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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature, July 2018, Vol.559(7713), pp.188-189
    Description: A carefully considered observational study estimates that up to 22% of infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa could be prevented by improving air quality -- a value much higher than previous estimates. A carefully considered observational study estimates that up to 22% of infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa could be prevented by improving air quality -- a value much higher than previous estimates.
    Keywords: Developing World ; Environmental Sciences ; Health Care ; Air Pollution
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cognition, June 2011, Vol.119(3), pp.356-373
    Description: Identity is a transitive relation, according to all standard accounts. Necessarily, if = and = , then = . However, people sometimes say that two objects, and , are the same as a third, , even when and have different properties (thus, = and = , but ≠ ). In the present experiments, participants read stories about an iceberg that breaks into two icebergs, one to the east and the other to the west. Many participants (32–54%, in baseline conditions across experiments) decided that both successors were the original iceberg, despite the different spatial locations of the successors. Experiment 1 shows that this tendency is not due to participants failing to understand to mean . Similarly, Experiment 2 demonstrates that the tendency is not solely due to their interpreting the question to be about properties of the icebergs rather than about the icebergs themselves. Experiments 3 and 4 suggest, instead, that participants may understand to mean Emphasizing entitlement increases the number of seemingly intransitive responses, whereas emphasizing the formal properties of identity decreases them.
    Keywords: Object Concepts ; Singular Concepts ; Transitivity ; Identity ; Equality ; Ship of Theseus ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0010-0277
    E-ISSN: 18737838
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Nov, 2012, Vol.644, p.20-39
    Description: This article proposes a framework for understanding large-scale individualized collective action that is often coordinated through digital media technologies. Social fragmentation and the decline of group loyalties have given rise to an era of personalized politics in which individually expressive personal action frames displace collective action frames in many protest causes. This trend can be spotted in the rise of large-scale, rapidly forming political participation aimed at a variety of targets, ranging from parties and candidates, to corporations, brands, and transnational organizations. The group-based "identity politics" of the "new social movements" that arose after the 1960s still exist, but the recent period has seen more diverse mobilizations in which individuals are mobilized around personal lifestyle values to engage with multiple causes such as economic justice (fair trade, inequality, and development policies), environmental protection, and worker and human rights.
    Keywords: Politics -- Social Aspects ; Social Movements -- Analysis ; Political Participation -- Analysis ; Digital Electronics -- Usage
    ISSN: 0002-7162
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Psychiatry Research, 2011, Vol.185(1), pp.232-237
    Description: In view of the rising prevalence of an overweight body mass among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), clinicians must now be mindful of possible adverse outcomes resulting from the co-occurrence. The present study was designed to examine the additive and interactive effects of HIV/AIDS and an excess body mass, as well as the additional contributions of substance abuse or dependence. The dependent variable was brain function estimated by the measurement of P300 electroencephalographic potentials. P300 potentials were recorded during a task designed to elicit subcomponents with frontal (P300a) and both frontal and non-frontal (P300b) generators. Analyses revealed greater frontal P300a latencies among the 102 HIV-1 seropositive versus the 68 seronegative participants. In addition, frontal P300a latency was further increased by a synergistic interaction of HIV-1 serostatus with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m . A history of substance abuse/dependence did not alter these changes. However, it did combine with HIV/AIDS to produce a smaller P300a amplitude than was seen in participants with neither disorder. The findings suggest that white matter changes accompanying an excess BMI may exacerbate those that attend HIV/AIDS and thereby slow down frontal brain function. Substance abuse, likewise, interacts with HIV/AIDS but may impair frontal brain function via a different mechanism.
    Keywords: HIV-1 ; Obesity ; BMI ; Evoked Potentials ; EEG ; White Matter ; Substance Dependence ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0165-1781
    E-ISSN: 1872-7123
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2013, Vol.39(4), pp.1257-1264
    Description: When young children attempt to locate the positions of numerals on a number line, the positions are often logarithmically rather than linearly distributed. This finding has been taken as evidence that the children represent numbers on a mental number line that is logarithmically calibrated. This article reports a statistical simulation showing that log-like positioning is a consequence of 2 factors: the bounded nature of the number line and greater uncertainty about the meaning of the larger, less frequent number words. Two experiments likewise show that even college students produce log-like placements under the same 2 conditions. In Experiment 1, participants identified positions on a number line for a set that included both conventional and fictitious numbers (e.g., a zillion). In Experiment 2, participants did the same for conventional numbers that included some larger, unfamiliar items (e.g., a nonillion). Both experiments produced results better fit by logarithmic than by linear functions.
    Keywords: Number Concepts ; Numerical Reasoning ; Representations Of Mathematics
    ISSN: 0278-7393
    E-ISSN: 1939-1285
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 9 April 2016, Vol.87(4), p.451
    Description: The term ‘Brown-Séquard Syndrome’ has a certain appeal to the clinician, not only for the precise correlation of the symptoms comprising it with the anatomical tracts severed by a hemicord lesion, always gratifying to demonstrate to students, but also in the hint of a romantic background to the man after whom the syndrome was named.
