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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 01 January 2016, Vol.124, pp.1-7
    Description: Affective biases toward racial out-group members, characterized by White perceivers' negative evaluations of Black individuals, prevail in U.S. culture. Such affective associations have been found to guide race-based impression formation. Accordingly, individuals may strive to resolve inconsistencies when perceiving targets violating their expectations. The current study focuses on the impact of evaluative incongruence on the activity of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) — a brain region previously shown to support impression formation. When asking participants to form impressions of positively and negatively evaluated Black and White individuals, we found preferential dmPFC activity in response to individuals paired with information that violates race-based affective associations. Importantly, individual differences in internal motivation to respond without prejudice (IMS) were found to shape the extent to which dmPFC activity indexes the interactive effects of race and affective associations during impression formation. Specifically, preferential dmPFC activity in response to evaluatively incongruent targets (i.e., Black-positive & White-negative) was present among participants with lower, but not those with higher, levels of IMS. Implications and future directions are discussed in the context of dmPFC involvement in social cognition.
    Keywords: Impression Formation ; Race Perception ; Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex ; Evaluative Incongruence ; Motivation ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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  • 2
    In: 0, Vol.Early Access(Early Access), pp.1-13
    Description: Given the well-documented involvement of the amygdala in race perception, the current study aimed to investigate how interracial contact during childhood shapes amygdala response to racial outgroup members in adulthood. Of particular interest was the impact of childhood experience on amygdala response to familiar, compared with novel, Black faces. Controlling for a number of well-established individual difference measures related to interracial attitudes, the results reveal that perceivers with greater childhood exposure to racial outgroup members display greater relative reduction in amygdala response to familiar Black faces. The implications of such findings are discussed in the context of previous investigations into the neural substrates of race perception and in consideration of potential mechanisms by which childhood experience may shape race perception.
    Keywords: Attitude ; Face ; Amygdala -- Physiology ; Pattern Recognition, Visual -- Physiology ; Race Relations -- Psychology ; Recognition (Psychology) -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 0898-929X
    E-ISSN: 1530-8898
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(10), p.e46777
    Description: Several studies identified HIV-1 recombination in some distinct areas in Yunnan, China. However, no comprehensive studies had been fulfilled in the whole province up to now. To illustrate the epidemiology and recombination form of Unique Recombinant Forms (URFs) circulating in Yunnan, 788 HIV-1 positive individuals residing in 15 prefectures of Yunnan were randomly enrolled into the study. Full-length gag and pol genes were amplified and sequenced. Maximum likelihood tree was constructed for phylogenetic analysis. Recombinant breakpoints and genomic schematics were identified with online software jpHMM. 63 (10.2%) unique recombinant strains were identified from 617 strains with subtypes. The URFs distributed significantly differently among prefectures (Pearson chi-square test, P〈0.05). IDUs contained more URFs than sexual transmitted population (Pearson chi-square test, P〈0.05). Two main recombinant forms were identified by considering the presence of CRF01_AE segments in full length gag - pol genes, which were B′/C and B′/C/CRF01-AE recombinants. Three clusters were identified in the ML tree which contained more than three sequences and supported by high bootstrap values. One CRF was identified. Many of URFs contained identical breakpoints. The results will contribute to our understanding on HIV recombination and provide clues to the identification of potential CRFs in China.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Infectious Diseases
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Tourism Management, February 2017, Vol.58, pp.276-285
    Description: Tourism in the village of Langde Miao is an example of ethnic village tourism in China. Its mode of operation and organization – characterized by community guidance, public participation, and its work point system is known as the “Langde Mode”. Its success, both social and financial, provides an ideal model by which to investigate community empowerment and its role in promoting tourism. To this end, using literature reviews and empirical research, this paper evaluates the Langde Miao people's community participation in its tourism. It is suggested that the evolution of the Lande Miao community's organizational and systematic skills to develop tourism have fostered the local community's economic, social, and political success. This success can then further support community empowerment, requiring limited subsequent intervention by the government. It is suggested that the model can then be expanded to other localities throughout China.
    Keywords: Landge Miao Village ; Community Tourism ; Organizational Evolution ; Systematic Construction ; Empowerment Significance ; Geography ; Business
    ISSN: 0261-5177
    E-ISSN: 1879-3193
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Tourism management : research, policies, practice, 2017, pp. 276-285
    ISSN: 02615177
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Brain Research, 15 February 2017, Vol.1657, pp.120-129
    Description: Recent studies have reported microglia that are activated in the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and animal models of epilepsy. However, limited data are available on the dynamic changes of the proportions of various phenotypes of microglia throughout epileptogenesis and whether IL-4/IFN-γ administration can modulate the proportions of microglial phenotypes to affect the outcome of epilepsy. The current study examined this issue using a mouse model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Flow cytometry showed that classically activated microglia (M1) and alternatively activated microglia (M2) underwent variations throughout the stages of epileptogenesis. The altered trends in the microglia-associated cytokines IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10 paralleled the changes in phenotype proportions. We found that intraperitoneal injections of IL-4 and IFN-γ, which have been reported to modulate the phenotypes of microglia in vitro, also affected the proportion of microglia in vivo. In addition, correctly timing the modulation of the proportion of microglia improved the outcomes of epilepsy based on the reduced frequency, duration, and severity of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and increased the performances of the mice in the Morris water maze. This study is the first to report altering the proportion of microglial phenotypes in pilocarpine-induced epileptogenesis. Intraperitoneal injection of IL-4/IFN-γ could be used to modulate the proportions of the types of microglia, and epilepsy outcomes could be improved by correctly timing this modulation of phenotypes.
