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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Causes and Control, 2013, Vol.24(7), pp.1363-1374
    Description: A high intake of whole grains has been associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer, but few studies are available on the association with whole grains from different cereals, for example, wheat, rye and oats, and none has addressed these separately. The objective of this study was to investigate...
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Clinical Medicine ; Cancer And Oncology ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Klinisk Medicin ; Cancer Och Onkologi ; Whole Grains ; Colorectal Cancer ; Wheat ; Rye ; Oats
    ISSN: 0957-5243
    E-ISSN: 15737225
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Nutrition, 2018, Vol.148(9), p.1434(11)
    Description: Background: Type 2 diabetes is a major health concern worldwide. Whole grains and cereal fiber may offer protective effects on type 2 diabetes risk. However, few studies have been conducted in cohorts with detailed information on whole-grain cereal intakes and product types and with wide ranges of intake. Objective: We investigated the associations between whole-grain intake, including intakes of different cereal types and products, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population with wide and diverse whole-grain intake. Methods: We used data from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort including 55,465 participants aged 50-65 y at baseline. Of these, 7417 participants were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes during follow-up (median: 15 y). Detailed information on the intake of whole-grain products was available from a food-frequency questionnaire, and total whole-grain intake and whole-grain cereal types (wheat, rye, oats) were calculated in grams per day. Associations were examined by using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Whole-grain intake was associated with an 11 % and 7% lower risk of type 2 diabetes per whole-grain serving (16 g) per day for men and women, respectively [HR (95% CI)--men: 0.89 (0.87, 0.91); women: 0.93 (0.91, 0.96)]. For men, the intake of all whole-grain cereal types investigated (wheat, rye, oats) was significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, but only wheat and oats intake was significantly associated for women. Among the different whole-grain products, rye bread, whole-grain bread, and oatmeal/muesli were significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes for both men and women. Conclusions: In this cohort study, we found consistent associations between high whole-grain intake and lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Overall, an association was found for all different cereals and whole-grain products tested. J Nutr 2018;148:1434-1444. Keywords: epidemiology, nutrition and diet, human cohort, epidemiology, prevention, type 2 diabetes, whole grains doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy112.
    Keywords: Cancer – Diet Therapy ; Cancer – Risk Factors ; Type 2 Diabetes – Diet Therapy ; Type 2 Diabetes – Risk Factors
    ISSN: 0022-3166
    E-ISSN: 15416100
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, April, 2016, Vol.103(4), p.999(9)
    Description: Background: High intake of whole grains has been associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease; however, the research that has been used to evaluate different effects of different whole-grain cereals (e.g., wheat, rye, and oats) has been sparse. Objective: We investigated the association between whole-grain intake in terms of total intake and intakes of different cereals and myocardial infarction. Design: This prospective study included 54,871 Danish adults aged 50-64 y, of whom 2329 individuals developed myocardial infarction (13.6 y of follow-up). Detailed information on daily intake of whole-grain products was available from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire, and intakes of total whole grain and whole-grain species (wheat, rye, and oats) were estimated. The association between intake of whole grains and risk of myocardial infarction was examined with the use of a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for potential confounders. Results: For both men and women with total whole-grain intake in the highest quartile, lower risks of myocardial infarction were shown [HRs: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.86) and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.91), respectively] than for individuals with intake in the lowest quartile. When the specific cereal species were considered, rye and oats, but not wheat, were associated with lower myocardial infarction risk in men. No significant associations were seen in women. For total whole-grain products, significantly lower myocardial infarction risks were seen with higher intakes in both men and women. Rye bread (in men and women) and oatmeal (in men) were associated with significantly lower risk of myocardial infarction, whereas no significant association was shown for whole-grain bread, crispbread, and wheat. Conclusion: In this study, we provide support for the hypothesis that whole-grain intake is related to lower risk of myocardial infarction and suggest that the cereals rye and oats might especially hold a beneficial effect. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, cereal, cohort, whole grains, coronary heart disease, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, wheat, rye, oats
    Keywords: Heart Attack -- Risk Factors ; Heart Attack -- Care And Treatment ; Danish Cooking -- Health Aspects ; Cancer -- Diet Therapy
