Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, Nov, 1998, Vol.180(21-22), p.6013
    Description: Two very large operons in the gram-negative Haemophilus ducreyi 35000, lspA1 and lspA2, were determined. The operons encode a predicted protein product whose N-terminal half of about 43% similar to the N-terminal half of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin. The encoded proteins, LspA1 and LspA2, are 86% identical overall to each other and also have limited amino acid sequence homology at their N terminal to other secreted bacterial proteins.
    Keywords: Gram-negative Bacteria -- Genetic Aspects ; Bacterial Proteins -- Genetic Aspects
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, April 15, 1997, Vol.94(8), p.4056(6)
    Description: Little is known about the virulence mechanisms employed by Haemophilus ducreyi in the production of genital ulcers. This Gram-negative bacterium previously has been shown to produce a soluble cytotoxic activity that kills HeLa and HEp-2 cells. We have now identified a cluster of three H. ducreyi genes that encode this cytotoxic activity. The predicted proteins encoded by these genes are most similar to the products of the Escherichia coli cdtABC genes that comprise the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) of this enteric pathogen. Eleven of 12 H. ducreyi strains were shown to possess this gene cluster and culture supernatants from these strains readily killed HeLa cells. The culture supernatant from a single strain of H. ducreyi that lacked these genes was unable to kill HeLa cells. When the H. ducreyi cdtABC gene cluster was cloned into E. coli, culture supernatant from the recombinant E. coli clone killed HeLa cells. A monoclonal antibody that neutralized this soluble cytotoxic activity of H. ducreyi was shown to bind to the H. ducreyi cdtC gene product. This soluble H. ducreyi cytotoxin may play a role in the development or persistence of the ulcerative lesions characteristic of chancroid.
    Keywords: Hemophilus Infections -- Research ; Blood Serum -- Research ; Ulcers
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2000, Vol. 182(5), p.1364
    Description: The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis are structurally related, are exposed on the bacterial cell surface, and migrate as very high-molecular-weight complexes in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Previous analysis of uspA1 and uspA2 mutants of M. catarrhalis strain 035E indicated that UspA1 was involved in adherence of this organism to Chang conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro and that expression of UspA2 was essential for resistance of this strain to killing by normal human serum (C. Aebi, E. R. Lafontaine, L. D. Cope, J. L. Latimer, S. R. Lumbley, G. H. McCracken, Jr., and E. J. Hansen, Infect. Immun. 66:3113-3119, 1998). In the present study, isogenic uspA1, uspA2, and uspA1 uspA2 mutations were constructed in three additional M. catarrhalis strains: 012E, TTA37, and 046E. The uspA1 mutant of strain 012E had a decreased ability to attach to Chang cells. However, inactivation of the uspA1 gene in both strain TTA37 and strain 046E did not cause a significant decrease in attachment ability. Inactivation of the uspA2 gene of strain TTA37 did result in a loss of attachment ability. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the predicted protein encoded by the uspA2 genes of both strains TTA37 and 046E had a N-terminal half that resembled the N-terminal half of UspA1 proteins, whereas the C-terminal half of this protein was nearly identical to those of previously characterized UspA2 proteins. The gene encoding this "hybrid" protein was designated uspA2H. PCR-based analysis revealed that approximately 20% of M. catarrhalis strains apparently possess a uspA2H gene instead of a uspA2 gene. The M. catarrhalis uspA1, uspA2, and uspA2H genes were cloned and expressed in Haemophilus influenzae cells, which were used to prove that both the UspA1 and UspA2H proteins can function as adhesins in vitro.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 4
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2005, Vol. 73(4), p.2400
    Description: Many strains of Moraxella catarrhalis are resistant to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum. Previous studies have shown that mutations involving the insertion of an antibiotic resistance cartridge into the M. catarrhalis uspA2 gene resulted in the conversion of a serum-resistant strain to a serum-sensitive phenotype. In the present study, the deletion of the entire uspA2 gene from the serum-resistant M. catarrhalis strain O35E resulted in a serum-sensitive phenotype and did not affect either the rate of growth or the lipooligosaccharide expression profile of this mutant. Inactivation of the classical complement pathway in normal human serum with Mg2+ and EGTA resulted in the survival of this uspA2 mutant. In contrast, blocking of the alternative complement pathway did not protect this uspA2 mutant from complement-mediated killing. To determine whether the UspA2 protein is directly involved in serum resistance, transformation and allelic exchange were used to replace the uspA2 gene in the serum-resistant strain O35E with the uspA2 gene from the serum-sensitive M. catarrhalis strain MC317. The resultant O35E transformant exhibited a serum-sensitive phenotype. Similarly, when the uspA2 gene from the serum-resistant strain O35E was used to replace the uspA2 gene in the serum-sensitive strain MC317, the MC317 transformant acquired serum resistance. The use of hybrid O35E-MC317 uspA2 genes showed that the N-terminal half of the O35E protein contained a 102-amino-acid region that was involved in the expression of serum resistance. In addition, when the uspA2 genes from strains O35E and MC317 were cloned and expressed in Haemophilus influenzae DB117, only the O35E UspA2 protein caused a significant increase in the serum resistance of the H. influenzae recombinant strain. These results prove that the UspA2 protein is directly involved in the expression of serum resistance by certain M. catarrhalis strains.