    Keywords: Microglia ; Il-4 ; IFN-Γ ; Epilepsy ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-8993
    E-ISSN: 1872-6240
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(9), p.e107349
    Description: Recombination is one of the major mechanisms underlying the generation of HIV-1 variability. Currently 61 circulating recombinant forms of HIV-1 have been identified. With the development of recombination detection techniques and accumulation of HIV-1 reference stains, more accurate mosaic structures of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), like CRF04 and CRF06, have undergone repeated analysis and upgrades. Such revisions may also be necessary for other CRFs. Unlike previous studies, whose results are based primarily on a single recombination detection program, the current study was based on multiple recombination analysis, which may have produced more impartial results.Representative references of 3 categories of intersubtype recombinants were selected, including BC recombinants (CRF07 and CRF08), BG recombinants (CRF23 and CRF24), and BF recombinants (CRF38 and CRF44). They were reanalyzed in detail using both the jumping profile hidden Markov model and RDP3.The results indicate that revisions and upgrades are very necessary and the entire re-analysis suggested 2 types of revision: (i) length of inserted fragments; and (ii) number of inserted fragments. The reanalysis also indicated that determination of small regions of about 200 bases or fewer should be performed with more caution.Results indicated that the involvement of multiple recombination detection programs is very necessary. Additionally, results suggested two major challenges, one involving the difficulty of accurately determining the locations of breakpoints and the second involving identification of small regions of about 200 bases or fewer with greater caution. Both indicate the complexity of HIV-1 recombination. The resolution would depend critically on development of a recombination analysis algorithm, accumulation of HIV-1 stains, and a higher sequencing quality. With the changes in recombination pattern, phylogenetic relationships of some CRFs may also change. All these results may be critical to understand the role of recombination in a complex and dynamic HIV evolution.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Brain Research, Jan 11, 2012, Vol.1431, p.69(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.10.052 Byline: Jinglong Wu, Bin Wang, Tianyi Yan, Xiujun Li, Xuexiang Bao, Qiyong Guo Keywords: Inferior frontal gyrus; Language; Judgment; Chinese characters; Illiterate; fMRI Abstract: In the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the different roles of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) in Chinese character form judgment between literate and illiterate subjects. Using event-related fMRI, 24 healthy right-handed Chinese subjects (12 literates and 12 illiterates) were asked to perform Chinese character and figure form judgment tasks. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) differences in pIFG were examined with general linear modeling (GLM). We found differences in reaction times and accuracy between subjects as they performed these tasks. These behavioral differences reflect the different cognitive demands of character form judgment for literate and illiterate individuals. The results showed differences in the BOLD response patterns in the pIFG between the two discrimination tasks and the two subject groups. A comparison of the character and figure tasks showed that literate and illiterate subjects had similar BOLD responses in the inferior frontal gyrus. However, differences in behavioral performance suggest that the pIFG plays a different role in Chinese character form judgment for each subject group. In literate subjects, the left pIFG mediated access to phonology in achieving Chinese character form judgment, whereas the right pIFG participated in the processing of the orthography of Chinese characters. In illiterate subjects, the bilateral frontal gyrus participated in the visual-spatial processing of Chinese characters to achieve form judgment. Article History: Accepted 29 October 2011
    Keywords: Literacy
    ISSN: 0006-8993
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 15 July 2018, Vol.753, pp.162-166
    Description: In this work, the effect of Zr content on magnetic properties and electrical resistivity of Sm(Co Fe Cu Zr ) (  = 0.020, 0.025, 0.030, 0.035) high temperature magnets has been investigated. More Zr content results in the decrease of average cell size and the increase of the density of lamellar structure. In addition, a large number of phase boundaries between lamellar phase and cellular structure have also been formed. The intrinsic coercivity of 550 °C enhances from 3.21 kOe to 6.05 kOe with the increase of Zr content. Furthermore, electrical resistivity shows obviously different variation in different directions with increasing Zr content. At room temperature and 127 °C, the electrical resistivity improves from 68.2 μΩ cm to 91.7 μΩ cm and from 87.1 μΩ cm to 103.3 μΩ cm with increasing from 0.020 to 0.035 in the direction parallel to -axis, respectively. However, there is only a slight increase in the electrical resistivity in the direction perpendicular to -axis. The rise of electrical resistivity in different directions has been discussed. Research results indicate that increasing the density of the lamellar phase is an effective way to increase electrical resistivity in the 2:17-type Sm-Co magnets.
    Keywords: 2:17 Type Sm-Co Magnets ; Magnetic Properties ; Lamellar Phase ; Electrical Resistivity ; Engineering ; Chemistry ; Physics
    ISSN: 0925-8388
    E-ISSN: 1873-4669
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Psychological Science, February 2014, Vol.25(2), pp.349-357
    Description: Emotions can color people’s attitudes toward unrelated objects in the environment. Existing evidence suggests that such emotional coloring is particularly strong when emotion-triggering information escapes conscious awareness. But is emotional reactivity stronger after nonconscious emotional provocation than after conscious emotional provocation, or does conscious processing specifically change the association between emotional reactivity and evaluations of unrelated objects? In this study, we independently indexed emotional reactivity and coloring as a function of emotional-stimulus awareness to disentangle these accounts. Specifically, we recorded skin-conductance responses to spiders and fearful faces, along with subsequent preferences for novel neutral faces during visually aware and unaware states. Fearful faces increased skin-conductance responses comparably in both stimulus-aware and stimulus-unaware conditions. Yet only when visual awareness was precluded did skin-conductance responses to fearful faces predict decreased likability of neutral faces. These findings suggest a regulatory role for conscious awareness in breaking otherwise automatic associations between physiological reactivity and evaluative emotional responses.
    Keywords: Emotions ; Consciousness ; Individual Differences ; Subliminal Perception ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0956-7976
    E-ISSN: 1467-9280
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