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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science, 2012, Vol.336(6079), pp.344-347
    Description: Recent studies have shown that the polar bear matriline (mitochondrial DNA) evolved from a brown bear lineage since the late Pleistocene, potentially indicating rapid speciation and adaption to arctic conditions. Here, we present a high-resolution data...
    Keywords: Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Klinisk Medicin ; Neurologi ; Medical And Health Sciences ; Clinical Medicine ; Neurology ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Klinisk Medicin ; Kirurgi ; Medical And Health Sciences ; Clinical Medicine ; Surgery
    ISSN: 1095-9203
    ISSN: 00368075
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Public Health Reports, July 2011, Vol.126(4), pp.597-600
    Description: This installment of Law and the Public's Health examines health insurance Exchanges. Exchanges, a centerpiece of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hereinafter referred to as the Affordable Care Act [ACA]),1 are a longstanding concept underlying health reform models that turn on the competitive purchase and sale of health insurance products.2 An overview of the Exchange provisions and key issues surrounding state implementation is followed by a discussion of the implications of health insurance exchanges for public health policy and practice.
    Keywords: Public Health
    ISSN: 0033-3549
    E-ISSN: 1468-2877
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, July 2013, Vol.68(1), pp.1-13
    Description: We reconstruct the phylogeny of all recognized species of the tropical forest associated Asian barbets based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data and test for the monophyly of species and genera. Tropical regions are well known for their extraordinarily high levels of biodiversity, but we still have a poor understanding of how this richness was generated and maintained through evolutionary time. Multiple theoretical frameworks have been developed to explain this diversity, including the Pleistocene pump hypothesis and the museum hypothesis. We use our phylogeny of the Asian barbets to test these hypotheses. Our data do not find an increase in speciation in the Pleistocene as predicted by the Pleistocene pump hypothesis. We do find evidence of extinctions, which apparently contradicts the museum hypothesis. However, the extinctions are only in a part of the phylogeny that is distributed mainly across Sundaland (the Malay peninsula and the islands off southeast Asia). The theory of island biogeography predicts a higher rate of extinction on islands than on mainland areas. The data from the part of the phylogeny primarily distributed on the mainland best fit a pure birth model of speciation, and thus supports the museum hypothesis.
    Keywords: Megalaimidae ; Ltt Plot ; Molecular Clock ; Cytb ; Fib7 ; Nd2 ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 4
    In: Science, Nov 22, 2002, Vol.298(5598), p.1613(4)
    Description: Mitochondrial DNA sequences isolated from ancient dog remains from Latin America and Alaska showed that native American dogs originated from multiple Old World lineages of dogs that accompanied late Pleistocene humans across the Bering Strait. One clade of dog sequences was unique to the New World, which is consistent with a period of geographic isolation. This unique clade was absent from a large sample of modern dogs, which implies that European colonists systematically discouraged the breeding of native American dogs.
    Keywords: Dna -- Analysis ; Dogs -- Origin ; Dogs -- Genetic Aspects ; Domestic Animals -- Origin ; Domestic Animals -- Genetic Aspects
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Strategic management in the 21st century, 2013, pp. 65-90
    Keywords: Transaktionskosten
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Biogeography, May 2015, Vol.42(5), pp.871-879
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jbi.12465/abstract Byline: Jennifer A. Leonard, Robert-Jan Tex, Melissa T. R. Hawkins, Violeta Munoz-Fuentes, Richard Thorington, Jesus E. Maldonado, Lawrence Heaney Keywords: Comparative phylogeography; extinction; molecular dating; Pleistocene divergence; population divergence; priority effect; Sundaland Abstract Aim Pleistocene environmental fluctuations had well-characterized impacts on the patterns of within-species divergences and diversity in temperate habitats. Here we examine the impact the Pleistocene had on widely distributed forest vertebrates in a tropical system where the distribution of the habitat was affected by those fluctuations. Location Sundaland, tropical Southeast Asia. Methods We conducted a comparative phylogeographical analysis of 28 non-migratory, forest-dependent vertebrates, for which we constructed rooted, intraspecifc phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of individuals from at least the three major landmasses in the area (Borneo, Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula) and compared them to hypothetical phylogenies based on independent geological data and climate models regarding connections and relationships between the major landmasses of Sundaland. Java was included where possible. We dated the phylogenies to determine whether patterns of differentiation were concordant across species. Results In most species, populations on the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra were most closely related, and sister to those from Borneo. The dates of these divergences, however, varied extensively between species. Borneo harbours multiple deeply divergent lineages of many species compared to the diversity within those species. Javan populations of several birds were most divergent relative to those from the rest of the Sunda Shelf. Main conclusions These results suggest a dynamic history, including recurrent population extinctions and replacements and a strong priority effect for local populations. The close relationship between populations in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula supports the existence of forest on the exposed shelf during the Pleistocene at many different times, and suggests that proximity was more important than the presence of palaeorivers for dispersal of forest taxa between landmasses. CAPTION(S): Appendix S1 Phylogenetic reconstruction for the four species of barbet.