    ISSN: 0002-9165
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016, Vol.103(4), p.999(9)
    Description: Background: High intake of whole grains has been associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease; however, the research that has been used to evaluate different effects of different whole-grain cereals (e.g., wheat, rye, and oats) has been sparse. Objective: We investigated the association between whole-grain intake in terms of total intake and intakes of different cereals and myocardial infarction. Design: This prospective study included 54,871 Danish adults aged 50-64 y, of whom 2329 individuals developed myocardial infarction (13.6 y of follow-up). Detailed information on daily intake of whole-grain products was available from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire, and intakes of total whole grain and whole-grain species (wheat, rye, and oats) were estimated. The association between intake of whole grains and risk of myocardial infarction was examined with the use of a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for potential confounders. Results: For both men and women with total whole-grain intake in the highest quartile, lower risks of myocardial infarction were shown [HRs: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.86) and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.91), respectively] than for individuals with intake in the lowest quartile. When the specific cereal species were considered, rye and oats, but not wheat, were associated with lower myocardial infarction risk in men. No significant associations were seen in women. For total whole-grain products, significantly lower myocardial infarction risks were seen with higher intakes in both men and women. Rye bread (in men and women) and oatmeal (in men) were associated with significantly lower risk of myocardial infarction, whereas no significant association was shown for whole-grain bread, crispbread, and wheat. Conclusion: In this study, we provide support for the hypothesis that whole-grain intake is related to lower risk of myocardial infarction and suggest that the cereals rye and oats might especially hold a beneficial effect. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, cereal, cohort, whole grains, coronary heart disease, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, wheat, rye, oats
    Keywords: Heart Attack ; Grains
    ISSN: 0002-9165
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016, Vol.104(6), pp.1723-1724
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Health Sciences ; Nutrition And Dietetics ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Hälsovetenskaper ; Näringslära ; Kemi ; Chemical Sciences ; Nutrition & Dietetics
    ISSN: 0002-9165
    E-ISSN: 19383207
    Source: SwePub (National Library of Sweden)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016, Vol.104(1), pp.88-96
    Description: Background: Studies that use dietary biomarkers to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) are lacking. Objective: We examined the association between plasma total alkylresorcinols and the alkylresorcinol C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio, biomarkers...
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Health Sciences ; Nutrition And Dietetics ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Hälsovetenskaper ; Näringslära ; Type 2 Diabetes ; Whole Grains ; Biomarker ; Alkylresorcinols ; Nested Case-Control Studies ; Clinical Medicine ; Endocrinology And Diabetes ; Klinisk Medicin ; Endokrinologi Och Diabetes ; Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine And Epidemiology
    ISSN: 0002-9165
    E-ISSN: 19383207
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016, Vol.104(6), pp.1725-1726
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Health Sciences ; Nutrition And Dietetics ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Hälsovetenskaper ; Näringslära
    ISSN: 0002-9165
    E-ISSN: 19383207
    Source: SwePub (National Library of Sweden)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Circulation, Nov 6, 2018, Vol.138(S_1 Suppl 1), p.A15383(1)
    Description: Byline: Nicola P Bondonno, Health and Med Sciences, Univ of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Frederik Dalgaard, Cardiology, Herlev & Gentofte Univ Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark; Cecilie Kyro, Nutrition and Biomarkers, The Danish Cancer Society Rsch Cntr, Copenhagen, Denmark; Catherine P Bondonno, Health and Med Sciences, Univ of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Joshua R Lewis, Health and Med Sciences, Univ of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Kevin D Croft, Health and Med Sciences, Univ of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Augustin Scalbert, Biomarkers Group, International Agency for Rsch on Cancer, Lyon, France; Gunnar Gislason, Cardiology, Herlev & Gentofte Univ Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark; Kim Overvad, Public Health, Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark; Jonathan M Hodgson, Med and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan Univ, Perth, Australia Abstract Introduction: There is increasing evidence that flavonoids, bioactive plant compounds, reduce cardiovascular disease risk.Methods: In 53 126 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study cross-linked with Danish nationwide registries, we examined the association between total and specific flavonoid subclass intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (ischemic heart disease (IHD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and ischemic stroke) and all-cause mortality. Flavonoid intake was calculated