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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, Jan 11, 2012, Vol.414-415, p.503(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.11.028 Byline: Jessica E. Liggett, Adrian D. Werner, Craig T. Simmons Keywords: Surface-subsurface interaction; Integrated modelling; Overland flow; Coupling length; HydroGeoSphere Abstract: a* Influence of first-order exchange coefficient (FOEC) on exchange flux and overland flow is explored. a* Guidance on FOEC values is provided through systematic analysis of coupled 1D simulations. a* Lower coupling length (le) values are needed for Hortonian conditions or in low permeability soils. a* Top-down saturation occurs under Hortonian conditions when le a[c]1/2 total obstruction height (Hs). a* Hs (when composed of sub-grid depression storage only) is a useful initial estimate of le. Author Affiliation: National Centre for Groundwater Research & Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia Article History: Received 20 May 2011; Revised 10 November 2011; Accepted 11 November 2011 Article Note: (miscellaneous) This manuscript was handled by Geoff Syme, Editor-in-Chief
    Keywords: Depression (Mood disorder) -- Analysis ; Permeability -- Analysis ; Groundwater -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, Jan 11, 2012, Vol.414-415, p.503(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.11.028 Byline: Jessica E. Liggett, Adrian D. Werner, Craig T. Simmons Keywords: Surface-subsurface interaction; Integrated modelling; Overland flow; Coupling length; HydroGeoSphere Abstract: Presently, there is little guidance for model users on the selection of the first-order exchange coefficient (FOEC; or "conductance") commonly used in simulating surface-subsurface interactions (e.g. infiltration). In this study, relationships between the FOEC and surface-subsurface exchange flux, surface-subsurface head difference and time to initiate overland flow are systematically explored using 1D soil column simulations with the fully integrated code HydroGeoSphere. Numerical experiments adopt five different hydrological scenarios and nine different soil profiles. Results converge on the more accurate, but sometimes more computationally intensive, continuity of pressure (COP) coupling approach as the coupling length (l.sub.e) parameter within the FOEC is decreased (i.e. FOEC increased). Threshold l.sub.e values that produce results converged on the COP approach vary considerably with hydrological scenario, soil type and total obstruction height (H.sub.s ; accounting for sub-grid depression storage), with most threshold l.sub.e values a[c]1/210.sup.-2 m. Lower l.sub.e values are required for infiltration under Hortonian conditions, under non-Hortonian conditions in lower permeability soils, and to capture timing of initiation of overland flow. The condition l.sub.e H.sub.s precludes top-down saturation under Hortonian conditions. Steady-state exchange flux and time to initiate overland flow are within 0.05% and 24%, respectively, of COP results when l.sub.e = H.sub.s =1mm. 3D simulation of a hypothetical catchment demonstrates that the general FOEC sensitivities obtained through 1D simulation are transferrable to the 3D case. This study shows that a value of l.sub.e = H.sub.s provides an appropriate initial value for modelling applications. We suggest a FOEC parameter sensitivity assessment on a case-by-case basis to ensure adequately converged results and to avoid unrealistic model behaviour. Author Affiliation: National Centre for Groundwater Research & Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia Article History: Received 20 May 2011; Revised 10 November 2011; Accepted 11 November 2011 Article Note: (miscellaneous) This manuscript was handled by Geoff Syme, Editor-in-Chief
    Keywords: Groundwater -- Analysis ; Depression (Mood disorder) -- Analysis ; Permeability -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of hydrology, 2012, Vol.414, pp.503-515
    Description: Presently, there is little guidance for model users on the selection of the first-order exchange coefficient (FOEC; or “conductance”) commonly used in simulating surface–subsurface interactions (e.g. infiltration). In this study, relationships between the FOEC and surface–subsurface exchange flux, surface-subsurface head difference and time to initiate overland flow are systematically explored using 1D soil column simulations with the fully integrated code HydroGeoSphere. Numerical experiments adopt five different hydrological scenarios and nine different soil profiles. Results converge on the more accurate, but sometimes more computationally intensive, continuity of pressure (COP) coupling approach as the coupling length (lₑ) parameter within the FOEC is decreased (i.e. FOEC increased). Threshold lₑ values that produce results converged on the COP approach vary considerably with hydrological scenario, soil type and total obstruction height (Hₛ; accounting for sub-grid depression storage), with most threshold lₑ values ⩽10⁻²m. Lower lₑ values are required for infiltration under Hortonian conditions, under non-Hortonian conditions in lower permeability soils, and to capture timing of initiation of overland flow. The condition lₑ〉Hₛ precludes top-down saturation under Hortonian conditions. Steady-state exchange flux and time to initiate overland flow are within 0.05% and 24%, respectively, of COP results when lₑ=Hₛ=1mm. 3D simulation of a hypothetical catchment demonstrates that the general FOEC sensitivities obtained through 1D simulation are transferrable to the 3D case. This study shows that a value of lₑ=Hₛ provides an appropriate initial value for modelling applications. We suggest a FOEC parameter sensitivity assessment on a case-by-case basis to ensure adequately converged results and to avoid unrealistic model behaviour. ; p. 503-515.
