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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, 2017, Vol.12(1), p.49(4)
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00003-016-1074-9 Byline: Georg Leggewie (1) Keywords: Genome Editing; Zinkfinger-Nuklease; Oligonukleotid-gerichtete Mutagenese; TALEN; CRISPR-Cas9; Cisgenese; Agroinfiltration; Pfropfungen; RNA-abhangige DNA-Methylierung; Reverse Zuchtung Abstract (German): Neue Techniken in der Pflanzenzuchtung nutzen molekularbiologische Methoden, jedoch sind Produkte dieser Verfahren oft nicht unterscheidbar von Produkten der klassischen Pflanzenzuchtung. Dies gilt vor allem fur Verfahren des Genome Editings, durch welche Punktmutationen gezielt an einer ausgewahlten Stelle des Genoms platziert werden konnen. Es wird derzeit diskutiert, ob und welche Methoden dem Europaischen Gentechnikrecht unterliegen sollten. Im Folgenden werden die einzelnen Techniken kurz beschrieben und Aspekte einer moglichen gentechnikrechtlichen Einordnung angesprochen. Author Affiliation: (1) Bundesamt fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL), Mauerstra[sz]e 39-42, 10117, Berlin, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 14/12/2016 Online Date: 05/01/2017 Article note: Der Kongress "Sichere Lebensmittel -- Von der Fruherkennung bis zur Sanktion" fand vom 18. bis 19. Oktober 2016 in Erlangen statt und wurde vom Bayerischen Landesamt fur Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit (LGL) organisiert und durchgefuhrt. The congress "Sichere Lebensmittel -- Von der Fruherkennung bis zur Sanktion" took place from 18. to 19. October 2016 in Erlangen, Germany and was hosted and organized by the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL).
    Keywords: RNA ; Genomics
    ISSN: 1661-5751
    E-ISSN: 16615867
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2001, Vol.414(6862), p.462
    Description: Arbuscular mycorrhizas are the most common non-pathogenic symbioses in the roots of plants. It is generally assumed that this symbiosis facilitated the colonization of land by plants. In arbuscular mycorrhizas, fungal hyphae often extend between the root cells and tuft-like branched structures (arbuscules) form within the cell lumina that act as the functional interface for nutrient exchange. In the mutualistic arbuscular-mycorrhizal symbiosis the host plant derives mainly phosphorus from the fungus, which in turn benefits from plant-based glucose. The molecular basis of the establishment and functioning of the arbuscular-mycorrhizal symbiosis is largely not understood. Here we identify the phosphate transporter gene StPT3 in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Functionality of the encoded protein was confirmed by yeast complementation. RNA localization and reporter gene expression indicated expression of StPT3 in root sectors where mycorrhizal structures are formed. A sequence motif in the StPT3 promoter is similar to transposon-like elements, suggesting that the mutualistic symbiosis evolved by genetic rearrangements in the StPT3 promoter.
    Keywords: Symbiosis ; Hyphae ; Phosphate Transporter ; Glucose ; Phosphorus ; Roots ; Nutrients ; Host Plants ; Promoters ; Colonization ; Complementation ; RNA ; Reporter Gene ; Arbuscular Mycorrhizas ; Solanum Tuberosum ; Genetics & Taxonomy;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 3
    Language: German
    In: Natur und Recht, 2018, Vol.40(11), pp.761-765
    Description: Der Einsatz neuer molekularbiologischer Techniken wie CRISPR/Cas zum Beispiel in der Pflanzenzucht führt nach Auffassung des Europäischen Gerichtshofs (EuGH) stets zu genetisch veränderten Organismen (GVO) im Rechtssinne. Die Entscheidung vermag in wesentlichen Kernaussagen nicht zu überzeugen, kommt aufgrund anderslautender Schlussanträge des Generalanwaltes durchaus überraschend und wirft Folgefragen auch für das deutsche Gentechnikrecht auf.
    Keywords: Law ; Administrative Law ; Environmental Law/Policy/Ecojustice ; Water Policy/Water Governance/Water Management ; Environmental Sciences ; Law;
    ISSN: 0172-1631
    E-ISSN: 1439-0515
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 2015, Vol.10(3), p.263(6)
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00003-015-0958-4 Byline: Werner Schenkel (1), Georg Leggewie (1) Abstract: In recent years, new techniques in molecular biology have spread in mainstream research and development of genetically modified organisms. These techniques differ from the classical approach of adding an exogenous gene to the genome of a target organism to obtain a desired phenotype as they aim at modifying endogenous genes or gene expression. Of greatest importance to regulatory administration in BVL are techniques using RNA-Interference and genome editing methods. RNA-Interference techniques aim at suppression of endogenous gene activity, while genome editing techniques allow complex modifications of one or several genes. With these methods the focus of action switches from the insertion of protein-encoding DNA towards the introduction of regulatory small RNA molecules. Author Affiliation: (1) Unit 403: Deliberate Release and Placing on the Market, Department 4: Genetic Engineering, Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, Mauerstr. 39-42, 10117, Berlin, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 15/06/2015 Online Date: 29/07/2015 Article note: The Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (JVL) is published by the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety. This article has been published on the occasion of the JVL's 10th anniversary.
