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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Journal of banking & finance, 2013, Vol.37(12), pp. 4777-4792
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.08.009 Byline: Lei Li Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) funds distribution to banks and the stimulus effect of TARP investments on credit supply in the economy. Using banks' political and regulatory connections as instruments, this paper finds that TARP investments increased bank loan supply by an annualized rate of 6.36% for banks with below median Tier 1 capital ratios. This increase is found in all major types of loans and can be translated into $404 billion of additional loans for all TARP banks. On average, TARP banks employed about one-third of their TARP capital to support new loans and kept the rest to strengthen their balance sheets. Furthermore, there is little evidence that loans made by TARP banks had lower quality than those by non-TARP banks. In sum, this paper shows a positive stimulus effect of TARP on credit supply during the 2008-2009 financial crisis. Article History: Received 21 August 2012; Accepted 12 August 2013 Article Note: (footnote) [star] I especially thank Philip Strahan for his insightful comments and advice. I also thank Pierluigi Balduzzi, Mary Ellen Carter, David Chapman, Jie He, Edith Hotchkiss, Christopher James, Oguzhan Karakas, Darren Kisgen, Ike Mathur (the editor), Jeffrey Pontiff, Jun Qian, Jon Reuter, Jerome Taillard, Hassan Tehranian, Zhipeng Zhang, and an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments. All errors are my own.
    Keywords: Banks (Finance) ; Bank Loans;
    ISSN: 03784266
    E-ISSN: 18726372
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron Letters, 20 November 2013, Vol.54(47), pp.6358-6362
    Description: Chiral derivatives of -1,2-diaminocyclohexane with different , -dialkyl groups in well-defined orientations have been synthesized, and applied as catalysts for the asymmetric aldol reaction between a variety of aldehydes and ketones. Enantiomeric catalyst catalyzed the reaction in ethanol and provided excellent diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity. Significantly, simple replacement of organic solvents with water switched the products of the aldol reactions from to configuration. Such catalytic reactions led to the products with to diastereoselectivity up to 99:1 in ethanol, while in water gave the products with to diastereoselectivity up to 99:1.
    Keywords: Aldol Reaction ; Organocatalysts ; Chiral Diamines ; Configuration Transformation ; Enantioselectivity ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    E-ISSN: 1873-3581
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2011, Vol.509(22), pp.6457-6461
    Description: ► We grew Er /Yb -codoped KLTN single crystal by TSSG method. ► It has typical absorption bands of Er and Yb in UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectrum. ► Green and red UC emissions are observed under 975 nm excitation. ► The ET processes from Yb to Er play an important role in the UC emissions. A high optical quality erbium and ytterbium codoped potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystal is grown by top-seed solution growth method, and the crystal structure is confirmed to be 4 mm point group and 4/ space group by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The ultraviolet–visible–near infrared absorption spectrum, upconversion fluorescence spectrum excited by 975 nm continuous wave laser, power dependence, and fluorescence decay curves of Er ions in the crystal are measured at room temperature. The Judd–Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters are calculated using the JO theory and absorption spectrum. The relationship of JO parameters 〈 of Er in the crystal is different from the general trend of 〉 〉 . The absorption cross sections and emission cross sections of , , and levels are calculated. The upconversion mechanism of Er in the crystal is discussed based on pump power dependence analyses and decay curves. The emission intensities exhibit quadratic behaviors against pump energy, which are verified by the deduction of transition rate equation model.