    Keywords: Models ; Soil Types ; Soil Profiles ; Overland Flow ; Watersheds ; Permeability
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2012, Vol.414, pp.503-515
    Description: Presently, there is little guidance for model users on the selection of the first-order exchange coefficient (FOEC; or “conductance”) commonly used in simulating surface–subsurface interactions (e.g. infiltration). In this study, relationships between the FOEC and surface–subsurface exchange flux, surface-subsurface head difference and time to initiate overland flow are systematically explored using 1D soil column simulations with the fully integrated code HydroGeoSphere. Numerical experiments adopt five different hydrological scenarios and nine different soil profiles. Results converge on the more accurate, but sometimes more computationally intensive, continuity of pressure (COP) coupling approach as the coupling length ( ) parameter within the FOEC is decreased (i.e. FOEC increased). Threshold values that produce results converged on the COP approach vary considerably with hydrological scenario, soil type and total obstruction height ( ; accounting for sub-grid depression storage), with most threshold values ⩽10 m. Lower values are required for infiltration under Hortonian conditions, under non-Hortonian conditions in lower permeability soils, and to capture timing of initiation of overland flow. The condition 〉 precludes top-down saturation under Hortonian conditions. Steady-state exchange flux and time to initiate overland flow are within 0.05% and 24%, respectively, of COP results when = = 1 mm. 3D simulation of a hypothetical catchment demonstrates that the general FOEC sensitivities obtained through 1D simulation are transferrable to the 3D case. This study shows that a value of = provides an appropriate initial value for modelling applications. We suggest a FOEC parameter sensitivity assessment on a case-by-case basis to ensure adequately converged results and to avoid unrealistic model behaviour.
    Keywords: Surface–Subsurface Interaction ; Integrated Modelling ; Overland Flow ; Coupling Length ; Hydrogeosphere ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, October 2015, Vol.529, pp.969-979
    Description: Coupling surface and subsurface water flow in fully integrated hydrological codes is becoming common in hydrological research; however, the coupling of surface–subsurface solute transport has received much less attention. Previous studies on fully integrated solute transport focus on small scales, simple geometric domains, and have not utilised many different field data sources. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the inclusion of both flow and solute transport in a 3D, fully integrated catchment model, utilising high resolution observations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export from a wetland complex during a rainfall event. A sensitivity analysis is performed to span a range of transport conditions for the surface–subsurface boundary (e.g. advective exchange only, advection plus diffusion, advection plus full mechanical dispersion) and subsurface dispersivities. The catchment model captures some aspects of observed catchment behaviour (e.g. solute discharge at the catchment outlet, increasing discharge from wetlands with increased stream discharge, and counter-clockwise concentration–discharge relationships), although other known behaviours are not well represented in the model (e.g. slope of concentration–discharge plots). Including surface–subsurface solute transport aids in evaluating internal model processes, however there are challenges related to the influence of dispersion across the surface–subsurface interface, and non-uniqueness of the solute transport solution. This highlights that obtaining solute field data is especially important for constraining integrated models of solute transport.
    Keywords: Solute Transport ; Surface–Subsurface Coupling ; Integrated Modelling ; Catchment Modelling ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 24 July 2013, Vol.496, pp.1-8
    Description: In physically based catchment hydrology models, dynamic surface–subsurface interactions are often represented using the surface conductance (SC) coupling approach. Guidance on SC parameterisation within block-centred codes is limited, and common practice is to express the SC coefficient as the quotient of the vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity and the half-cell thickness of the uppermost layer. This study evaluates the implementation of the SC approach utilising a popular block-centred, surface–subsurface hydrology model (MODHMS) to simulate one-dimensional infiltration experiments under Hortonian conditions. Results show that defining the SC coefficient based on a half-cell thickness of the uppermost subsurface cell inhibits accurate prediction of infiltration rates ( ) and the time to initiate surface runoff ( ) for the adopted rainfall–runoff scenario. Increasing the SC coefficient independently of the grid allows for accurate simulation of , but not . The addition of a thin layer at the surface is shown to improve model accuracy substantially, such that and approach those obtained using an equivalent mesh-centred model (i.e. where the surface and upper subsurface nodes are coincident). Whilst the addition of a single thin layer in block-centred codes allows improved prediction of surface–subsurface interaction, it does not provide a surrogate for fine discretisation throughout the subsurface that is necessary for accurate simulation of unsaturated zone flow. This study offers guidance on the implementation of the SC approach in a block-centred code and demonstrates the importance of systematic testing of parameters (that are otherwise calibrated) in physically based surface–subsurface hydrology models.