from baseline food frequency questionnaires using the Phenol-Explorer database and analyzed by quintiles with Cox proportional hazard models.Results: After 23 years of follow-up, 12 154 participants had CVD events and there were 12 639 deaths from all causes. After multivariable adjustments and compared to the lowest quintile of flavonoid intake (〈254.6 mg/d), participants in the highest quintile (〉914.6 mg/d) had a 12% lower risk of CVD [HR (95%CI): 0.88 (0.83, 0.93)], a 9% lower risk of IHD [0.91 (0.84, 0.97)], a 21% lower risk of PAD [0.79 (0.70, 0.88)], a 14% lower risk of a stroke [0.86 (0.77, 0.96)] and a 15% lower risk of all-cause mortality [0.85 (0.80, 0.90)]. Specifically, the flavonol, flavan-3-ol, proanthocyanidin and theaflavin subclasses were associated with a lower risk of all outcomes. The inverse associations observed were strongest in those with at least one lifestyle risk factor for CVD, in particular, those who smoked or consumed 〉30g/d of alcohol (p interaction〈0.01) and were weakest in women and those with hypertension (p interaction〈0.01).Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest cohort study on flavonoid intake and CVD. We show that flavonoid intake is associated with lower risk of all outcomes and highlight in which subpopulations these effects are greatest.Figure Legend: Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for risk of cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality by quintiles of total flavonoid intake.
    ISSN: 0009-7322
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Epidemiology, May 15, 2014, Vol.179(10), p.1188(9)
    Description: Self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have occasionally been used to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer, but the results from those studies have been inconsistent. We investigated this association using intakes of whole grains and whole-grain products measured via FFQs and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, both separately and in combination (Howe's score with ranks). We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort from a research project on Nordic health and whole-grain consumption (HELGA, 1992-1998). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations alone and Howe's score with ranks were inversely associated with the incidence of distal colon cancer when the highest quartile was compared with the lowest (for alkylresorcinol concentrations, incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.92; for Howe's score with ranks, incidence rate ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.86). No association was observed between whole-grain intake and any colorectal cancer (colon, proximal, distal or rectum cancer) when using an FFQ as the measure/exposure variable for whole-grain intake. The results suggest that assessing whole-grain intake using a combination of FFQs and biomarkers slightly increases the precision in estimating the risk of colon or rectal cancer by reducing the impact of misclassification, thereby increasing the statistical power of the study.
    Keywords: Colorectal Cancer -- Diagnosis ; Colorectal Cancer -- Care And Treatment ; Logistic Regression -- Usage ; Grains -- Usage ; Grains -- Health Aspects
    ISSN: 0002-9262
    E-ISSN: 14766256
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2014, Vol. 106(1), p. djt352
    Description: Background Few studies have investigated the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer. Because whole-grain intake estimation might be prone to measurement errors, more objective measures (eg, biomarkers) could assist in investigating such associations. Methods The association between alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain rye and wheat intake, and colorectal cancer incidence were investigated using prediagnostic plasma samples from colorectal cancer case patients and matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We included 1372 incident colorectal cancer case patients and 1372 individual matched control subjects and calculated the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for overall and anatomical subsites of colorectal cancer using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. Regional differences (Scandinavia, the Mediterranean, Central Europe) were also explored. Results High plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was associated with lower incidence of distal colon cancer; the adjusted incidence rate ratio of distal colon cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of plasma total alkylresorcinols was 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 0.83). An inverse association between plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations and colon cancer was found for Scandinavian participants (IRR per doubling = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.98). However, plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations were not associated with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, or rectal cancer. Plasma alkylresorcinols concentrations were associated with colon and distal colon cancer only in Central Europe and Scandinavia (ie, areas where alkylresorcinol levels were higher). Conclusions High concentrations of plasma alkylresorcinols were associated with a lower incidence of distal colon cancer but not with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, and rectal cancer.
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Clinical Medicine ; Cancer And Oncology ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Klinisk Medicin ; Cancer Och Onkologi
    ISSN: 0027-8874
    E-ISSN: 14602105
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