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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America journal, 2010, Vol.74(4), pp.1084-1091
    Description: Solute diffusion controls important processes in soils: plant uptake of nutrients, sorption–desorption processes, degradation of organic matter, and leaching of radionuclides through clay barriers. We developed a new method for measuring the solute diffusivity (solute diffusion coefficient in the soil relative to water) in intact soil samples (the Multiple Tracer, Filter Separated half-cell method using a Dynamic Model for parameter estimation [MT-FS-DM]). The MT-FS-DM method consists of half-cell diffusion of two pairs of counterdiffusing anionic tracers and a parameter estimation scheme that allows diffusion coefficients for tracers in the two half-cells to be estimated on the basis of two concentration profiles in each sample. The parameter estimation scheme uses a fully dynamic (time-resolved) simulation model. From sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the dynamic model, we found that the MT-FS-DM method provided reliable results. We compared diffusivities measured on a sandy loam soil using the MT-FS-DM method with diffusivities from six sandy loam test soils from the literature. The new method can be used to estimate solute diffusivity in intact structured soil and provides a more confident estimate for solute diffusion due to the use of two tracer profiles in the same soil sample. Especially when we are interested in determining the diffusivity of a single intact soil sample, such as when relating solute diffusivity to other properties of the soil (e.g., microbial activity), this method will be an improvement over existing methods. ; Includes references ; p. 1084-1091.
    Keywords: Soil Transport Processes ; Labeling Techniques ; Diffusion ; Soil Water Content ; Soil Solution ; Solutes ; Accuracy ; Methodology ; Sandy Loam Soils ; Measurement ; Diffusivity
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Jan 1, 2014, Vol.466-467, p.1003(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.051 Byline: M.G. Mostofa Amin, Tina B. Bech, Anita Forslund, Martin Hansen, Soren O. Petersen, Mette Laegdsmand Abstract: The redistribution and fate of contaminants in pig slurry after direct injection were investigated at two field sites, Silstrup (sandy clay loam) and Estrup (sandy loam), in Denmark. Intact soil samples were collected for up to seven weeks after slurry injection and concentrations of Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B (phage 28B), Escherichia coli, steroid hormones and other slurry components (water, volatile solids, chloride and mineral N) determined in and around the injection slit. The two experiments at Silstrup and Estrup differed with respect to slurry solid content (6.3 vs. 0.8%), as well as soil clay content (27 vs. 15%) and differed considerably with respect to the initial redistribution of slurry-borne contaminants in soil. The transport of microorganisms from the slurry injection slit to the surrounding soil was much lower than that of mineral N and chloride due to attachment and entrapment. The redistribution of E. coli was more affected by site-specific conditions compared to phage 28B, possibly due to the larger cell size of E. coli. The overall recovery of phage 28B was 0.8-4%, and of E. coli 0.0-1.3% in different samples, by the end of the study. Nine different steroid hormones were detected in the slurry slit, and a slow redistribution to the surrounding soil was observed. Overall recovery of estrogens was 0.0 to 6.6% in different samples. The study showed that the combination of soil and slurry properties determined the initial spreading of contaminants, and hence the potential for subsequent leaching. Article History: Received 21 May 2013; Revised 13 July 2013; Accepted 15 July 2013 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: Eddy Y. Zeng
    Keywords: Estrogens ; Microorganisms ; Swine
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Management, 15 December 2016, Vol.184, pp.289-296
    Description: Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, and ) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO -N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO -N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly lower from the disturbed soil. Results demonstrate how manure-borne constituents injected into undisturbed soil columns respond more as expected in the field, in terms of leaching and persistence, than do the same constituents injected into typically constructed columns of disturbed soil.