    Keywords: Surface–Subsurface Interaction ; Catchment Modelling ; Fully Integrated Model ; Modhms ; Surface Conductance Approach ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Hydrogeology Journal, 2010, Vol.18(2), pp.339-357
    Description: Spatially distributed recharge is compared at two different scales using three different modeling approaches within the semi-arid Okanagan Basin, British Columbia, Canada. Regional recharge was modeled by mapping results for one-dimensional soil columns from the water-balance code HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance, V3.80D). The regional model was then compared to two, independently derived, local-scale models to ensure local trends were captured in the regional model, and to compare modeling methods. Average annual recharge, predicted by the regional model, varied from no recharge to 186 mm/yr. For the north Okanagan (Vernon area), regional estimates were compared to Richards’ equation-based MIKE-SHE (V2007) estimates, which showed a significant difference in average annual recharge: 7 mm/yr (MIKE-SHE) and 109 mm/yr (HELP). In the south Okanagan (Oliver area), regional estimates were compared to high-resolution, local HELP estimates. Similar values of average annual recharge were obtained: 34 mm/yr (local) and 42 mm/yr (regional). A comparison with measured actual evapotranspiration data in the north Okanagan, showed HELP over-predicted recharge compared to MIKE-SHE by under-predicting evapotranspiration during summer months. Thus, the use of HELP in semi-arid areas may be limited if accurate estimates of recharge are needed. However, results may give satisfactory groundwater model calibrations results because of high uncertainty in hydraulic properties. Dans le bassin semi-aride Okanagan, en Colombie Britannique, Canada, on compare une recharge spatialement distribuée, au moyen de trois approches par modèle, à deux échelles différentes. La recharge régionale a été modélisée à partir de la cartographie des résultats du code de calcul de bilans d’eau HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance, V3.80D) appliqué à des colonnes de sol monodimensionnelles. Le modèle régional a ensuite été comparé à deux modèles à l’échelle locale, construits indépendamment, pour vérifier que les tendances locales étaient reproduites dans le modèle régional et pour comparer les méthodes de modélisation. La recharge annuelle moyenne, prédite par le modèle régional, varie depuis une recharge nulle jusqu’à 186 mm/an. Pour le nord Okanagan (secteur de Vernon), les estimations régionales ont été comparées aux estimations de MIKE-SHE (V2007) basées sur l’équation de Richard. Cette comparaison fait apparaître une différence significative sur la recharge annuelle moyenne: 7 mm/an (MIKE-SHE) et 109 mm/an (HELP). Pour le sud Okanagan (secteur d’Oliver) les estimations régionales ont été comparées à des estimations locales à haute résolution par HELP. Des valeurs comparables de la recharge annuelle moyenne ont été obtenues: 34 mm/an (local) et 42 mm/an (régional). La comparaison avec les valeurs réellement mesurées d’évapotranspiration dans le nord Okanagan montre que HELP surestime la recharge par rapport à MIKE-SHE en sous-estimant l’évapotranspiration pendant les mois d’été. Donc l’application de HELP en zones semi-arides pourrait être limitée lorsqu’il s’agit de produire des estimations précises de la recharge. Les résultats peuvent cependant aboutir à des calages satisfaisants de modèles d’eau souterraine du fait de la forte incertitude sur les propriétés hydrauliques. Se comparó la recarga espacialmente distribuida a dos escalas diferentes usando tres enfoques de modelado diferentes dentro de la cuenca semiárida de Okanagan, British Columbia, Canadá. La recarga regional fue modelada mapeando los resultados para columnas