The Science of the Total Environment, August 1, 2013, Vol.458-460, p.187(10)
To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.024 Byline: Patrick J. Ferguson, Melody J. Bernot, Jason C. Doll, Thomas E. Lauer Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been documented throughout the United States freshwaters but research has focused largely on lotic systems. Because PPCPs are designed to have a physiological effect, it is likely that they may also influence aquatic organisms. Thus, PPCPs may negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. The objectives of this research were to quantify PPCP abundance in near-shore habitats of southern Lake Michigan and identify factors related to PPCP abundance. Stratified sampling was conducted seasonally at four southern Lake Michigan sites. All sites and depths had measurable PPCP concentrations, with mean individual compound concentrations of acetaminophen (5.36ng/L), caffeine (31.0ng/L), carbamazepine (2.23ng/L), cotinine (4.03ng/L), gemfibrozil (7.03ng/L), ibuprofen (7.88ng/L), lincomycin (4.28ng/L), naproxen (6.32ng/L), paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine; 46.2ng/L), sulfadimethoxine (0.94ng/L), sulfamerazine (0.92ng/L), sulfamethazine (0.92ng/L), sulfamethoxazole (26.0ng/L), sulfathiazole (0.92ng/L), triclocarban (5.72ng/L), trimethoprim (5.15ng/L), and tylosin (3.75ng/L). Concentrations of PPCPs varied significantly among sampling times and locations (river mouth vs offshore), with statistical interactions between the main effects of site and time as well as time and location. Concentrations of PPCPs did not differ with site or depth. Temperature, total carbon, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, and ammonium concentrations were related to total pharmaceutical concentrations. These data indicate that PPCPs are ubiquitous and persistent in southern Lake Michigan, potentially posing harmful effects to aquatic organisms. Article History: Received 5 February 2013; Revised 8 April 2013; Accepted 8 April 2013
Toiletries ; Aquatic Ecosystems
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