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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Surgical Research, December 2014, Vol.192(2), pp.573-581
    Description: BackgroundTea brewed from the leaves of persimmon or Rosa agrestis have several medical functions including treating allergy, antiatopic dermatitis, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of astragalin, a main flavonoid component isolated from these herbs, in modifying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling pathways in primary cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs). Materials and methodsThe mMECs were treated with LPS in the absence or presence of different concentrations of astragalin. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6, as well as nitric oxide production were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Griess reaction, respectively. Cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inhibitor protein of NF-κB (IκBα), P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase were measured by Western blot. ResultsThe results showed that astragalin suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and nitric oxide in a dose-dependent manner in mMECs. Western blot results showed that the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 was inhibited by astragalin. Besides, astragalin efficiently decreased LPS-induced TLR4 expression, NF-κB activation, IκBα degradation, and the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase in BMECs. ConclusionsOur results indicated that astragalin exerts anti-inflammatory properties possibly via the inactivation of TLR4-mediated NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated mMECs. Thus, astragalin may be a potential therapeutic agent for bovine mastitis.
    Keywords: Mastitis ; Astragalin ; Lps ; Cytokine ; Tlr4 ; Nf-Κb
    ISSN: 0022-4804
    E-ISSN: 10958673
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Molecular Biology, 14 September 2018, Vol.430(18), pp.3170-3189
    Description: Many bacteria secrete cellulose, which forms the structural basis for bacterial multicellular aggregates, termed biofilms. The cellulose synthase complex of Salmonella typhimurium consists of the catalytic subunits BcsA and BcsB and several auxiliary subunits that are encoded by two divergently transcribed operons, bcsRQABZC and bcsEFG. Expression of the bcsEFG operon is required for full-scale cellulose production, but the functions of its products are not fully understood. This work aimed to characterize the BcsG subunit of the cellulose synthase, which consists of an N-terminal transmembrane fragment and a C-terminal domain in the periplasm. Deletion of the bcsG gene substantially decreased the total amount of BcsA and cellulose production. BcsA levels were partially restored by the expression of the transmembrane segment, whereas restoration of cellulose production required the presence of the C-terminal periplasmic domain and its characteristic metal-binding residues. The high-resolution crystal structure of the periplasmic domain characterized BcsG as a member of the alkaline phosphatase/sulfatase superfamily of metalloenzymes, containing a conserved Zn2+-binding site. Sequence and structural comparisons showed that BcsG belongs to a specific family within alkaline phosphatase-like enzymes, which includes bacterial Zn2+-dependent lipopolysaccharide phosphoethanolamine transferases such as MCR-1 (colistin resistance protein), EptA, and EptC and the Mn2+-dependent lipoteichoic acid synthase (phosphoglycerol transferase) LtaS. These enzymes use the phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, respectively, as substrates. These data are consistent with the recently discovered phosphoethanolamine modification of cellulose by BcsG and show that its membrane-bound and periplasmic parts play distinct roles in the assembly of the functional cellulose synthase and cellulose production. Unlabelled Image •BcsG subunit of cellulose synthase is required for full-scale cellulose production.•BcsG affects cellulose production via at least two distinct molecular mechanisms.•Transmembrane part of BcsG is required for proper production of the BcsA subunit.•The periplasmic domain of BcsG has the alkaline phosphatase superfamily structure.•Crystal structure of the BcsG periplasmic domain shows a single active-site Zn ion.
    Keywords: Alkaline Phosphatase Superfamily ; Biofilm Formation ; Cellulose Biosynthesis ; Extracellular Matrix ; Virulence ; C-Di-Gmp ; TM ; Alkp ; Pe ; PG
    ISSN: 0022-2836
    E-ISSN: 10898638
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pharmacology, 15 August 2012, Vol.689(1-3), pp.255-261
    Description: Magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of magnolol on acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. Male BALB/c mice were pretreated with dexamethasone or magnolol 1h before intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 7h after LPS administration, the myeloperoxidase in lung tissues, lung wet/dry weight ratio and inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The extent of phosphorylation of nuclear factor of inhibitory kappa B alpha (IκB-α), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65 and the expression of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) were detected by western blot. The results showed that magnolol markedly attenuated the histological alterations in the lung; reduced the number of total cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; decreased the wet/dry weight ratio of lungs in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; down-regulated the level of pro-inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α, NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4, caused by LPS. Taken together, our results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of magnolol against the LPS-induced acute lung injury may be due to its ability of inhibition TLR4 mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Magnolol may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for acute lung injury treatment.
