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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Feb, 2014, Vol.69, p.242(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.11.010 Byline: Carolyn F. Weber, J. Scott Lockhart, Emily Charaska, Ken Aho, Kathleen A. Lohse Abstract: Soil microbial communities influence the rate and trajectory of ecosystem recovery after wildfire, but how their composition varies with burn severity in different vegetation types is largely unknown. This study utilized high throughput amplicon sequencing of a bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragment to determine the bacterial community composition in soils that were unburned, moderately burned ("low burn") and severely burned ("high burn") in ponderosa pine ('P') and mixed conifer ('M') forests, three months after the Las Conchas fire (New Mexico, USA; July 2011). Community composition was distinct in unburned M and P soils, but it was similar in high burn soils, despite differences in initial and post-burn M and P soil parameters (i.e. pH, moisture, organic matter, carbon and nitrogen content), which are known to correlate with shifts in bacterial community composition. Richness tended to be lower in the high burn M soils relative to unburned M soils, while it was similar across all P soils. Collectively, our findings indicate that high burn severity may result in bacterial communities shifting to similar compositions within a few months post-fire, even if the initial communities, as well as initial and post-burn soil physical and chemical properties are distinct. Author Affiliation: Idaho State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA Article History: Received 9 March 2013; Revised 21 September 2013; Accepted 12 November 2013
    Keywords: Wildfires -- Chemical Properties ; Soil Microbiology -- Chemical Properties ; Soils -- Chemical Properties ; Coniferous Forests -- Chemical Properties ; Rna -- Chemical Properties
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2011, Vol.409(1), pp.196-211
    Description: ► We sampled and analyzed groundwater wells previously analyzed for tritium in the late 1980s to early 1990s. ► We analyzed groundwater samples for tritium ( H), helium-3 ( H/ He), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and water quality. ► H– He groundwater ages ranged from 22 years before 2009 to modern recharge. ► CFCs were anomalously high. ► Non-point source pollution in runoff and/or leaky infrastructure is the most plausible source of this contamination. The management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impact the timing of groundwater recharge and its quality is a prerequisite for mitigating water scarcity and identifying vulnerability to contamination. We sampled groundwater wells along the Rillito Creek in southern Arizona that had been previously analyzed for tritium in the late 1980s to early 1990s and analyzed samples for tritium ( H) and helium-3 ( H/ He) to evaluate changes in H and age date groundwaters. Groundwater samples were also analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and basic water quality metrics. Substantial changes in H values from waters sampled in the early 1990s compared to 2009 were identified after accounting for radioactive decay and indicate areas of rapid recharge. H– He groundwater ages ranged from 22 years before 2009 to modern recharge. CFC-11, -12 and -113 concentrations were anomalously high across the basin, and non-point source pollution in runoff and/or leaky infrastructure was identified as the most plausible source of this contamination. CFCs were strongly and positively correlated to nitrate ( = 0.77) and a mobile trace metal, nickel ( = 0.71), suggesting that solutes were derived from a similar source. Findings from this study suggest new waters from urban non-point sources are contributing to groundwater recharge and adversely affecting water quality. Reducing delivery of contaminants to areas of focused recharge will be critical to protect future groundwater resources.
    Keywords: Urban ; Groundwater ; Cfcs ; Isotopes ; Recharge ; Tritium/Helium ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 02 April 2013, Vol.485, pp.37-53
    Description: ► We examine land cover controls on semi-arid urban hydrology and hydrochemistry. ► Urbanization increases runoff duration and frequency, not time to peak discharge. ► Rainfall, imperviousness and stormwater routing control discharge and runoff ratios. ► Perviousness, stormwater routing and solute sourcing variability control runoff quality. Recharge of urban runoff to groundwater as a stormwater management practice has gained importance in semi-arid regions where water resources are scarce and urban centers are growing. Despite this trend, the importance of land cover in controlling semi-arid catchment runoff quantity and quality remains unclear. Here we address the question: How do land cover characteristics control the amount and quality of storm runoff in semi-arid urban catchments? We monitored summertime runoff quantity and quality from five catchments dominated by distinct urban land uses: low, medium, and high density residential, mixed use, and commercial. Increasing urban land cover increased runoff duration and the likelihood that a rainfall event would result in runoff, but did not increase the time to peak discharge of episodic runoff. The effect of urban land cover on hydrologic responses was tightly coupled to the magnitude of rainfall. At distinct rainfall thresholds, roads, percent impervious cover and the stormwater drainage network controlled runoff frequency, runoff depth and runoff ratios. Contrary to initial expectations, runoff quality did not vary in repose to impervious cover or land use. We identified four major mechanisms controlling runoff quality: (1) variable solute sourcing due to land use heterogeneity and above ground catchment connectivity; (2) the spatial extent of pervious and biogeochemically active areas; (3) the efficiency of overland flow and runoff mobilization; and (4) solute flushing and dilution. Our study highlights the importance of the stormwater drainage systems characteristics in controlling urban runoff quantity and quality; and suggests that enhanced wetting and in-stream processes may control solute sourcing and retention. Finally, we suggest that the characteristics of the stormwater drainage system should be integrated into stormwater management approaches.