    Keywords: Contaminants Fate ; Manure Management ; Microorganisms ; Nitrogen ; Estrogen ; Repacked Column ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4797
    E-ISSN: 1095-8630
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2010, Vol.139(1), pp.187-194
    Description: ▶ Soil N mineralization increases under raised temperatures. ▶ A ryegrass catch crop empties the soil for inorganic N also under low light. ▶ High soil N mineralization under raised temperatures can be offset by crop N uptake. The rise in mean annual temperatures under the projected climate change will affect both soil organic matter turnover and cropping patterns in agriculture. Nitrogen (N) mineralization may be higher during autumn and winter and may increase the risk of nitrate leaching. Our study tested whether a soil cover of winter wheat or a ryegrass catch crop would be able to take up the extra N mineralized during autumn and winter under the low light conditions in Northern Europe, both at current average temperatures ( ) and at 4 °C ( ) and 8 °C ( ) above average. The crops were grown in pots in growth chambers from mid-September to February. Two sowing times were included for winter wheat, with an early sowing in September representing current practice and a late sowing in October to reflect possible future cropping conditions. Biomass yield and soil inorganic N were determined from replicate pots in November, December and February. Reference pots with bare soil were included. N mineralization clearly increased with higher temperatures with, respectively, 22% and 80% more N mineralized in bare soil at and than at after 136 days. The ryegrass catch crop emptied the soil of inorganic N very efficiently during both autumn and winter months at all temperatures. The early-sown wheat crop left negligible amounts of inorganic N in the soil at the last harvest in February at and , whereas it was unable to take up all mineralized N at . The prolonged period without a crop before the late sowing of wheat caused generally higher levels of inorganic N to accumulate in soil. Despite the higher mineralization under the raised temperatures, at the late-sown winter wheat was able to reduce soil inorganic N to a lower level than late-sown wheat at the two lower temperatures. The results indicate that even at the low light intensity during autumn and winter, accelerated N mineralization caused by raised temperatures can potentially be offset by crop N uptake. However, sowing should take place sufficiently early in the autumn to give the crop time to capture the additional N mineralized during autumn, and this may collide with the projected need for later sowing of winter cereals under a warmer climate.
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Growth Chamber ; Nitrogen ; Ryegrass ; Winter Wheat ; Radiation ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, January 2013, Vol.79(2), pp.535-42
    Description: Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1)) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path.
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology ; Enterococcus -- Isolation & Purification ; Escherichia Coli -- Isolation & Purification ; Manure -- Microbiology ; Nitrogen Compounds -- Analysis ; Salmonella Phages -- Isolation & Purification
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 January 2014, Vol.466-467, pp.1003-1010
    Description: The redistribution and fate of contaminants in pig slurry after direct injection were investigated at two field sites, Silstrup (sandy clay loam) and Estrup (sandy loam), in Denmark. Intact soil samples were collected for up to seven weeks after slurry injection and concentrations of Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B (phage 28B), , steroid hormones and other slurry components (water, volatile solids, chloride and mineral N) determined in and around the injection slit. The two experiments at Silstrup and Estrup differed with respect to slurry solid content (6.3 vs. 0.8%), as well as soil clay content (27 vs. 15%) and differed considerably with respect to the initial redistribution of slurry-borne contaminants in soil. The transport of microorganisms from the slurry injection slit to the surrounding soil was much lower than that of mineral N and chloride due to attachment and entrapment. The redistribution of was more affected by site-specific conditions compared to phage 28B, possibly due to the larger cell size of . The overall recovery of phage 28B was 0.8–4%, and of 0.0–1.3% in different samples, by the end of the study. Nine different steroid hormones were detected in the slurry slit, and a slow redistribution to the surrounding soil was observed. Overall recovery of estrogens was 0.0 to 6.6% in different samples. The study showed that the combination of soil and slurry properties determined the initial spreading of contaminants, and hence the potential for subsequent leaching.
