Bioelectrochemistry, Oct, 2012, Vol.87, p.114(10)
To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2011.12.011 Byline: Wirginia KrzyAciak, Joanna Kowalska, Mariusz Kozka, Monika A. PapieA1/4, Wojciech M. Kwiatek Keywords: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE); Reactive oxygen species (ROS); Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI); Tissue iron; Blood oxidized DNA (boxDNA) Abbreviations: 8-oxo-Gua, 8-oxoguanine; API, active pharmaceutical ingredient; BCS, bathocuproine disulfonate disodium salt; BER, base-excision repair; BHT, Butylated hydroxytoluene; BSA, bovine serum albumin; CEAP, clinical state, etiology, anatomy and pathophysiology; CO, carbon monoxide; CVDs, Chronic venous diseases; CVI, chronic venous insufficiency; DETAPAC, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid; DMSO, Dimethyl sulfoxide; EtBr, ethidium bromide; FBS, Fetal bovine serum; FDA, fluorescein diacetate; Fpg, formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase; GE, General Electric; GST, glutathione S-transferase; GSV, great saphenous vein; H.sub.2O.sub.2, hydroxy peroxide; HEPES, [4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid]; HmUra, 5-hydroxymethyluracil; HO.sub.2 , hydroperoxide radical; K.sub.2EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid dipotassium salt; KCl, potassium chloride; LMPA, low melting point agarose; MAPK, mitogen activated protein kinases; MMPs, matrix metalloproteinases; NBT, nitroblue tetrazolium; NBT-BCS, nitroblue tetrazolium-bathocuproine disulfonate disodium salt; NMPA, normal melting point agarose; O.sub.2.sup.- , superoxide anion; O.sub.2 , oxygen singlet; OH, hydroxyl radical; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; RNS, reactive nitrogen species; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SOD, superoxide dismutase activity; TBA, thiobarbituric acid; TBARs, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Tris THAM, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane; USG, ultrasonography Abstract: Impaired venous drainage of the lower extremities determines a cascade of pathologic events leading to chronic venous disease (CVD). It is believed that the one cause of CVD is red blood cell extravasation and local iron overload that could generate free radicals and iron-dependent inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between: the intracellular iron deposits in varicose veins and tissue oxidative state measured by: the Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (Fe.sub.PIXE), (tSOD), (tGPx), (tTBARs) and (boxDNA). Patients with diagnosed CVD were qualified for surgical procedure. Entire trunk of the great saphenous vein (GSV) was extracted. Part located near medial ankle was considered competent (C) in duplex ultrasonography (USG) examination. The incompetent (I) part was extracted from GSV where USG showed incompetent valves and massive venous reflux. The difference between local tFe.sub.PIXE, tTBARS, boxDNA, tGPx, tSOD in incompetent and competent part of vein tissue was statistically significant. Intima/media ratio directly correlated with Fe.sub.PIXE C/I concentration. Iron deposition in competent vs incompetent part of vein was also related to the oxidative stress parameters (boxDNA). The findings from this pilot study suggest that Fe.sub.PIXE measurement may be useful for explaining the progression of chronic venous disease. Article History: Received 6 July 2011; Revised 18 December 2011; Accepted 30 December 2011 Article Note: (footnote) [star] Statement of authorship. WK conceived of the study, and participated in its design, carried out samples, analyzed the samples, made all experiments during the study, performed the statistical analysis and data analyses and wrote the manuscript. JK participated in study design, made the sample preparation and performed the PIXE experiment with the data analysis. MK participated in study design and collect clinical material. WMK participated in study design, conduct and subject enrollment. MAP participated in study design and made the histological sample preparation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Glutathione Transferase -- Analysis ; Phosphotransferases -- Analysis ; Bromine Compounds -- Analysis ; Dna -- Analysis ; Superoxides -- Analysis ; Iron (Metal) -- Analysis ; Fluorescein -- Analysis ; Phosphates -- Analysis ; Carbon Monoxide -- Analysis ; Enzymology -- Analysis ; Albumin -- Analysis ; Dimethyl Sulfoxide -- Analysis ; Antioxidants (Nutrients) -- Analysis
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