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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 26 February 2010, Vol.327(5969), pp.1078
    Keywords: Soil ; Conservation of Natural Resources -- Legislation & Jurisprudence
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, Feb 24, Vol.298, p.75(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.024 Byline: Henry Lin Abstract: * The ecosystems studied displayed predominantly negative net entropy production. * The ratio of entropy output to entropy input was higher in sites with higher net entropy production. * Deforested sites had lower net entropy production than respective forested sites. * MEP hypothesis may predict the re-forestation of disturbed sites. * There is a gray area in defining how an ecosystem evolves towards the state of MEP. Author Affiliation: Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
    Keywords: Thermodynamics – Environmental Aspects ; Ecosystems – Environmental Aspects
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, Feb 24, Vol.298, p.1(3)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.11.016 Byline: Henry Lin Author Affiliation: Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
    Keywords: Soils – Environmental Aspects ; Hydrology – Environmental Aspects ; Ecosystems – Environmental Aspects
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    In: Nature Methods, 2013, Vol.10(2), p.140
    ISSN: 1548-7091
    Source: Nature Publishing Group
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 1/2015, Vol.517(7536), pp.553-553
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Publishing Group (via CrossRef)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2010, Vol.393(1), pp.3-19
    Description: Preferential flow (PF) is a fundamentally important soil hydrologic process that controls a variety of soil physical, chemical, and biological functions. However, the lack of theory in this field and the existence of conceptual and technological bottlenecks continue to hinder the advancement of PF modeling and prediction. This paper explores three theoretical perspectives on the relationships between pedogenesis and flow regimes in field soils. First, we examine non-equilibrium thermodynamics as applied to open dissipative field soils with continuous energy inputs and mass exchanges with the surrounding environment. The dual-partitioning of pedogenesis (dissipating and organizing processes) is consistent with the theory of dissipative structure, which explains the genesis and evolution of soil architecture (structure + matrix) and organized heterogeneity found in various soils. Such organized heterogeneity leads to widespread potential for PF occurrence. Second, we investigate constructal theory to explain the tendency for dual-flow regimes in soils – one with high resistivity (Darcy flow) and the other with low resistivity (PF) – together, they form PF configuration that provides the least global flow resistance. This theory is applied to explain some general characteristics of weathering processes and related flow regime changes, which are supported by limited chronologic data from the literature on subsoil’s saturated hydraulic conductivity decrease after a soil reaches a certain age. Third, the theory of evolving networks sheds light on a variety of PF networks observed in field soils, which increase the effectiveness of energy and mass transfer in the subsurface. This is because networks are a part of the organization resulting from the minimum energy dissipation principle and far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics. All the three theories discussed support the notion that the potential for PF occurrence in field soils is likely universal. However, controversies and challenges associated with these theories require further efforts to rigorously test their applicability in natural soils and to formulate explicit quantitative relationships between PF occurrence and its controls. The principle of soil formation and evolution provides a useful guide to this endeavor.
    Keywords: Preferential Flow ; Pedogenesis ; Soil Architecture ; Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics ; Constructal Theory ; Network Theory ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America journal, 2011, Vol.75(6), pp.2049-2070
    Description: Improved understanding of complex soil system's change over time and space can advance our forecasts and plans for changes related to critical societal needs. Taking a holistic and evolutionary view, this paper synthesizes three general principles of soil change and pedogenesis in time and space (especially time). First, the principle of conservation plus evolution provides the reconciliation of fast and slow changes in multiphase soil systems. Incomplete closure and partial irreversibility of many cyclic processes of soil functioning produce a range of residual solid products that are accumulated over time, giving rise to structured and informative soil profiles. Second, the principle of dissipation plus organization explains the simultaneous occurrence of soil matrix and soil structure during pedogenesis. Soil entropy changes provide potential indices for the degree of soil weathering (residuals) and soil structural development (fluxes) once appropriate quantification is made. Third, the principle of space plus time highlights the fundamental differences and intimate links between time and space. While space is reversible, conservative, and structured, time is irreversible, evolutionary, and nonstructured. Both time and space, however, share the common characteristics of preferentiality and threshold that govern soil functions and soil evolution. Many unknowns, however, remain regarding how complex soil systems work. The three principles offer useful perspectives for modeling and predicting soil change and pedogenesis. Considerable efforts are needed to reach a more quantitative treatment of the complex interaction between soil systems and their environment across time and space. This is an important direction for future soil science and its sustained contributions to societal needs. ; p. 2049-2070.
    Keywords: Models ; Soil Profiles ; Soil Structure ; Space And Time ; Entropy ; Prediction ; Soil Formation ; Soil Weathering
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 24 February 2015, Vol.298, pp.75-86
    Description: Ecosystems are open systems that constantly exchange energy and entropy with their surroundings, giving rise to continuous evolution in ecosystem’s internal structures and functions. For an ecosystem to evolve towards more developed stages and to sustain its functions, I hypothesize that (1) an ecosystem’s net thermodynamic entropy budget must be negative (i.e., exporting entropy) and (2) the rate of entropy production should increase with succession towards a possible maximum (i.e., maximum entropy production or MEP) before a decline may occur. To test these hypotheses, energy flux data collected from Ameriflux and Canada Flux using eddy tower covariance method at seven sites (including three groups of forested vs. deforested ecosystems) were compared by converting energy into entropy fluxes. Based on energy budgets and corresponding absolute temperatures for each energy components, net entropy production rate for each ecosystem (Δ ) was calculated every half-an-hour for multiple years (2004–2009, which varied among the sites). All the ecosystems examined clearly displayed predominantly negative Δ , indicating higher entropy outputs than inputs. The ratio of entropy outputs to inputs (SR) ranged from 1.23 to 1.53 (averaged 1.35 ± 0.10) based on averaged daily fluxes across all the ecosystems, with higher SRs at midday (1.46–2.23, averaged 1.80 ± 0.24) and lower SRs at midnight (1.09–1.22, averaged 1.13 ± 0.04). Ecosystems having higher entropy production rates also generally produced a higher SR, indicating a more efficient energy dissipation. The overall mean Δ ranged from −0.258 W/m K in the deforested site in Saskatchewan, Canada to −0.609 W/m K in the forested ecosystem in Flagstaff, Arizona. The deforested sites had, on average, 27% and 18% lower Δ in Saskatchewan and Flagstaff, respectively, than their respective forested sites. Two forested sites at the Duke Forests, North Carolina had higher than the grass field. However, the forest site at a later stage of succession had slightly lower than the planted forest. This may suggest a gray area in defining how an ecosystem evolves towards the state of MEP and the definition of climax. There is also a possibility of retrogression after a forest reaching a possible climax. This study shows that the MEP hypothesis may predict the re-forestation of disturbed sites, but the hypothesis needs to be further tested for succession once a forest cover has been re-established.
    Keywords: Thermodynamics ; Entropy ; Energy Budget ; Eddy Covariance ; Ecosystem ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2011, Vol.406(3), pp.141-145
    Keywords: Hydropedology ; Hydrology ; Pedology ; Landscape ; Critical Zone ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2010, Vol.393(1), pp.1-2
    Description: Includes references ; p. 1-2.
    Keywords: Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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