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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, March 2011, Vol.77(5), pp.1638-45
    Description: A method was developed to deposit Bacillus subtilis spores via aerosolization onto various surface materials for biological agent decontamination and detection studies. This new method uses an apparatus coupled with a metered dose inhaler to reproducibly deposit spores onto various surfaces. A metered dose inhaler was loaded with Bacillus subtilis spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Five different material surfaces (aluminum, galvanized steel, wood, carpet, and painted wallboard paper) were tested using this spore deposition method. This aerosolization method deposited spores at a concentration of more than 10(7) CFU per coupon (18-mm diameter) with less than a 50% coefficient of variation, showing that the aerosolization method developed in this study can deposit reproducible numbers of spores onto various surface coupons. Scanning electron microscopy was used to probe the spore deposition patterns on test coupons. The deposition patterns observed following aerosol impaction were compared to those of liquid inoculation. A physical difference in the spore deposition patterns was observed to result from the two different methods. The spore deposition method developed in this study will help prepare spore coupons via aerosolization fast and reproducibly for bench top decontamination and detection studies.
    Keywords: Aerosols ; Environmental Microbiology ; Equipment Contamination ; Bacillus Subtilis -- Isolation & Purification ; Bacteriological Techniques -- Methods ; Spores, Bacterial -- Isolation & Purification
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 July 2011, Vol.110(1)
    Description: The conductivity formula derived by using the KC reduction identity and a state-dependent projection technique is applied to a two-dimensional system of electrons interacting with deformation potential acoustic phonons. The system is in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field and of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). The dc conductivity is shown to oscillate with the magnetic field above 0 . 6 T near the Zeeman factor g = - 0 . 8 and the RSOI strength α 0 = 0 . 5 × 10 - 11 eV · m . The pattern of oscillations is shown to be susceptible to change even by small change in g and α 0 , while the deformation potential constant, which characterizes the electron-phonon interaction, plays no role in changing the pattern at the temperature T = 70 K.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, August 2012, Vol.73(2), pp.126-131
    Description: This study was done to investigate change of electroencephalography (EEG) slowing and its relationship to daytime sleepiness and cognitive functions by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We enrolled thirteen male subjects with severe OSAS, and all the subjects were treated with CPAP for 3 months. Quantitative EEG (QEEG) and neuropsychological tests were performed before and after CPAP treatment. After CPAP treatment, delta absolute power decreased in the frontal, central, parietal and temporal regions and the slowing ratio was reduced in the frontal region. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was reduced after CPAP treatment. Reduction in the ESS score was correlated with a decrease in delta absolute power in the frontal region (r = 0.559) and a decrease in slowing ratio in frontal, central, parietal, and temporal regions (frontal, r = 0.650; other regions, r = 0.603). Results of neuropsychological tests assessing memory and attention were improved after CPAP treatment. EEG slowing was decreased across all cerebral regions in patients with severe OSAS after CPAP treatment accompanied by improvement of cognitive functions involving several brain areas. These findings suggest that CPAP can induce improvement of cerebral function in OSAS without regional specificity.
    Keywords: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment ; Daytime Sleepiness ; Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome ; Quantitative Electroencephalography
    ISSN: 0022-3999
    E-ISSN: 1879-1360
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, 2011, Vol.144(9), pp.2182-2187
    Description: ► Contrary to trends seen elsewhere and with other species, barn swallows are arriving later to 53 South Korean observation stations. ► We found that the first arrival dates of swallows are not related to temperature, and that striking declines were noticed at observation stations. ► Our finding initiates a discourse into using first arrival data for phenology research. ► The potential for utilizing these data can help us to understand changes in population sizes and conservation requirements. Barn swallows ( ) are arriving later in the spring than they did 30–40 years ago at numerous sites in Korea. In some cases their arrival times are later by more than 1 month. This result is perplexing as spring activities of plants and animals are generally getting earlier due to warming temperatures. The first arrival dates of swallows are not related to temperature, suggesting that another factor is involved. On the basis of a questionnaire, a large majority of long-term observers are confident that there has been a moderate to severe decline in swallow populations at their field site over the study period. The greatest delays in arrival times are associated with sites with more severe reported declines in population size. Simulations using trapping data of large migratory bird populations from the United States, consisting of hundreds of individuals, suggest that severe population declines of 99% can result in delays of 10–12 days in arrival times. In summary, our results suggest that the large delays in arrival time of Korean swallows are due, at least in part, to severe reductions of more than 99% in what were formerly very large populations. Significant delays in spring phenology over time during a period of climatic warming may indicate population decline, though alternative explanations, such as changes in range or migration path or changing number of broods per season, should also be investigated. Delays in first arrival data can provide a valuable new tool to conservation biologists by indicating declines in a population that would otherwise go unnoticed. This can, in turn, lead to efforts by researchers to verify the dynamics of a population and draw attention to the conservation needs of the species.