de suelos unidimensionales a partir del código HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance, V3.80D) para balance de agua. El modelo regional fue luego comparado con dos modelos de escala local desarrollados independientemente para asegurar que las tendencias locales fueran tomadas por el modelo regional, y para comparar los métodos de modelado. La recarga anual promedio, predicha por el modelo regional, varió desde no recarga a 186 mm/año. Para el norte de Okanaga (área Vernon), la estimaciones regionales fueron comparadas con la estimación de MIKE-SHE (V2007) basada en la ecuación de Richard, que mostraron una diferencia significativa en la recarga promedio anual: 7 mm/año (MIKE-SHE) y 109 mm/año (HELP). En el sur de Okanagan (área Oliver), las estimaciones regionales fueron comparadas a las estimaciones locales de HELP de alta resolución. Se obtuvieron valores similares de recarga anual promedio: 34 mm/año (local) y 42 mm/año (regional). Una comparación con los datos medidos de evapotranspiración real en el norte de Okanagan, mostró que HELP predice por encima la recarga comparada con el MIKE-SHE por una predicción por debajo de la evapotranspiración durante los meses de verano. Así, el uso de HELP en áreas semiáridas puede ser limitado si se necesitan estimaciones precisas de recarga. Sin embargo, los resultados pueden dar resultados satisfactorios de las calibraciones de los modelos de aguas subterráneas debido a la alta incerteza en las propiedades hidráulicas. 利用三种不同的模型方法在两个不同的尺度上对加拿大, 英国的哥伦比亚的 半干旱Okanagan盆地的补给的空间分布进行模拟并做了比较。区域上的补给是通过对水平衡软件HELP (垃圾填埋表现的水文地质评估, V3.80D) 得出的一维土柱结果绘图来模拟的。之后区域模型与另外两个单独获取的局地尺度模型进行比较来确保区域模型中局部趋势能被捕获到, 并对模拟方法进行比较。区域模型预测的年平均补给量从没有补给到186mm/yr。对于Okanagan (Vernon area)的北部, 区域上的评价量与基于Richards 方程的MIKE-SHE (V2007)的评价量进行了比较, 二者之间的年平均补给量存在很大的差异 : 即分别是7mm/yr (MIKE-SHE) 和 109 mm/yr (HELP)。在Okanagan (Oliver area)的南部, 区域的评价量与高精度的局部HELP评价量进行了比较, 得出了类似的年平均补给量值 : 即34mm/yr (局地) 和42mm/yr (区域)。与实测的Okanagan北部的蒸腾量比较表明夏天的月份中, 与MIKE-SHE方法低估的蒸腾量相比, HELP方法高估了补给量。此外, 半干旱地区HELP方法的使用可能会因为需要补给量的准确评价而受到限制。但是, 由于水力性质存在很大的不确定性, 所以这也许能给出较好的地下水模型标定结果。 A recarga directa de aquíferos, espacialmente distribuída, foi comparada para duas escalas distintas, usando três abordagens diferentes, na bacia semi-árida de Okanagan, em British Columbia, Canadá. A recarga regional foi modelada pelo mapeamento de resultados de colunas de solo uni-dimensionais, usando o programa de balanço hídrico HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance, V3.80D). O modelo regional foi comparado com dois modelos à escala local, desenvolvidos independentemente, para assegurar que as tendências locais tinham sido incorporadas no modelo regional, e para comparar os métodos de modelação. A recarga anual média prevista pelo modelo regional variou de zero a 186 mm/ano. Para a área norte de Okanagan (área de Vernon), as estimativas regionais foram comparadas com as estimadas pela equação de Richards, calculadas com o modelo MIKE-SHE (V2007). Obteve-se uma significativa diferença para os valores da recarga anual: 7 mm/ano (MIKE-SHE) e 109 mm/ano (HELP). Na área sul de Okanagan (área de Oliver), a estimativa regional foi comparada com uma de alta resolução, calculada pelas estimativas locais HELP. Obtiveram-se valores semelhantes para a recarga anual: 34 mm/ano (local) e 42 mm/ano (regional). Uma comparação dos valores medidos de evapotranspiração na área norte de Okanagan, mostraram que a estimativa é sobre-dimensionada para o HELP quando comparada com a do MIKE-SHE, por sub-estimar a evapotranspiração nos meses de verão. Assim, o uso do HELP em regiões semi-áridas pode ser desaconselhado se a precisão dos resultados da recarga for essencial. Contudo, os resultados podem permitir a calibração adequada de modelos de águas subterrâneas, devido às elevadas incertezas das propriedades hidráulicas.