    Keywords: Rare-Earth-Doped Materials ; Absorption and Luminescence Properties ; Kltn Crystal ; Engineering ; Chemistry ; Physics
    ISSN: 0925-8388
    E-ISSN: 1873-4669
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Power Sources, Jan 1, 2013, Vol.221, p.1(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.08.021 Byline: Lei Li (a), Keith Scott (b), Eileen Hao Yu (b) Abstract: Gold nanoparticles supported on MnO.sub.2-carbon nanocomposite (Au/MnO.sub.2-C) are synthesised as the catalyst for the anodic oxidation of glucose for use in a direct glucose alkaline fuel cell (DGAFC). Characterisation of the catalyst is carried out using physical and electrochemical methods. It is observed that gold nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed onto the MnO.sub.2-carbon nanocomposite support. Cyclic voltammetry shows that the prepared Au/MnO.sub.2-carbon catalysts exhibit higher electro-catalytic activity for glucose oxidation than that of commercial Pt/C and Au/C catalysts. A maximum power density, at 30 [degrees]C, of 1.1 mW cm.sup.-2 is obtained using an Au/MnO.sub.2-C anode catalyst in DGAFC, which is higher than that of the commercial Au/C catalyst. The enhanced activity is attributed to a catalytic effect of MnO.sub.2 towards glucose oxidation. MnO.sub.2-C nanocomposite is a promising approach for reducing noble metal catalyst loading in addition to improving the catalytic activity of gold catalyst for glucose oxidation. Author Affiliation: (a) School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China (b) School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom Article History: Received 10 May 2012; Revised 2 August 2012; Accepted 8 August 2012
    Keywords: Oxidation-reduction Reactions ; Nanotechnology ; Fuel Cell Industry ; Fuel Cells ; Glucose
    ISSN: 0378-7753
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    In: Chemical Communications, 2012, Vol.48(79), pp.9858-9860
    Description: A LiMn 2 O 4 cathode lithium-ion battery using lithiated ion exchange membranes swollen with organic non-aqueous solvent as the electrolyte to overcome capacity fading at high temperature is first demonstrated, and shows very good capacity retention compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries using liquid electrolyte.
    Keywords: Cathodes ; Electrolytes ; Membranes ; Fading ; Solvents ; Lithium-Ion Batteries ; Liquids ; Miscellaneous Sciences (So) ; Components and Materials (General) (Ea);
    ISSN: 1359-7345
    E-ISSN: 1364-548X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2010, Vol.107(8), pp.3918-3923
    Description: Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), regulate essential growth and developmental processes. BRs signal through membrane-localized receptor BRI1 and several other signaling components to regulate the BES1 and BZR1 family transcription factors, which in turn control the expression of hundreds of target genes. However, knowledge about the transcriptional mechanisms by which BES1/BZR1 regulate gene expression is limited. By a forward genetic approach, we have discovered that Arabidopsis thaliana Interact-With-Spt6 (AtIWS1), an evolutionarily conserved protein implicated in RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) postrecruitment and transcriptional elongation processes, is required for BR-induced gene expression. Loss-of-function mutations in AtIWS1 lead to overall dwarfism in Arabidopsis, reduced BR response, genome-wide decrease in BR-induced gene expression, and hypersensitivity to a transcription elongation inhibitor. Moreover, AtIWS1 interacts with BES1 both in vitro and in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the presence of AtIWS1 is enriched in transcribed as well as promoter regions of the target genes under BR-induced conditions. Our results suggest that AtIWS1 is recruited to target genes by BES1 to promote gene expression during transcription elongation process. Recent genomic studies have indicated that a large number of genes could be regulated at steps after RNAPII recruitment; however, the mechanisms for such regulation have not been well established. The study therefore not only establishes an important role for AtIWS1 in plant steroid-induced gene expression but also suggests an exciting possibility that IWS1 protein can function as a target for pathway-specific activators, thereby providing a unique mechanism for the control of gene expression. ; Includes references ; p. 3918-3923.