    Keywords: Comparative Phylogeography ; Extinction ; Molecular Dating ; Pleistocene Divergence ; Population Divergence ; Priority Effect ; Sundaland
    ISSN: 0305-0270
    E-ISSN: 1365-2699
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science, 13 April 2001, Vol.292(5515), pp.218-219
    Description: In our study of the origins of domestic horses, published in 1998, my colleagues and I examined sequence data of the mitochondrial DNA control region from 29 individuals, including Przewalski's horse and 14 domestic breeds ([1][1]). We found virtual genetic constancy within Przewalski's horse,
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Ecology -- Species extinction ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Conservation biology ; Biological sciences -- Wildlife studies -- Wildlife management ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2010, Vol.55(2), pp.711-720
    Description: Tropical rainforests are well known for their extraordinarily high levels of biodiversity. The origin of this species richness is still debated. For instance, the museum hypothesis states that over evolutionary time more and more species will accumulate with relatively few extinctions. In contrast, the Pleistocene diversification model argues that during the last 2 million years, climatic factors (glaciations) caused environmental changes that drove isolation and vicariant speciation events. In this study, we construct a molecular phylogeny of the Sundaland (Malay Peninsula, Sumata, Borneo, Palawan) and Greater Mindanao (Mindanao, Samar, Leyte) tree squirrels (genus ). Our results show that most speciation events in this forest dependent taxon occurred before the Pleistocene and that even the timing of intra-specific splits among populations from different landmasses are relatively old. Additionally, we found unexpectedly high divergence within and between highland populations of on Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, highlighting the importance of Pliocene events in both speciation and within species divergences in this region.
    Keywords: Cytochrome B ; Fib6 ; C-Myc ; Fth ; Por ; Gbg ; Hmg1 ; Sunda Shelf ; Pleistocene Species Pump ; Molecular Dating ; Ry Coding ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 9
    In: Journal of Mammalogy, 2017, Vol. 98(5), pp.1340-1355
    Description: The taxonomic position of Annandale’s rat, Rattus annandalei (Bonhote, 1903), has been uncertain given its mix of Rattus -like and Sundamys -like morphological features. Annandale’s rat and all described species in Sundamys (the lowland S. muelleri , and the montane S. maxi and S. infraluteus ) are endemic to Sundaland, a center of diversification and endemism for their tribe, the Rattini. Using mitochondrial genomes and 3 nuclear markers ( rag1 , rbp3 , ghr ), we provide the 1st phylogenetic framework for Sundamys . We find that R. annandalei is nested within Sundamys , and that the 4 species likely diverged during the Pleistocene. We move R. annandalei to Sundamys and provide an emended diagnosis for Sundamys . Using geometric morphometric analyses of skulls and mandibles, we identify morphological differences between lowland and highland species of Sundamys that may be associated with adaptations to distinct diets.
    Keywords: Borneo ; Geometric Morphometrics ; Mitogenomes ; Mountain Endemics ; Rattini ; Sunda Shelf ; Sundamys
    ISSN: 0022-2372
    E-ISSN: 1545-1542
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  • 10
    In: Molecular Ecology, October 2008, Vol.17(19), pp.4186-4196
    Description: Ancient DNA analyses of historical, archaeological and paleontological remains can contribute important information for the conservation of populations and species that cannot be obtained any other way. In addition to ancient DNA analyses involving a single or few individuals, population level studies are now possible. Biases inherent in estimating population parameters and history from modern genetic diversity are exaggerated when populations are small or have been heavily impacted by recent events, as is common for many endangered species. Going directly back in time to study past populations removes many of the assumptions that undermine conclusions based only on recent populations. Accurate characterization of historic population size, levels of gene flow and relationships with other populations are fundamental to developing appropriate conservation and management plans. The incorporation of ancient DNA into conservation genetics holds a lot of potential, if it is employed responsibly.
    Keywords: Adna ; Climate Change ; Conservation Genetics ; Drift ; Endangered Species ; Extinction ; Hybridization ; Wildlife Management
    ISSN: 0962-1083
    E-ISSN: 1365-294X
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