    Keywords: Food Safety – Analysis ; Food Safety – Methods ; Genomes – Analysis ; Genomes – Methods ; Genetic Engineering – Analysis ; Genetic Engineering – Methods ; Genetically Modified Organisms – Analysis ; Genetically Modified Organisms – Methods ; Genes – Analysis ; Genes – Methods ; RNA – Analysis ; RNA – Methods ; Gene Expression – Analysis ; Gene Expression – Methods ; Genomics – Analysis ; Genomics – Methods
    ISSN: 1661-5751
    E-ISSN: 16615867
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Physiology, 2011, Vol.168(9), pp.911-919
    Description: The sucrose transporter functions in phloem loading of photoassimilates in solanaceous plant species. In the present study, wildtype and transgenic potato plants with either constitutive overexpression or inhibition of were grown under high or low phosphorus (P) fertilization levels in the presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus . At a low soil P fertilization level, the extent of AM fungal root colonization was not different among the genotypes. In all plants, the AM symbiosis contributed significantly to P uptake under these conditions. In response to a high soil P fertilization level, all genotypes showed a decrease in AM fungal root colonization, indicating that the expression level of does not constitute a major mechanism of control over AM development in response to the soil P availability. However, plants with overexpression of showed a higher extent of AM fungal root colonization compared with the other genotypes when the soil P availability was high. Whether an increased symbiotic C supply, alterations in the phytohormonal balance, or a decreased synthesis of antimicrobial compounds was the major cause for this effect requires further investigation. In plants with impaired phloem loading, a low C status of plant sink tissues did apparently not negatively affect plant C supply to the AM symbiosis. It is possible that, at least during vegetative and early generative growth, source rather than sink tissues exert control over amounts of C supplied to AM fungi.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza ; Carbohydrate Partitioning ; Phloem Loading ; Phosphorus Nutrition ; Sucrose Transporter Sut1 ; Botany
    ISSN: 0176-1617
    E-ISSN: 16181328
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 02 August 2002, Vol.277(31), pp.27772-81
    Description: Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are members of the metallo-phosphoesterase family. They are characterized by the presence of seven conserved amino acid residues involved in coordinating the dimetal nuclear center in their reactive site. We compared the 29 PAPs predicted for Arabidopsis thaliana in their varieties of potential metal-ligating residues. Although 24 members possessed sets of metal-ligating residues typical of known PAPs, 1 member lacked four of the seven residues. For the remaining four members, potential metal-ligating residues were generally more similar to those in metal-dependent exonucleases and related proteins. Evidence was obtained for the expression of the majority of the 29 PAPs. To facilitate future investigations, a scheme for naming Arabidopsis PAPs and a system for classifying the 29 PAPs are proposed. The cDNA sequences and the responses to phosphate deprivation of seven Arabidopsis PAPs (AtPAP7-AtPAP13) were characterized. For some AtPAPs analyzed, there were fully processed transcripts as well as splice variants. The splice variants of AtPAP10 were found to associate with polyribosomes and may be translated into a NH(2)-terminal truncated protein. Phylogenetic investigations showed that AtPAPs 7 and 8, together with similar enzymes from other plant species, formed the low molecular weight plant PAP group. Members of this group were more closely related to PAPs from mammalian cells. AtPAPs 9-13, together with kidney bean PAP, formed the high molecular weight PAP group. In phosphate deprivation experiments, gene transcription of AtPAP11 and AtPAP12 was induced and increased, respectively, whereas that of the remaining five AtPAPs was not affected by phosphate deprivation. The present work demonstrates that structure variation and expression regulation of plant PAPs are more complex than previously described and provides a framework for comprehensive molecular genetic and biochemical studies of all Arabidopsis PAPs in the future.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Acid Phosphatase -- Genetics ; Arabidopsis -- Enzymology ; Glycoproteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083351X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant Molecular Biology, 2002, Vol.48(3), pp.255-265
    Description: A potato cDNA clone, StMS 1, that encodes a methionine synthase was isolated. This protein was identified on the basis of both structural and functional evidence. The predicted sequence of the protein encoded by StMS 1 shows a high degree of similarity to methionine synthases from other organisms and the expression of StMS 1 in bacterial mutant strains restored the mutant's ability to synthesize methionine. Genomic organization and expression analyses suggest that StMS 1 is a low-copy gene and is differentially expressed in potato organs. StMS 1 expression was found in all tissues, but at elevated levels in flowers, basal levels in sink and source leaves, roots and stolons, and low levels in stems and tubers. RNA expression data were confirmed by western blot analysis except that the protein content in leaves was less than expected from the RNA data. Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the protein is located in the cytosol. However, the changing pattern of gene expression during the day/night period implied a light-dependent control of MS transcription normally seen for enzymes localized in plastids. The expression of MS was shown to be light-inducible with its highest expression at midday. These RNA data were not confirmed at the protein level since protein content levels remained constant over the whole day. Feeding experiments of detached leaves revealed that sucrose or sucrose-derived products are responsible for StMS 1 induction. This induction can be blocked by treatment with DCMU during the light period. Western analysis revealed that the amount of StMS 1 is not affected by either treatment. This experiment confirmed the presence of a day/night rhythm. Methionine synthase expression is regulated by photoassimilates but this seems not to detectably alter protein levels.