    Keywords: Steroid Hormone ; Microorganism ; Animal Slurry ; Environmental Fate ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2010, Vol.139(1), pp.195-205
    Description: ▶ Projected rainfall patterns of northern Europe increase drainage and N leaching. ▶ Soil warming advances winter wheat crop development during winter. ▶ Soil warming increases soil mineral N availability. ▶ Soil warming increases crop evapotranspiration and reduces N leaching With climate change northern Europe is expected to experience extreme increase in air temperatures, particularly during the winter months, influencing soil temperatures in these regions. Climate change is also projected to influence the rainfall amount, and its inter- and intra-annual variability. These changes may affect soil moisture regimes, soil water drainage, soil nitrogen (N) availability and N leaching to aquatic environment and N O emissions to atmosphere. Thus it is important to study the effects of increased soil temperature and varying rainfall patterns on soil N cycling in arable land from temperate climates, which is a major source of N pollution. An open-field lysimeter study was carried out during 2008–2009 in Denmark on loamy sand soil (Typic Hapludult) with three factors: number of rainy days, rainfall amount and soil warming. Number of rainy days included the mean monthly rainy days for 1961–1990 as ‘normal’ and half the number of rainy days of former as ‘reduced’ treatments. Rainfall amount included mean monthly rainfall for 1961–1990 as ‘present’ and the projected change in mean monthly rainfall for 2071–2100 as ‘future’ treatments. Soil warming included increase in soil temperature by 5 °C at 0.1 m depth as ‘heated’ and non-heated as ‘control’ treatments. Automated mobile rain-out shelter and irrigation system, and insulated buried heating cables were used to impose the treatments. Soil warming, compared with unheated control, advanced winter wheat crop development, and increased the above-ground biomass and N uptake only during vegetative stage, but shortened the total crop growing period by 12 days without reducing the total above-ground biomass. Rainfall amount and rainy days treatments increased the drainage, 46% and 10%, respectively, but did not have additive effect on the drainage. In contrast, soil warming increased crop evapotranspiration (18%) and reduced drainage (41%). The projected future rainfall amount increased NO -N leaching (289%) compared with present rainfall amount. The study showed significant interaction between soil warming and rainfall amount ( 〈 0.001) with heated plots reducing NO -N leaching both under present and future rainfall amount offsetting the adverse effect of increased future rainfall on NO -N leaching. Soil warming, compared to control, consistently increased the soil NO -N availability during the crop growing season and left higher levels of NO -N in the plough layer (19 kg N ha ) even after harvest of crop posing a potential risk of increased leaching in the following autumn/winter seasons. The results suggest that while the projected future rainfall patterns increase drainage and N leaching, warmer winters, on the contrary, seems to offset this effect through increased water and N removal by the advanced crop growth and development during winter.
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Soil Nitrogen ; Drainage ; Nitrate Leaching ; Winter Wheat ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 8
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2010, Vol. 76(3), p.710
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    Source: American Society of Microbiology
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1 February 2007, Vol.291(1/2), pp.81-92
    Description: Biofumigation can be used as an alternative to conventional soil fumigation to control soil-borne pests. With biofumigation, plant tissue with a natural content of glucosinolates (cruciferous plants) is damaged and incorporated into the topsoil. When the plant tissue is damaged, the glucosinolates come into contact with the endogenous enzyme myrosinase, which catalyse the hydrolysis of glucosinolates into various products depending on the reaction conditions. Isothiocyanates are among the potential products formed from these reactions. We investigated if the isothiocyanates from rape plant material were leached through the soil to drain depth when a heavy rainstorm followed the biofumigation. We applied isothiocyanates from rape plant material (1,480 μmol m-2) to four large (0.6 m diameter, 1.0 m long) intact soil monoliths from a loamy and a sandy soil and conducted a leaching experiment under semi-field conditions. The soil monoliths were irrigated with 70–90 mm (10 mm h-1) and the concentrations of three isothiocyanates (3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl and 2-phenethyl) were monitored in the leachate. Between 0 and 14.8 mmol isothiocyanates were leached for each mol of isothiocyanates applied during application of 70–90 mm irrigation. The distribution coefficient estimated from leached concentrations was 0.04–1.19 for 3-butenyl, 0.04–1.15 for 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and 0.037–0.97 for 2-phenethyl isothiocyanate. The concentration of total isothiocyanates in the leachate was in the same order of magnitude as the LD50 of isothiocyanates for sensitive aquatic organisms.
    Keywords: Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Glucosinolates ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences -- Glucosinolates ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences -- Glucosinolates ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences -- Glucosinolates ; Applied sciences -- Materials science -- Materials processing -- Glucosinolates ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences -- Glucosinolates ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences -- Glucosinolates ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules -- Glucosinolates ; Environmental studies -- Environmental quality -- Environmental degradation -- Glucosinolates ; Applied sciences -- Engineering -- Civil engineering -- Glucosinolates
    ISSN: 0032079X
    E-ISSN: 15735036
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural Water Management, Jan 1, 2014, Vol.131, p.17(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2013.09.002 Byline: M.G. Mostofa Amin, Jirka A imA[macron]nek, Mette Laegdsmand Abstract: acents We simulated the redistribution of contaminants from soil-injected pig slurry. acents The model parameters were estimated based on field measurements of the contaminants. acents The study investigated the processes involved in the fate of the contaminants. acents Microbes and estrogens were vulnerable to leaching for immediate precipitations. acents There are potential risks of leaching of these contaminants in loamy soil. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Blichers Alle 20, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark (b) Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA Article History: Received 23 January 2013; Accepted 10 September 2013
    Keywords: Loams -- Analysis ; Estrogens -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0378-3774
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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