    Keywords: Barn Swallows ; Climate Change ; Phenology ; South Korea ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    E-ISSN: 18732917
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, December 2013, Vol.75(6), pp.551-555
    Description: Studies on the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) have reported conflicting results, and attention has not been paid to the relationship between GERD and other sleep disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between GERD and various aspects of sleep disturbances. A total of 564 subjects who were referred to a sleep laboratory were enrolled in the study. They underwent nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG), and they were asked to complete a GERD questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 14 items, and included questions on seven reflux symptoms, namely, heartburn, acid regurgitation, chest pain, hoarseness, globus sensation, coughing and epigastric soreness. Subjects reporting heartburn or acid regurgitation at least once a week were classified as having GERD. Among 564 participants, 51 subjects (9.0%) were diagnosed as having GERD. GERD patients had higher scores in Beck depression inventory (p 〈 .01), Epworth sleepiness scale (p = .03), Pittsburg sleep quality index (p 〈 .01), more spontaneous arousals in NPSG, and more alcohol consumption than non-GERD patients. There was no association between presence of GERD, SAS-related variables, and body mass index (BMI). GERD was significantly associated with poor sleep quality (adjusted OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3–9.3) and depressed mood (adjusted OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5–5.3). Poor subjective sleep and depressive symptoms are associated with the presence of GERD with no association between SAS, BMI and GERD. In managing patients with GERD, psychiatric and sleep symptoms need to be evaluated and appropriately treated.
    Keywords: Depression ; Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease ; Insomnia ; Sleep Apnea Syndrome
    ISSN: 0022-3999
    E-ISSN: 1879-1360
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, August, 2014, Vol.176, p.262(15)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.05.010 Byline: Sang-Don Lee, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing Abstract: acents We review the current state of conservation challenges on the Korean Peninsula. acents The peninsula hosts many endemic species and is critical for bird migrations. acents Conservation challenges include development, pollution, and deforestation. acents Biodiversity on the peninsula is poorly documented. Documentation is improving. acents Conservation solutions include habitat restoration and conservation planning. Article History: Received 28 December 2013; Revised 4 April 2014; Accepted 13 May 2014
    Keywords: Deforestation ; Habitat Conservation ; Urbanization ; Ecological Restoration
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Black Studies, November 2012, Vol.43(8), pp.912-935
    Description: This study explores perceived support for innovation and suggested associated variables among faculty in the context of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Results showed that faculty perspectives on organizational support for innovation were affected by dispositional resistance toward change, empowerment, organizational trust, interpersonal conflict, and several demographic variables. Organizational trust and experience in terms of participation in innovative processes had major effects on support for innovation. The strategic significance of study findings are discussed.
    Keywords: Innovation ; Hbcus ; Change ; Empowerment ; Trust ; Social Sciences (General) ; Women'S Studies
    ISSN: 0021-9347
    E-ISSN: 1552-4566
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Urology, Dec, 2012, Vol.80(6), p.1390.e7-1390.e12
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2012.07.019 Byline: Jae Min Chung (a), Min Jung Jung (b), Sang-Jin Lee (c), Sang Don Lee (d) Abstract: To investigate the effects of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) inhibitor on the bladder in rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Urology, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea (b) Department of Pathology, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea (c) Genitourinary Cancer Branch, National Cancer Centre, Gyeonggi-do, Korea (d) Department of Urology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea Article History: Received 19 April 2012; Accepted 12 July 2012 Article Note: (footnote) Financial Disclosure: The authors declare that they have no relevant financial interests.