    Keywords: Neuropsychiatry
    ISSN: 0022-3050
    ISSN: 00223050
    E-ISSN: 1468-330X
    E-ISSN: 1468330X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Sociology of Health & Illness, Jan, 2013, Vol.35, p.164(2)
    ISSN: 0141-9889
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Sociology of Health & Illness, Jan, 2013, Vol.35, p.164(2)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-9566.12033/abstract Byline: Abigail Baim-Lance ***** No abstract is available for this article. ***** Author Affiliation: Roosevelt Academy, Honors College Utrecht University
    ISSN: 0141-9889
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Psychological Bulletin, 2015, Vol.141(4), pp.786-811
    Description: Our concepts of the physical world distinguish objects, such as chairs, from substances, such as quantities of wood, that constitute them. A particular chair might consist of a single chunk of wood, yet we think about the chair and the wood in different ways. For example, part of the wood is still wood, but part of the chair is not a chair. In this article we examine the basis of the object/substance distinction. We draw together for the first time relevant experiments widely dispersed in the cognitive literature, and view these findings in the light of theories in linguistics and metaphysics. We outline a framework for the difference between objects and substances, based on earlier ideas about form and matter, describing the psychological evidence surrounding it. The framework suggests that concepts of objects include a relation of unity and organization governing their parts, whereas concepts of substances do not. We propose, as a novel twist on this framework, that unity and organization for objects is a function of causal forces that shape the objects. In agreement with this idea, results on the identification of an item as an object depend on clues about the presence of the shaping relation, clues provided by solidity, repetition of shape, and other factors. We also look at results from human infants about the source of the object/substance distinction and conclude that the data support an early origin for both object and substance knowledge.
    Keywords: Object Concepts ; Substance Concepts ; Mass Nouns ; Count Nouns
    ISSN: 0033-2909
    E-ISSN: 1939-1455
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  • 10
    In: Journal of Communication, October 2011, Vol.61(5), pp.835-856
    Description: Communication aimed at promoting civic engagement may become problematic when citizen roles undergo historic changes. In the current era, younger generations are embracing more expressive styles of actualizing citizenship defined around peer content sharing and social media, in contrast to earlier models of dutiful citizenship based on one‐way communication managed by authorities. An analysis of 90 youth Web sites operated by diverse civic and political organizations in the United States reveals uneven conceptions of citizenship and related civic skills, suggesting that many established organization are out of step with changing civic styles. Communiquer l’engagement civique : un contraste de modèles de citoyenneté dans la sphère web jeunesse La communication qui vise la promotion de l’engagement civique peut devenir problématique lorsque les rôles des citoyens subissent des changements historiques. Actuellement, les générations plus jeunes adoptent les styles plus démonstratifs de la citoyenneté actualisante (AC), définie autour du partage de contenu avec les pairs et les médias sociaux, par contraste avec les modèles antérieurs de la citoyenneté respectueuse (CR), basée sur la communication unidirectionnelle gérée par les autorités. Une analyse de 90 sites web jeunesse gérés par diverses organisations civiques et politiques aux États‐Unis révèle des conceptions variables de la citoyenneté et des compétences civiques qui y sont liées, ce qui suggère que plusieurs organisations établies sont en décalage par rapport aux styles civiques en changement. Mots clés : implication civique, citoyenneté, implication en ligne, analyse web, web civique, implication des jeunes W. Lance Bennett, Chris Wells & Deen Freelon Bürgerbeteiligung kommunizieren: Konträre Modelle von Bürgerschaft in der Websphäre Jugendlicher Bemühungen, die Beteiligung der Bürger mittels Kommunikation zu fördern, können dann problematisch werden, wenn sich die Rollen des Bürgers in historischen Umbrüchen befinden. Heutzutage nutzen die jüngeren Generationen deutlich expressivere Wege, sich als Bürger zu verwirklichen, insbesondere indem sie Inhalte mit Gleichaltrigen teilen und sich in sozialen Medien bewegen. Im Gegensatz dazu basieren frühere Modelle des gehorsamen Bürgers auf einer einseitigen Kommunikation unter Anleitung von Autoritäten. Eine Analyse von 90 Webseiten für Jugendliche, betrieben von verschiedenen bürgerlichen und politischen Organisationen in den USA, zeigt eine unausgewogene Konzeptualisierung von Bürgerschaft und den damit verbundenen Fähigkeiten des Bürgers. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass viele etablierte Organisationen den aktuellen Veränderungen bürgerliche Stile nicht angemessen begegnen. Schlüsselbegriffe: bürgerliches Engagement, Online‐Engagement, Webanalyse, bürgerliches Web, Jugendengagement
    Keywords: Youth -- Models ; Youth -- Analysis ; Citizenship -- Models ; Citizenship -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0021-9916
    E-ISSN: 1460-2466
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