    Keywords: Magnolol ; Lipopolysaccharide ; Acute Lung Injury ; Nuclear Factor-Kappa B ; Toll-Like Receptor
    ISSN: 0014-2999
    E-ISSN: 18790712
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European journal of pharmacology, 05 April 2013, Vol.705(1-3), pp.79-85
    Description: Emodin is an anthraquinone derivative from the Chinese herb Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. It has been reported that emodin possesses a number of biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, anti-bacteria, anti-tumor, and immunosuppressive properties. However, the effect of emodin on mastitis is not yet known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether emodin has protective effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in a mouse model. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. Emodin was administered intraperitoneally with the dose of 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg respectively 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS. Emodin significantly reduced infiltration of neutrophilic granulocyte, activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, which were increased in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. In addition, emodin influenced nuclear factor kappa-B signal transduction pathway by inhibiting activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and degradation inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα), and emodin also influenced mitogen activated protein kinases signal transduction pathway by depression activation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). In conclusion, these results indicated that emodin could exert beneficial effects on experimental mastitis induced by LPS and may represent a novel treatment strategy for mastitis.
    Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory Agents -- Pharmacology ; Emodin -- Pharmacology ; MAP Kinase Signaling System -- Drug Effects ; Mastitis -- Metabolism ; Nf-Kappa B -- Antagonists & Inhibitors
    ISSN: 00142999
    E-ISSN: 1879-0712
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Inflammation, 2014, Vol.37(1), pp.214-222
    Description: Thymol is a natural monoterpene phenol primarily found in thyme, oregano, and tangerine peel . It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory property both in vivo and in vitro . In the present paper, we studied the anti-inflammatory effect of thymol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs). The mMECs were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of thymol (10, 20, 40 μg/mL). The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in the supernatants of culture were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and inhibitor protein of NF-κB (IκBα) were measured using western blot. The results showed that thymol markedly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated mMECs. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 was also suppressed by thymol in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, thymol blocked the phosphorylation of IκBα, NF-κB p65, ERK, JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated mMECs. These results indicate that thymol exerted anti-inflammatory property in LPS-stimulated mMECs by interfering the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Thereby, thymol may be a potential therapeutic agent against mastitis.
    Keywords: thymol ; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ; mammary epithelial cells (MECs) ; nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ; mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)
    ISSN: 0360-3997
    E-ISSN: 1573-2576
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Composite Structures, 15 September 2017, Vol.176, pp.565-581
    Description: Plate bonding technology is one of the most commonly used methods for strengthening existing structural beams. In this study, the strengthening effect caused by different plate materials, preloading conditions, end anchorage conditions was investigated at the same specimen scale. A total of nineteen reinforced concrete (RC) beams including two unplated (control) beams, five carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plated (CP-) beams, six carbon fiber plated (CC-) beams and six steel plated (SP-) beams were tested under four point bending. Tested parameters also include preloading condition, U-hoop end anchorage on carbon fiber plated specimen, and bolt anchorage on steel plated specimens. Finite element analysis was conducted to simulate the flexural properties of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by abovementioned strengthening methods. Results indicate that, compared with unplated specimens, all strengthened specimens showed improved structural behavior with steel plated specimens performed the best among all. In the same time, it shows that the pre-unloaded specimen is superior to load sustained specimen in cracking resistance, strengthening material utilization and strain lag between reinforcing steel rebar and strengthening materials. U-hoop end anchorage does not show significant influence on structural performance of CC- specimens. On the other hand, bolt anchorage improves ultimate capacity of SP- specimens significantly.
