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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Optoelectronics Letters, 2014, Vol.10(1), pp.38-42
    Description: An efficient light-trapping structure, which consists of the periodic Ag nanoparticles and a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) with high reflectivity, is presented for the thin-film gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. The effects of both Ag nanoparticles and DBR on the optical absorption of GaAs solar cells are theoretically investigated by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The optimization process of parameters for the solar cell with both structures is analyzed systematically. The great absorption enhancement in GaAs layer is demonstrated, especially in the wavelength region near the GaAs band gap. It is observed that the superposition of the two effects excited by Ag nanoparticles and DBR results in the obvious absorption enhancement. By using cylindrical Ag nanoparticles and DBR together, the maximum enhancement factor of the solar cell is obtained as 4.83 in the simulation.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles -- Analysis ; Thin Films -- Analysis ; Arsenic Compounds -- Analysis ; Solar Cells -- Analysis ; Gallium Arsenide -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 1673-1905
    E-ISSN: 1993-5013
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron, 2011, Vol.67(38), pp.7426-7430
    Description: A direct and efficient approach for the preparation of pyrazolophthalazinyl spirooxindoles has been developed through one-pot three-component reaction of easily available isatin, malononitrile or cyanoacetic ester, and phthalhydrazide catalyzed by nickel chloride in polyethylene glycol 600. Desired products were obtained in high to excellent yields using a simple workup procedure.
    Keywords: Nickel Chloride ; Pyrazolophthalazinyl Spirooxindoles ; Multicomponent Reaction ; One-Pot ; Polyethylene Glycol ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    E-ISSN: 1464-5416
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(8), p.e0134276
    Description: Pediatric glioblastomas (pGBM), although rare, are one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in children, with tumors essentially refractory to existing treatments. Here, we describe the use of conventional and advanced in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to assess a novel orthotopic xenograft pGBM mouse (IC-3752GBM patient-derived culture) model, and to monitor the effects of the anti-cancer agent OKN-007 as an inhibitor of pGBM tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry support data is also presented for cell proliferation and tumor growth signaling. OKN-007 was found to significantly decrease tumor volumes (p〈0.05) and increase animal survival (p〈0.05) in all OKN-007-treated mice compared to untreated animals. In a responsive cohort of treated animals, OKN-007 was able to significantly decrease tumor volumes (p〈0.0001), increase survival (p〈0.001), and increase diffusion (p〈0.01) and perfusion rates (p〈0.05). OKN-007 also significantly reduced lipid tumor metabolism in responsive animals [(Lip1.3 and Lip0.9)-to-creatine ratio (p〈0.05)], as well as significantly decrease tumor cell proliferation (p〈0.05) and microvessel density (p〈0.05). Furthermore, in relationship to the PDGFRα pathway, OKN-007 was able to significantly decrease SULF2 (p〈0.05) and PDGFR-α (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α) (p〈0.05) immunoexpression, and significantly increase decorin expression (p〈0.05) in responsive mice. This study indicates that OKN-007 may be an effective anti-cancer agent for some patients with pGBMs by inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis, possibly via the PDGFRα pathway, and could be considered as an additional therapy for pediatric brain tumor patients.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 04/11/2012, Vol.51(14), pp.5374-5374
    ISSN: 0888-5885
    E-ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2010, Vol.396(2), pp.199-205
    Description: Oxidative stress induced by free fatty acids plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in patients with metabolic syndrome. Reducing oxidative stress in these patients may prevent cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic agent metformin has been reported to directly protect the cardiovascular system. In this study, we examined the effect of metformin on the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by palmitic acid (PA) in human aortic endothelial cells and studied the molecular mechanisms involved. We observed that metformin significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels induced by PA. Additionally, metformin increased the expression of the antioxidant thioredoxin (Trx), which mediated metformin’s effects on ROS reduction. Metformin increased Trx expression through the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. Metformin-regulated Trx at the transcriptional level and forkhead transcription factor 3 (FOXO3) was involved in this process. These results suggest that metformin reduces ROS levels by inducing Trx expression through activation of the AMPK-FOXO3 pathway.
