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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Communications of the ACM, 01 January 2014, Vol.57(1), pp.54-60
    Description: Enterprise computing in the public cloud.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Computer Science ; Mathematics
    ISSN: 00010782
    E-ISSN: 1557-7317
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  • 2
    In: Molecular Microbiology, September 2010, Vol.77(6), pp.1394-1405
    Description: is a species of Gram‐negative bacteria that is pathogenic to insects while also maintaining a mutualistic association with nematodes from the family . elaborates an extensive secondary metabolism during the post‐exponential phase of growth that includes the production of an antibiotic called 3‐5‐dihydroxy‐4‐isopropylstilbene (ST), an anthraquinone pigment (AQ) and bioluminescence. In this study we identified a mutant that was unable to produce ST, AQ and light. This mutation was found to be in the gene, encoding malate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Interestingly the mutant was unaffected in virulence but was unable to support nematode growth and development or . This clearly establishes that secondary metabolism in is required for the mutualistic interaction with the nematode. Furthermore, the construction of mutations in key genes in other central metabolic pathways confirmed the critical role for the TCA cycle in both secondary metabolism and mutualism, but not in virulence. Therefore, we conclude that the TCA cycle is required for the transition of from pathogen to mutualist implicating the involvement of a metabolic switch in the regulation of lifestyle decisions in this bacterium.
    Keywords: Enzymes -- Physiological Aspects ; Roundworms -- Physiological Aspects;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, July 2012, Vol.94(1), pp.29-37
    Description: Octogenarians are a challenging group of patients referred for cardiac surgery. The aim of this study is to assess early outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed in the elderly population. We performed a meta-analysis of all published observational studies comparing early results of conventional CABG surgery and off-pump CABG surgery in patients aged 80 years or older. The outcomes of interest were mortality, stroke, respiratory failure, renal failure, incidence of support with intraaortic balloon pump, and incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. The random effects model was used. Fourteen studies were analyzed. The total number of included subjects was 4,991, of whom 3,113 underwent conventional CABG surgery (62.4%), and 1,878 (37.6%) underwent off-pump CABG surgery. The rates of mortality, stroke, and respiratory failure were significantly higher in the conventional CABG surgery group. These results confirm that off-pump CABG surgery remains a valuable option of surgical myocardial revascularization, and may optimize the outcome in senior patients.
    Keywords: 23;
    ISSN: 0003-4975
    E-ISSN: 1552-6259
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 01 April 2018, Vol.100(5), pp.1385-1385
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0360-3016
    E-ISSN: 1879-355X
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 01 June 2017, Vol.98(2), pp.E28-E28
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.02.143 Byline: Miriam Lango (1), Steven Zuniga (2), Thomas Galloway (1), Drew Ridge (1) Author Affiliation: (1) Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University Health System (2) Temple University School of Medicine
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0360-3016
    E-ISSN: 1879-355X
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  • 6
    In: Laryngoscope, January 2017, Vol.127(1), pp.95-101
    Description: Byline: Miriam N. Lango, Elizabeth Handorf, Ellis Arjmand Objectives To describe the deployment of otolaryngologists and evaluate factors associated with the geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods The otolaryngology physician supply was defined as the number of otolaryngologists per 100,000 in the hospital referral region (HRR). The otolaryngology physician supply was derived from the American Medical Association Masterfile or from the Medicare Enrollment and Provider Utilization Files. Multiple linear regression tested the association of population, physician, and hospital factors on the supply of Medicare-enrolled otolaryngologists/HRR. Results Two methods of measuring the otolaryngology workforce were moderately correlated across hospital referral regions (Pearson coefficient 0.513, P = .0001); regardless, the supply of otolaryngology providers varies greatly over different geographic regions. Otolaryngologists concentrate in regions with many other physicians, particularly specialist physicians. The otolaryngology supply also increases with regional population income and education levels. Using AMA-derived data, there was no association between the supply of otolaryngologists and staffed acute-care hospital beds and the presence of an otolaryngology residency-training program. In contrast, the supply of otolaryngology providers enrolled in Medicare independently increases for each HRR by 0.8 per 100,000 for each unit increase in supply of hospital beds (P 〈 .0001) and by 0.49 per 100,000 in regions with an otolaryngology residency-training program (P = .006), accounting for all other factors. Conclusion Irrespective of methodology, the supply of otolaryngologists varies widely across geographic regions in the United States. For Medicare beneficiaries, regional hospital factors-including the presence of an otolaryngology residency program-may improve access to otolaryngology services. Level of Evidence NA Laryngoscope, 127:95-101, 2017 Article Note: Presented at the Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meetings, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., May 20, 2016. This study received support from the Devlin Fund. The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
    Keywords: Workforce ; Otolaryngology ; Distribution ; Medicare ; Access
    ISSN: 0023-852X
    E-ISSN: 1531-4995
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Biochemistry, 2011, Vol.414(1), pp.154-162
    Description: The microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) plays a significant role in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics. In addition, it has a potential role in sexual development and bile acid transport, and it is associated with a number of diseases such as emphysema, spontaneous abortion, eclampsia, and several forms of cancer. Toward developing chemical tools to study the biological role of mEH, we designed and synthesized a series of absorbent and fluorescent substrates. The highest activity for both rat and human mEH was obtained with the fluorescent substrate cyano(6-methoxy-naphthalen-2-yl)methyl glycidyl carbonate ( ). An in vitro inhibition assay using this substrate ranked a series of known inhibitors similarly to the assay that used radioactive -stilbene oxide but with a greater discrimination between inhibitors. These results demonstrate that the new fluorescence-based assay is a useful tool for the discovery of structure–activity relationships among mEH inhibitors. Furthermore, this substrate could also be used for the screening chemical library with high accuracy and with a ′ value of approximately 0.7. This new assay permits a significant decrease in labor and cost and also offers the advantage of a continuous readout. However, it should not be used with crude enzyme preparations due to interfering reactions.