    Keywords: Plate ; Strengthening ; Carbon Fiber ; Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (Cfrp) ; Steel
    ISSN: 0263-8223
    E-ISSN: 18791085
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Inflammation Research, 2013, Vol.62(1), pp.9-15
    Description: Byline: Depeng Li (1), Yunhe Fu (1), Wen Zhang (1), Gaoli Su (1), Bo Liu (1), Mengyao Guo (1), Fengyang Li (1), Dejie Liang (1), Zhicheng Liu (1), Xichen Zhang (1), Yongguo Cao (1), Naisheng Zhang (1), Zhengtao Yang (1) Keywords: Salidroside; Lipopolysaccharide (LPS); Mastitis; Cytokine; Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-IoB); Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) Abstract: Background and objective Mastitis is defined as inflammation of the mammary gland in domestic dairy animals and humans. Salidroside, a major component isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has potent anti-inflammatory properties, but whether it can be used in mastitis treatment has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of salidroside against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and the mechanism of action. Methods and results We used a mouse mastitis model in which mammary gland inflammation was induced by LPS challenge. Salidroside administered 1 h before LPS infusion significantly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced the activity of myeloperoxidase in mammary tissue, and decreased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-[alpha], interleukin (IL)-1[beta], and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that salidroside down-regulated phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-IoB) p65 and inhibitor of NF-IoB [alpha] (IIoB[alpha]) in the NF-IoB signal pathway, and suppressed phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH.sub.2-terminal kinase (JNK) in MAPKs signal pathways. Conclusions This study demonstrates that salidroside is an effective suppressor of inflammation and may be a candidate for the prophylaxis of mastitis. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, Jilin, People's Republic of China Article History: Registration Date: 07/08/2012 Received Date: 02/04/2012 Accepted Date: 06/08/2012 Online Date: 23/08/2012 Article note: Responsible Editor: Graham Wallace. D. Li and Y. Fu contributed equally to this work.
    Keywords: Salidroside ; Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ; Mastitis ; Cytokine ; Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ; Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs)
    ISSN: 1023-3830
    E-ISSN: 1420-908X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 2013, Vol.378(1), pp.183-193
    Description: RP105 is a member of the toll-like receptor family of proteins that transmits an activation signal in B cells, playing a role in regulation of B cell growth and death; in macrophages and dendritic cells, RP105 is a specific inhibitor of TLR4 signaling. RP105 is uniquely important for regulating TLR4-dependent signaling. It also proved that RP105 is closely related to TLR2 in macrophage activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoproteins. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of RP105 in mouse macrophages activation of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4) alone or in combination, and the interaction between TLR2 and TLR4 signaling through RP105. Our results indicate that besides exhibiting negative regulation of TNF-α and IL12-p40 secretion in macrophage activated by LPS, RP105 is also involved in macrophages activation by Pam3CSK4 through TLR2 signaling and exhibited regulation to IL-10 and RANTES production by mouse peritoneal macrophage activated by Pam3CSK4. In macrophages activation by LPS and Pam3CSK4 in combination, TLR2 signaling can overcome RP105-mediated regulation of TLR4 signaling. Thus, our data demonstrate that not only TLR4 signaling, but also RP105 appears to be an essential accessory for immune responses through TLR2 signaling. The function of TLR2 and TLR4 in response to TLR ligands could be associated with each other by RP105. These results can help us understanding the unique role of RP105 in macrophages response to TLR ligands.
    Keywords: Macrophage ; Innate immunity ; RP105 ; TLR2 ; TLR4
    ISSN: 0300-8177
    E-ISSN: 1573-4919
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Genome announcements, 26 January 2017, Vol.5(4)
    Description: Strains of Escherichia coli exhibit diverse biofilm formation capabilities. E. coli K-12 expresses the red, dry, and rough (rdar) morphotype below 30°C, whereas clinical isolates frequently display the rdar morphotype semiconstitutively. We sequenced the genomes of eight E. coli strains to subsequently investigate the molecular basis of semiconstitutive rdar morphotype expression.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2169-8287
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  • 10
    In: 山西建筑 - Shanxi Architecture, 2016, Vol.42(05), pp.29-30
    Description: 分析了天津市轨道交通网络化统筹运作存在的主要问题,从整体布局建设、建立交通线网客流预测模型、加强市场分析等方面,提出了大数据背景下,科学规划城市交通线网的方法,以真正实现城市轨道交通的网络化运营。
    Description: This paper analyzed the existing main problems of Tianjin rail transit network whole operation,from the overall layout construction,establishment of communication network passenger volume prediction model,strengthen the market analysis and other aspects,put forward scientific planning of urban transit network method the under big data background,to realize the urban rail transit network operation.
    Keywords: 轨道交通 ; 线网规划 ; 客流量 ; 运营成本 ; Rail Transit; Line Network Planning; Passenger Volume; Operation Cost
    ISSN: 1009-6825
    Source: 维普数据 (Chongqing VIP Information Co.)
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