    Keywords: Groundwater recharge/water budget ; HELP ; MIKE-SHE ; Semi-arid ; Canada
    ISSN: 1431-2174
    E-ISSN: 1435-0157
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 2011, Vol.62(8), pp.1577-1595
    Description: When used in a comprehensive risk assessment framework, aquifer vulnerability maps are a tool to identify the relative susceptibility of the groundwater from sources of contamination at the land surface. The DRASTIC method was designed for use over large areas with a wide variety of geological and hydrogeologic settings as a screening tool in groundwater protection and management. In this study, a series of vulnerability maps were made for the Greater Oliver area, in south central Okanagan, British Columbia, Canada, to test the sensitivity of the methodology to changes in input data type, interpretation, and mapping approaches. The study also illustrates how DRASTIC can be modified for use in areas of limited geological variability, where it may be important for smaller-scale changes in vulnerability to be recognized. Maps were produced using the original DRASTIC rating tables, a set of expanded tables using the original properties but modified ranges to accommodate the variability of data in the valley bottom region, and alternate tables, with modified properties and ranges. Differences in vulnerability rating for the maps using selected combinations and data interpretations are compared to the map using original DRASTIC rating tables using visual and statistical methods. One map was generated using expert hydrological knowledge. The modified tables allowed a greater amount of variability to be expressed in the valley bottom area compared to using the original tables and methods, and could provide a reasonable approach for assessing local scale variability for source water protection planning.
    Keywords: DRASTIC ; Aquifer vulnerability ; Source water protection ; Okanagan Basin
    ISSN: 1866-6280
    E-ISSN: 1866-6299
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  • 9
    In: Hydrological Processes, 15 April 2013, Vol.27(8), pp.1276-1285
    Description: Studies employing integrated surface–subsurface hydrological models (ISSHMs) have utilized a variety of test cases to demonstrate model accuracy and consistency between codes. Here, we review the current state of ISSHM testing and evaluate the most popular ISSHM test cases by comparing the hydrodynamic processes simulated in each case to the processes found in well‐characterized, real‐world catchments and by comparing their general attributes to those of successful benchmark problems from other fields of hydrogeology. The review reveals that (1) ISSHM testing and intercode comparison have not adopted specific test cases consistently; (2) despite the wide range of ISSHM metrics available for model testing, only two model performance diagnostics are typically adopted: the catchment outflow hydrograph and the catchment water balance; (3) in intercode comparisons, model performance is usually judged by evaluating only one performance diagnostic: the catchment outflow hydrograph; and (4) ISSHM test cases evaluate a small number of hydrodynamic processes that are largely uniform across the model domain, representing a limited selection of the processes of interest in well‐characterized, real‐world catchments. ISSHM testing would benefit from more intercode comparisons using a consistent set of test cases, aimed at evaluating more catchment processes (e.g. flooding) and using a wider range of simulation diagnostics (e.g. pressure head distributions). To achieve this, a suite of test case variations is required to capture the relevant catchment processes. Finally, there is a need for additional ISSHM test problems that compare model predictions with hydrological observations from intensively monitored field sites and controlled laboratory experiments. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Fully Integrated Modelling ; Surface–Subsurface Interaction ; Code Testing ; Catchment‐Scale Simulation
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
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  • 10
    In: Water Resources Research, October 2014, Vol.50(10), pp.7750-7765
    Description: Tracer hydrograph separation has been widely applied to identify streamflow components, often indicating that pre‐event water comprises a large proportion of stream water. Previous work using numerical modeling suggests that hydrodynamic mixing in the subsurface inflates the pre‐event water contribution to streamflow when derived from tracer‐based hydrograph separation. This study compares the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion, both within the subsurface and at the surface‐subsurface boundary, on the tracer‐based pre‐event water contribution to streamflow. Using a fully integrated surface‐subsurface code, we simulate two hypothetical 2‐D hillslopes with surface‐subsurface solute exchange represented by different solute transport conceptualizations (i.e., advective and dispersive conditions). Results show that when surface‐subsurface solute transport occurs via advection only, the pre‐event water contribution from the tracer‐based separation agrees well with the hydraulically determined value of pre‐event water from the numerical model, despite dispersion occurring within the subsurface. In this case, subsurface dispersion parameters have little impact on the tracer‐based separation results. However, the pre‐event water contribution from the tracer‐based separation is larger when dispersion at the surface‐subsurface boundary is considered. This work demonstrates that dispersion within the subsurface may not always be a significant factor in apparently large pre‐event water fluxes over a single rainfall event. Instead, dispersion at the surface‐subsurface boundary may increase estimates of pre‐event water contribution. This work also shows that solute transport in numerical models is highly sensitive to the representation of the surface‐subsurface interface. Hence, models of catchment‐scale solute dynamics require careful treatment and sensitivity testing of the surface‐subsurface interface to avoid misinterpretation of real‐world physical processes. Dispersion at surface‐subsurface boundary and in subsurface is compared Boundary dispersion greatly affects solute transport in integrated models High dispersive flux at boundary can influence tracer hydrograph separation
    Keywords: Integrated Modeling ; Solute Transport ; Rainfall‐Runoff ; Dispersion ; Hydrograph Separation
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 1944-7973
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