    Keywords: Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase ; Fluorescent Substrate ; Α-Cyanocarbonate ; Xenobiotic Metabolism ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0003-2697
    E-ISSN: 1096-0309
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 2011
    Description: Background: Previous research has linked alcohol use with an increased number of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and a raised incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, alcohol measures have been poorly standardised, with many ill-suited to eliciting, with adequate precision, the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour. This study investigates which alcohol indicator - single-item measures of frequency and patterns of drinking (〉 = 6 drinks on 1 occasion), or the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) - can detect associations between alcohol use and unsafe sexual behaviour among male sex workers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey in 2008 recruited male sex workers who sell sex to men from 65 venues in Mombasa district, Kenya, similar to a 2006 survey. Information was collected on socio-demographics, substance use, sexual behaviour, violence and STI symptoms. Multivariate models examined associations between the three measures of alcohol use and condom use, sexual violence, and penile or anal discharge. Results: The 442 participants reported a median 2 clients/week (IQR = 1-3), with half using condoms consistently in the last 30 days. Of the approximately 70% of men who drink alcohol, half (50.5%) drink two or more times a week. Binge drinking was common (38.9%). As defined by AUDIT, 35% of participants who drink had hazardous drinking, 15% harmful drinking and 21% alcohol dependence. Compared with abstinence, alcohol dependence was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3-4.6), penile or anal discharge (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.8), and two-fold higher odds of sexual violence (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 0.9-4.9). Frequent drinking was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3.0) and partner number, while binge drinking was only linked with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.5). Conclusions: Male sex workers have high levels of hazardous and harmful drinking, and require alcohol-reduction interventions. Compared with indicators of drinking frequency or pattern, the AUDIT measure has stronger associations with inconsistent condom use, STI symptoms and sexual violence. Increased use of the AUDIT tool in future studies may assist in delineating with greater precision the explanatory mechanisms which link alcohol use, drinking contexts, sexual behaviours and HIV transmission.
    Keywords: Medicine And Health Sciences ; Hiv-Risk ; Unsafe Sex ; Primary-Care ; Men ; Consumption ; Drug ; Prevention ; Hiv/Aids ; South-Africa ; Sex Worker ; Men Who Have Sex With Men ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Indicators ; Kenya ; Sexual Behaviour ; Alcohol
    ISSN: 1471-2458
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: 2013, Vol.8(11), p.e82152
    Description: Photorhabdus is a genus of Gram-negative entomopathogenic bacteria that also maintain a mutualistic association with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis . Photorhabdus has an extensive secondary metabolism that is required for the interaction between the bacteria and the nematode. A major component of this secondary metabolism is a stilbene molecule, called ST. The first step in ST biosynthesis is the non-oxidative deamination of phenylalanine resulting in the production of cinnamic acid. This reaction is catalyzed by phenylalanine-ammonium lyase, an enzyme encoded by the stlA gene. In this study we show, using a stlA-gfp transcriptional fusion, that the expression of stlA is regulated by nutrient limitation through a regulatory network that involves at least 3 regulators. We show that TyrR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator that regulates gene expression in response to aromatic amino acids in E. coli , is absolutely required for stlA expression. We also show that stlA expression is modulated by σ S and Lrp, regulators that are implicated in the regulation of the response to nutrient limitation in other bacteria. This work is the first that describes pathway-specific regulation of secondary metabolism in Photorhabdus and, therefore, our study provides an initial insight into the complex regulatory network that controls secondary metabolism, and therefore mutualism, in this model organism.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Applied Philosophy, Spring, 2010, Vol.24(1), p.9(13)
    Description: The current armed conflict in Afghanistan (briefly, the Afghan conflict) is viewed through the lens of a just war theory. In particular, the question stated by the title is explored by means of a generalized just cause principle. For brevity, empirical, practical, and legal issues about the Afghan conflict are mostly set aside. Hence a definite answer to the question is not proposed. Instead, the main aim is to clarify the question. Specifically, the question is amplified, by distinguishing putative just causes of countering terrorism, countering an insurgency, and countering extreme violations of basic human rights. Apparently, however, U.S. government officials (e.g., President Barack Obama) and U.S. military commanders (e.g., General Stanley McChrystal) have mixed goals or motives concerning current U.S. military operations in Afghanistan. Nonetheless, from the standpoint of a just war theory, it is instructive to analytically distinguish these putative just causes, and to consider them separately. Additionally, it is instructive to consider how they might be combined. Consequently, a fourth putative just cause is considered: countering violent spoilers of peacebuilding. (This paper was completed on March 31,2010.)
    Keywords: Conflict Management -- Political Aspects ; United States Foreign Relations -- Military Aspects ; Afghan Foreign Relations -- Military Aspects ; Military Operations -- Evaluation
    ISSN: 0739-098X
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