    Keywords: methionine biosynthesis ; methionine synthase ; Solanum tuberosum
    ISSN: 0167-4412
    E-ISSN: 1573-5028
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of cell science, 01 August 2003, Vol.116(Pt 15), pp.3135-44
    Description: Phosphorus deficiency limits plant growth, and high-affinity phosphate transporters, of the Pht1 family, facilitate phosphate uptake and translocation. The family is subdivided into root specific, phosphate deprivation induced members and those also expressed in leaves. An antibody to StPT2, a potato root specific transporter, detected two bands (52 kDa and 30 kDa) on western blots of root plasma membrane extracts that were most intense in whole extracts from the root tip and slightly increased throughout the root in response to phosphate depletion. RT-PCR, using StPT2 specific primers, confirmed these findings. Low power confocal immunofluorescent images showed StPT2 expression mainly in the elongation zone at the root tip. By contrast, a vacuolar pyrophosphatase and a plasma membrane ATPase antibody labelled the whole root. High power images showed, by comparison with alpha-tubulin, cell wall and plasma membrane ATPase labelling, that StPT2 was in the epidermal plasma membrane and restricted to the apical surface. This is the first evidence of polar plasma membrane localisation of a plant nutrient transporter and is consistent with a role for StPT2 in phosphate capture and uptake.
    Keywords: Meristem -- Enzymology ; Phosphate Transport Proteins -- Metabolism ; Phosphates -- Metabolism ; Solanum Tuberosum -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 0021-9533
    E-ISSN: 14779137
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Plant Cell, 1 March 1997, Vol.9(3), pp.381-392
    Description: Acquisition as well as translocation of phosphate are essential processes for plant growth. In many plants, phosphate uptake by roots and distribution within the plant are presumed to occur via a phosphate/proton cotransport mechanism. Here, we describe the isolation of two cDNAs, StPT1 and StPT2, from potato (Solanum tuberosum) that show homology to the phosphate/proton cotransporter PHO84 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The predicted products of both cDNAs share 35% identity with the PHO84 sequence. The deduced structure of the encoded proteins revealed 12 membrane-spanning domains with a central hydrophilic region. The molecular mass was calculated to be 59 kD for the StPT1 protein and 58 kD for the StPT2 protein. When expressed in a PHO84-deficient yeast strain, MB192, both cDNAs complemented the mutant. Uptake of radioactive orthophosphate by the yeast mutant expressing either StPT1 or StPT2 was dependent on pH and reduced in the presence of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The K〈sub〉 m〈/sub〉 for Pi uptake of the StPT1 and StPT2 proteins was determined to be 280 and 130 μM, respectively. StPT1 is expressed in roots, tubers, and source leaves as well as in floral organs. Deprivation of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur changed spatial expression as well as the expression level of StPT1. StPT2 expression was detected mainly in root organs when plants were deprived of Pi and to a lesser extent under sulfur deprivation conditions. No expression was found under optimized nutrition conditions or when other macronutrients were lacking.
    Keywords: Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Ion transporters ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany -- Ion transporters ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Mycology -- Ion transporters ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Ion transporters ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany -- Ion transporters ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Ion transporters ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Ion transporters ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Ion transporters ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology -- Ion transporters ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Ion transporters
    ISSN: 10404651
    E-ISSN: 1532298X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Planta, 2003, Vol.217(1), pp.158-167
    Description: The aim of this work was to examine the consequences of the heterologous expression of a spinach ( L.) sucrose transporter (SUT1) in potato ( L.). Many studies have indicated that reduction of the expression of this class of sucrose transporter has deleterious effects on plant growth and development; however, until now the possibility of improving plant performance by enhancing the expression of this sucrose transporter has not been reported. With this intention we constructed a chimeric construct in whichSUT1 was cloned in-frame with the myc epitope. We confirmed that this construct,SUT1m, was able to mediate sucrose transport by expression in the yeast strain SUSY7.SUT1m was expressed in wild-type potato in the sense orientation under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to evaluate the effect of an increased constitutive expression of a class-I sucrose transporter. We confirmed that these plants displayed expression ofSUT1 at both the transcript and protein level and that microsomal fragments isolated from selected lines had an increased sucrose uptake capacity. Analysis of metabolism of these lines indicated that the leaves were characterised by a reduced sucrose level yet exhibited little change in photosynthetic rate. Furthermore, despite the observed increase in sugar (and reduction in amino acid) levels within the tubers, there was little change in either starch content or tuber yield in the transformants. In summary, the genetic manipulation described in this paper resulted in a shift in carbon partitioning in both leaves and tubers and an increased sucrose uptake rate in plasma-membrane vesicles isolated from these lines, but had little impact on tuber metabolism or morphology.
    Keywords: Carbohydrate metabolism Metabolite analysis Phenocopy Solanum Sucrose transport Transitory starch
    ISSN: 0032-0935
    E-ISSN: 1432-2048
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