Madroño, 1 April 2002, Vol.49(2), pp.61-98
A catalogue of 315 non-native vascular plant taxa documented as occurring spontaneously in California beyond those addressed in The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California is presented. The catalogue was compiled from new collections by the authors and others, previously existing herbarium specimens, formal publications, other printed reports, and direct communications with field botanists. Only reports backed by herbarium vouchers are accepted as adequately documented. Of the 315 species, 58 are fully or sparingly naturalized in relatively undisturbed wildland habitats, 53 are naturalized in disturbed areas, 34 are tenuously established or locally persisting, 13 are non-escaped weeds of greenhouse or similarly cultivated environments, 43 are presumed to be non-persisting casuals (waifs), for 110 there is no current information or observations available, and 4 have likely been extirpated. In addition, 13 reported taxa are here specifically excluded as based on erroneous information. Taxa highlighted as already being fully naturalized or potential pests are Amaranthus rudis, Brassica fruticulosa, Boehmeria cylindrica, Calystegia silvática subsp. disjuncta, Cabomba caroliniana, Cotoneaster lacteus, Crataegus monogyna, Dittrichia graveolens, Fumaria capreolata, Geranium purpureum, Geranium rotundifolium, Hederá canariensis, Limnobium laevigatum, Maytenus boaria, Pyracantha crenatoserrata, Salvinia molesta, Trifolium tomentosum, and Verbascum olympicum.
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