    Keywords: Protein-Protein Interactions ; Dna-Directed Rna Polymerase ; Arabidopsis Thaliana ; Brassinosteroids ; Transcription Factors ; Biosynthesis ; Transcription (Genetics) ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Transcription Elongation
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Polymer, July 7, 2011, Vol.52(15), p.3488(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2011.05.042 Byline: Lei Li, Tao Liu, Ling Zhao, Wei-kang Yuan Abstract: In-situ high-pressure FTIR was used to investigate the polymorphous phase transition of isotactic poly-1-butene (iPB-1) with form III upon annealing at temperatures ranging from 75 to 100 [degrees]C and CO.sub.2 pressures ranging from 2 to 12 MPa. It was shown that the phase transition of form III changed from form III to II not through form III to I' with increasing temperature and application of CO.sub.2 increased the content of generated form I'. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurement on the annealed iPB-1 with form III verified the phase transition of form III. The crystalline morphology of the annealed iPB-1 films was investigated using polarized optical microscopy (POM). The results implied that the phase transition of form III to I' might process via a solid-solid transition, which did not affect the orientation of the lamellar stacks. The orientation of form II lamellar stacks depended strongly on the formation process. To obtain strong orientation, the formation process displayed the following order: melt crystallization at ambient condition 〉 melt recrystallization under CO.sub.2 〉 phase transition upon annealing at ambient condition. Avrami equation could be well established to describe the phase transition of form III to I' through a solid-solid phase transition. Author Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China Article History: Received 29 January 2011; Revised 29 March 2011; Accepted 22 May 2011
    ISSN: 0032-3861
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Power Sources, Jan 1, 2013, Vol.221, p.90(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.08.028 Byline: Yanbo Liu, Lei Tan, Lei Li Abstract: In order to overcome severe capacity fading of LiMn.sub.2O.sub.4 cathode lithium-ion battery, tris(trimethylsilyl) borate (TMSB) is used as an electrolyte additive. With 0.5 wt% TMSB addition into the electrolyte (EC/DMC with 1 M LiPF.sub.6), the capacity retention is significantly improved at both room temperature and 55 [degrees]C. The effects of the TMSB on the LiMn.sub.2O.sub.4 electrode are investigated via a combination of cyclability, capacity retention of high temperature storage, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on these results, it is suggested that the improved cyclability of the cells containing the TMSB additive is mainly originated from the participation in the formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the surface of electrode, the dissolution of LiF out of the SEI and the enhancement of cyclability of Li anode. Author Affiliation: School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China Article History: Received 4 June 2012; Revised 28 June 2012; Accepted 13 August 2012
    Keywords: X-ray Spectroscopy ; Furniture Stores ; Electrolytes ; Batteries
    ISSN: 0378-7753
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Production Economics, 2011, Vol.134(2), pp.344-356
    Description: Supplier selection is an important strategic supply chain design decision. Incorporating uncertainty of demand and supplier capacity into the optimization model results in a robust selection of suppliers. A two-stage stochastic programming (SP) model and a chance-constrained programming (CCP) model are developed to determine a minimal set of suppliers and optimal order quantities with consideration of business volume discounts. Both models include several objectives and strive to balance a small number of suppliers with the risk of not being able to meet demand. The SP model is scenario-based and uses penalty coefficients whereas the CCP model assumes a probability distribution and constrains the probability of not meeting demand. Both formulations improve on a deterministic mixed integer linear program and give the decision maker a more complete picture of tradeoffs between cost, system reliability and other factors. We present Pareto-optimal solutions for a sample problem to demonstrate the benefits of the SP and CCP models. In order to describe the tradeoffs between costs and risks in an analytical form, we use multi-parametric programming techniques to more completely analyze the alternative Pareto-optimal supplier selection solutions in the CCP model. This analysis gives insights into the robustness of the solutions with respect to number of suppliers, costs and probability of not meeting demand.
    Keywords: Robust Supplier Selection ; Plan for Uncertainty ; Stochastic Programming ; Chance-Constraint Programming ; Multi-Parametric Programming ; Tradeoffs Between Risk and Cost ; Engineering ; Business
    ISSN: 0925-5273
    E-ISSN: 1873-7579
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, 31 January 2014, Vol.25(2), pp.193-197
    Description: The enantioselective organocatalytic direct aldol reactions of ketones with various aldehydes were developed by using chiral 1,2-cyclohexanediamine (DACH) based multifunctional ligands via a noncovalent catalysis mechanism. By using a catalyst, we also obtained functionalized 3-alkyl-3-hydroxyindolin-2-ones in high yields and with good to excellent enantioselectivities.
    Keywords: Chemistry
    ISSN: 0957-4166
    E-ISSN: 1362-511X
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