    Keywords: Metformin ; Amp-Activated Protein Kinase ; Forkhead Transcription Factor 3 ; Thioredoxin ; Reactive Oxygen Species ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    E-ISSN: 1090-2104
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of medicinal chemistry, 10 September 2015, Vol.58(17), pp.6899-6908
    Description: Somatic mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) at R132 are frequently found in certain cancers such as glioma. With losing the activity of wild-type IDH1, the R132H and R132C mutant proteins can reduce α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) to d-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (D2HG). The resulting high concentration of D2HG inhibits many α-KG-dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases, to cause broad histone hypermethylation. These aberrant epigenetic changes are responsible for the initiation of these cancers. We report the synthesis, structure-activity relationships, enzyme kinetics, and binding thermodynamics of a novel series of 2-thiohydantoin and related compounds, among which several compounds are potent inhibitors of mutant IDH1 with Ki as low as 420 nM. X-ray crystal structures of IDH1(R132H) in complex with two inhibitors are reported, showing their inhibitor-protein interactions. These compounds can decrease the cellular concentration of D2HG, reduce the levels of histone methylation, and suppress the proliferation of stem-like cancer cells in BT142 glioma with IDH1 R132H mutation.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Chemistry ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Thiohydantoins -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00222623
    E-ISSN: 1520-4804
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 07/15/2016, Vol.76(14 Supplement), pp.2410-2410
    Description: Ependymoma is the third most common malignant pediatric brain tumor, accounting for 10 all intracranial tumors in children. Current standard treatment for ependymoma patients include maximally safe surgical resection followed by radiation therapy. The degree of gross total resection remains the best prognostic factor, although more molecular characterization has been completed in recent years demonstrating several subgroups of ependymoma that can more accurately predict clinical outcome. 5-year event free survival is 40-85 and varies depending on the extent of surgical resection, tumor grade, and other prognostic factors. Prognosis is even more dismal in those patients with recurrent ependymomas which occurs in nearly half of the patients, and there are no known curative options to offer these patients other than palliative re-irradiation and additional surgeries. Chemotherapies and molecular targeted therapies have not been proven to increase survival outcomes. Therefore, it is imperative to learn more about the biology of recurrent diseases and identify the cellular driver of ependymoma recurrence, as well as understanding the mechanisms of therapy resistance. We hypothesize that ependymoma recurrence is driven by a subpopulation of therapy-resistant tumors cells with enhanced tumorigenicity in SCID mice.
    Keywords: Brain Tumors ; Radiation ; Pediatrics ; Chemotherapy ; Surgery ; Prognosis ; Animal Models ; Survival ; Tumorigenicity ; Xenografts ; Children ; Tumor Cells ; Neurology & Neuropathology;
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 04/15/2012, Vol.72(8 Supplement), pp.489-489
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 04/15/2012, Vol.72(8 Supplement), pp.4063-4063
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 09 September 2018, Vol.2018(33), pp.3757-3760
    Description: ,‐disubstituted‐4,4‐bipyridinium (viologen) compounds and polyoxometalates (POMs) are two large groups of photochromic materials. In this work, we studied the photochromic property and colour modulation property of hydrogen bonding POMs–viologen hybrids. Taking the reported (Hpipz)[MoO] (: no viologen containing) and (CHNO)[MoO] () as important examples and combining with the two reported POM–viologen crystalline hybrids, we have demonstrated that CHNOCl viologen ligands do participate in the coloration process. Moreover, it can also tune the photochromic property of polyoxomolybdates, displaying a colour modulation effect. This work develops a new colour modulation method based on Polyoxomolybdate–Viologen hybrid photochromic materials and may help to improve the performance of the well‐known photochromic polyoxomolybdate family. Viologen as photochromic ligand is expected to become a colour modulator in photochromism of polyoxomolybdate–viologen hybrids through pulling electrons.
    Keywords: Viologen ; Photochromism ; Modulator ; Polyoxometalates ; Hybrids
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    E-ISSN: 1099-0682
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