    Keywords: Blood Bactericidal Activity ; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins -- Physiology ; Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis -- Immunology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 5
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2005, Vol. 73(12), p.7808
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, has been shown to inhibit phagocytosis of both itself and secondary targets in vitro. Immunodepletion of LspA proteins from H. ducreyi culture supernatant fluid abolished this inhibitory effect, indicating that the LspA proteins are necessary for the inhibition of phagocytosis by H. ducreyi. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that macrophages incubated with wild-type H. ducreyi, but not with a lspA1 lspA2 mutant, were unable to complete development of the phagocytic cup around immunoglobulin G-opsonized targets. Examination of the phosphotyrosine protein profiles of these two sets of macrophages showed that those incubated with wild-type H. ducreyi had greatly reduced phosphorylation levels of proteins in the 50-to-60-kDa range. Subsequent experiments revealed reductions in the catalytic activities of both Lyn and Hck, two members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases that are known to be involved in the proximal signaling steps of Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Additional experiments confirmed reductions in the levels of both active Lyn and active Hck in three different immune cell lines, but not in HeLa cells, exposed to wild-type H. ducreyi. This is the first example of a bacte-rial pathogen that suppresses Src family protein tyrosine kinase activity to subvert phagocytic signaling in hostcells.
    Keywords: Macrophages ; Fluorescence ; Sexually-Transmitted Diseases ; Cell Culture ; Pathogens ; Phosphotyrosine ; Hck Protein ; Phosphorylation ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinase ; Microscopy ; Chancroid ; Src Protein ; Phagocytosis ; Lyn Protein ; Immunoglobulins ; Signal Transduction ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Immunology ; Microorganisms & Parasites;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 6
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2004, Vol. 72(2), p.1221
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 7
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2004, Vol. 72(8), p.4528
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi colocalizes with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages and evades phagocytosis during experimental infection of human volunteers. H. ducreyi contains two genes, lspA1 and lspA2, which encode predicted proteins of 456 and 543 kDa, respectively. Compared to its wild-type parent, an lspA1 lspA2 double mutant does not inhibit phagocytosis by macrophage and myelocytic cell lines in vitro and is attenuated in an experimental rabbit model of chancroid. To test whether expression of LspA1 and LspA2 was necessary for virulence in humans, six volunteers were experimentally infected. Each volunteer was inoculated with three doses (ranging from 85 to 112 CFU) of the parent (35000HP) in one arm and three doses (ranging from 60 to 822 CFU) of the mutant (35000HP Omega 12) in the other arm. The papule formation rates were 88% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 76.8 to 99.9%) at 18 parent sites and 72% (95% CI, 44.4 to 99.9%) at 18 mutant sites (P = 0.19). However, papules were significantly smaller at mutant sites (mean size, 24.8 mm(2)) than at parent sites (mean size, 39.1 mm(2)) 24 h after inoculation (P = 0.0002). The pustule formation rates were 44% (95% CI, 5.8 to 77.6%) at parent sites and 0% (95% CI, 0 to 39.4%) at mutant sites (P = 0.009). With the caveat that biosafety regulations preclude testing of a complemented mutant in human subjects, these results indicate that expression of LspA1 and LspA2 facilitates the ability of H. ducreyi to initiate disease and to progress to pustule formation in humans.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 8
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2003, Vol. 71(12), p.7178
