PLoS ONE, Oct 7, 2014, Vol.9(10)
Bacteriophytochromes (BphPs) are light-sensing regulatory proteins encoded in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria. This protein class incorporate bilin as their chromophore, with majority of them bearing a light- regulated His kinase or His kinase related module in the C-terminal. We studied the His kinase actives in the temperature range of 5#176;C to 40#176;C on two BphPs, Agp1 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Cph1 from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. As reported, the phosphorylation activities of the far red (FR) irradiated form of the holoprotein is stronger than that of the red (R) irradiated form in both phytochromes. We observed for the apoprotein and FR irradiated holoprotein of Agp1 an increase in the phosphorylation activities from 5#176;C to 25#176;C and a decrease from 25#176;C to 40#176;C. At 5#176;C the activities of the apoprotein were significantly lower than those of the FR irradiated holoprotein, which was opposite at 40#176;C. A similar temperature pattern was observed for Cph1, but the maximum of the apoprotein was at 20#176;C while the maximum of the FR irradiated holoprotein was at 10#176;C. At 40#176;C, prolonged R irradiation leads to an irreversible bleaching of Cph1, an effect which depends on the C-terminal His kinase module. A more prominent and reversible temperature effect on spectral properties of Agp1, mediated by the His kinase, has been reported before. His kinases in phytochromes could therefore share similar temperature characteristics. We also found that phytochrome B mutants of Arabidopsis have reduced hypocotyl growth at 37#176;C in darkness, suggesting that this phytochrome senses the temperature or mediates signal transduction of temperature effects.
Cellular Signal Transduction ; Photosynthesis ; Proteins ; Phytochrome ; Phosphotransferases
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