenome. ; We studied the umbilical cord which is peripheral to disease susceptible tissues. The results suggest that soma-wide transcriptome changes, preserved at the epigenetic level, may be a mechanism whereby birth outcomes are linked to the risk of adult metabolic and arthritic disease and suggest that greater attention be given to the association between premature birth and later disease risk.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Computational Biology ; Pediatrics And Child Health
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Dec 23, 2014, Vol.9(12)
    Description: Objective Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37-41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth. Methods A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy. Results Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p0.001), as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p0.001). Conclusions Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst 'term' infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb.
    Keywords: Newborn Infants ; Anisotropy ; Brain
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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