    Description: An intact Haemophilus ducreyi flp operon is essential for microcolony formation in vitro. tadA is the 9th of 15 genes in the operon and has homology to NTPases of type IV secretion systems. Fifteen human volunteers were experimentally infected with both H. ducreyi 35000HP and the tadA mutant, 35000HP.400. Papules developed at similar rates at sites inoculated with the mutant and parent, while pustules formed at 36.4% of parent sites and at 0% of mutant sites (P = 0.001). Compared to 35000HP, 35000HP.400 had only a modest but significant reduction in lesion scores in the temperature-dependent rabbit model of chancroid. These data suggest that proteins secreted by the flp locus are required for full expression of virulence by H. ducreyi in humans but have less of a role in virulence in an animal model of infection.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 9
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2003, Vol. 71(5), p.2478
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP contains two genes, lspA1 and lspA2, whose predicted protein products have molecular weights of 456,000 and 543,000, respectively (C. K. Ward, S. R. Lumbley, J. L. Latimer, L. D. Cope, and E. J. Hansen, J. Bacteriol. 180:6013-6022, 1998). We have constructed three H. ducreyi 35000HP mutants containing antibiotic resistance cartridges in one or both of the lspA1 and lspA2 open reading frames. Western blot analysis using LspA1- and LspA2-specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that the wild-type parent strain 35000HP expressed LspA1 protein that was readily detectable in culture supernatant fluid together with a barely detectable amount of LspA2 protein. The lspA2 mutant 35000HP.2 expressed LspA1 protein that was detectable in culture supernatant fluid and no LspA2 protein. In contrast, the H. ducreyi lspA1 mutant 35000HP.1, which did not express the LspA1 protein, expressed a greater quantity of the LspA2 protein than did the wild-type parent strain. The lspA1 lspA2 double mutant 35000HP.12 expressed neither LspA1 nor LspA2. The three mutant strains adhered to human foreskin fibroblasts and to a human keratinocyte cell line in vitro at a level that was not significantly different from that of the wild-type strain 35000HP. Lack of expression of the LspA1 protein by both the lspA1 mutant and the lspA1 lspA2 double mutant was associated with an increased tendency to autoagglutinate. When evaluated in the temperature-dependent rabbit model for chancroid, the lspA1 lspA2 double mutant was substantially less virulent than the wild-type strain 35000HP. The results of these studies indicated that H. ducreyi requires both the LspA1 and LspA2 proteins to be fully virulent in this animal model for experimental chancroid.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 10
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 1998, Vol. 180(22), p.6013
    Description: We have identified two extremely large open reading frames (ORFs) in Haemophilus ducreyi 35000, lspA1 and lspA2, each of which encodes a predicted protein product whose N-terminal half is approximately 43% similar to the N-terminal half of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin (FhaB). To the best of our knowledge, lspA1 (12,500 nucleotides [nt]) and lspA2 (14,800 nt) are among the largest prokaryotic ORFs identified to date. The predicted proteins, LspA1 and LspA2, are 86% identical overall to each other and also have limited amino acid sequence similarity at their N termini to other secreted bacterial proteins, including certain hemolysins. Southern blot analysis indicated that lspA1 and lspA2 sequences were present in 15 other geographically diverse H. ducreyi strains. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of total RNA isolated from H. ducreyi 35000 grown in liquid medium, grown on solid agar medium, and isolated from lesions of H. ducreyi-infected rabbits indicated that lspA1 and lspA2 were transcribed both in vitro and in vivo. A 260-kDa protein present in culture supernatant from eight virulent H. ducreyi strains reacted with both polyclonal serum from rabbits infected with H. ducreyi 35000 and a monoclonal antibody predicted to bind both LspA1 and LspA2. This 260-kDa protein in H. ducreyi 35000 culture supernatant was shown to be the protein product of the lspA1 ORF based on its reactivity with a monoclonal antibody specific for LspA1. Four H. ducreyi strains, previously shown to be avirulent in the temperature-dependent rabbit model for chancroid, did not produce either LspA1 or LspA2 in vitro. This finding raised the possibility that LspA1, LspA2, or both may be involved in the ability of H. ducreyi to cause lesions in this animal model.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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