    Keywords: Collagen ; Hydroxylases
    ISSN: 0090-4295
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, August 2014, Vol.176, pp.262-276
    Description: Human history on the Korean Peninsula has left natural resource managers with a number of serious challenges regarding the preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem functions. The Korean Peninsula covers 222,403 km and contains a mountainous interior, many islands, and biodiversity-rich coastal and marine areas. Biodiversity on the peninsula is not well documented, especially in North Korea, but the peninsula is estimated to host at least 100,000 species, and perhaps manyfold more. Roughly 6% of species identified to date are endemic, and among vertebrate species in South Korea, 29% of mammals, 14% of birds, 23% of freshwater fishes, 48% of reptiles, and 60% of amphibians are estimated to be at risk of extinction or have been extirpated from the peninsula. The situation is likely worse in North Korea. Species still occurring on the Korean Peninsula have survived near total deforestation of the landscape, heavy fishing, pollution, and, in South Korea, a period of rapid urbanization since the end of the Korean War in 1953. Conservation challenges are particularly dire in North Korea, where environmental degradation has impaired the country’s ability to sustain agriculture, clean air and water, and other fundamental ecosystem services. Conservation faces significant challenges in South Korea, too, given the country’s goal to continue to develop one of the world’s most advanced and urbanized economies. Natural resource managers in both North and South Korea are pursuing large-scale restoration of forests, wetlands, lakes and rivers, and coastlines as a primary conservation strategy. In addition, South Korea is aggressively developing a “green economy” and is hosting international environmental meetings, attempting to take a leadership role as a convener of innovative thinking in conservation. North and South Korea are also implementing more common land protection techniques, such as the creation of national parks and other protected areas. These protected areas include the exceptional case of the 100,000-ha (250 km × 4 km) Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) that forms the border between North and South Korea. The DMZ was not created for conservation reasons, but has provided an important refuge for many species. Other well-known protected areas include Jeju Island and Baekdu Daegan Mountain, both of which host many species important for conservation. Together, these conservation actions show promise and may allow the Korean Peninsula to preserve its biodiversity and regain some of its important ecosystem services. South Korea, in particular, provides an example for attempting to balance economic development and conservation in an area with a long history of human exploitation. North Korea is much farther behind in its conservation efforts, but is now beginning planning for large-scale restoration projects, which if implemented may help reverse its long trend of environmental degradation.
    Keywords: Demilitarized Zone ; Jeju Island ; Korean Peninsula ; North Korea ; Restoration ; South Korea ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    E-ISSN: 18732917
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  • 10
    In: BJU International, December 2012, Vol.110(11c), pp.E851-E856
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11342.x/abstract Byline: Suk-Hoon Kang(1), In-Young Yoon(1), Sang Don Lee(1), Jeong-Whun Kim(2) Keywords: ageing; nocturia; sleep apnoea syndrome Study Type - Symptom prevalence (cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS) can be a risk factor for nocturia, although whether the relationship between nocturia and SAS changes according to age remains to be addressed. SAS has a modest impact on nocturia frequency and the prevalence of pathological nocturia in young adults and middle-aged men. However, SAS may not be a risk factor for nocturia in the elderly, and age-related urinary diseases and voiding dysfunctions could over-ride the influence of SAS on nocturia in the elderly. OBJECTIVE To assess the association between nocturia and sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS) according to age, as well as to determine the factors related to nocturia. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 1757 men who had been referred to a sleep laboratory underwent polysomnography. Nocturia frequency was assessed using a questionnaire, and pathological nocturia was defined as the need to void two or more times per night. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were applied to all study subjects. RESULTS Nocturia frequency was significantly correlated with age (r= 0.405, P 0.001) and the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) (r= 0.065, P 0.01). In those men aged 65 years, significant correlations were found between nocturic frequency and age, AHI, BDI and PSQI. Multiple regression analysis showed that age ([beta]= 0.303, P 0.001), AHI ([beta]= 0.107 P 0.001) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; [beta]= 0.069, P 0.01) were associated with nocturia, and that the presence of pathological nocturia was predicted by BPH (odds ratio [OR], 2.77; P 0.01), age (OR, 1.09; P 0.001) and AHI (OR, 1.02; P 0.001). However, in men aged 〉65 years, nocturia frequency was significantly associated with BDI and PSQI, although no relationship was found between nocturia frequency and SAS parameters. BPH was more frequently observed in elderly men with pathological nocturia than in those without pathological nocturia (OR, 2.18; P 0.05). CONCLUSIONS In the elderly, SAS may not be a risk factor for nocturia. Age-related urinary diseases and voiding dysfunction may over-ride the influence of SAS. Author Affiliation: (1)Departments of Neuropsychiatry (2)Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Correspondence: (*) In-Young Yoon, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-101, Korea. e-mail: iyoon@snu.ac.kr Accepted for publication 19 April 2012 CAPTION(S): Supporting info item Supporting info item Supporting info item Supporting info item
    Keywords: Ageing ; Nocturia ; Sleep Apnoea Syndrome
    ISSN: 1464-4096
    E-ISSN: 1464-410X
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