    Keywords: Urban ; Runoff ; Water Quality ; Land Use ; Semi-Arid ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2014, Vol.69, pp.242-250
    Description: Soil microbial communities influence the rate and trajectory of ecosystem recovery after wildfire, but how their composition varies with burn severity in different vegetation types is largely unknown. This study utilized high throughput amplicon sequencing of a bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragment to determine the bacterial community composition in soils that were unburned, moderately burned (“low burn”) and severely burned (“high burn”) in ponderosa pine (‘P’) and mixed conifer (‘M’) forests, three months after the Las Conchas fire (New Mexico, USA; July 2011). Community composition was distinct in unburned M and P soils, but it was similar in high burn soils, despite differences in initial and post-burn M and P soil parameters (i.e. pH, moisture, organic matter, carbon and nitrogen content), which are known to correlate with shifts in bacterial community composition. Richness tended to be lower in the high burn M soils relative to unburned M soils, while it was similar across all P soils. Collectively, our findings indicate that high burn severity may result in bacterial communities shifting to similar compositions within a few months post-fire, even if the initial communities, as well as initial and post-burn soil physical and chemical properties are distinct.
    Keywords: Las Conchas Fire ; Wildfire ; 16s Rrna Gene Sequencing ; Soil Microbiology ; Disturbance Ecology ; Ponderosa Pine ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 12 November 2012, Vol.470-471, pp.98-110
    Description: ► We examine how stream channels alter urban runoff hydrochemistry. ► Solute sourcing and retention most variable in vegetated ephemeral streams. ► Piped, concrete and gravel ephemeral streams function as flow-through systems. ► Stream channel soil solutes flushing during runoff alters hydrochemistry. ► Stream channel biogeochemical processing between runoff events alters hydrochemistry. Stormwater drainage systems can have a large effect on urban runoff quality, but it is unclear how ephemeral urban streams alter runoff hydrochemistry. This problem is particularly relevant in semi-arid regions, where urban storm runoff is considered a renewable water resource. Here we address the question: how do stream channels alter urban runoff hydrochemistry? We collected synoptic stormwater samples during three rainfall–runoff events from nine ephemeral streams reaches (three concrete or metal, three grass, three gravel) in Tucson, Arizona. We identified patterns of temporal and spatial (longitudinal) variability in concentrations of conservative (chloride and isotopes of water) and reactive solutes (inorganic-N, soluble reactive phosphorous, sulfate-S, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen, and fecal indicator bacteria). Water isotopes and chloride (Cl) concentrations indicate that solute flushing and evapoconcentration alter temporal patterns in runoff hydrochemistry, but not spatial hydrochemical responses. Solute concentrations and stream channel solute sourcing and retention during runoff were significantly more variable at the grass reaches (CV = 2.3 − 144%) than at the concrete or metal (CV = 1.6 − 107%) or gravel reaches (CV = 1.9 − 60%), which functioned like flow-through systems. Stream channel soil Cl and DOC decreased following a runoff event (Cl: 12.1–7.3 μg g soil; DOC: 87.7–30.1 μg g soil), while soil fecal indicator bacteria counts increased (55–215 CFU g soil). Finding from this study suggest that the characteristics of the ephemeral stream channel substrate control biogeochemical reactions between runoff events, which alter stream channel soil solute stores and the hydrochemistry of subsequent runoff events.
    Keywords: Urban ; Runoff Quality ; Nitrogen ; Carbon ; Ephemeral Stream ; Stream Channel ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Canadian journal of microbiology, October 2011, Vol.57(10), pp.775-84
    Description: The increasing use of treated wastewater for irrigation heightens the importance of accurate monitoring of water quality. Chromogenic media, because they are easy to use and provide rapid results, are often used for detection of Escherichia coli in environmental samples, but unique levels of organic and inorganic compounds alter the chemistry of treated wastewater, potentially hindering the accurate performance of chromogenic media. We used MI agar and molecular confirmatory methods to assess false-positive identification of E. coli in treated wastewater samples collected from municipal utilities, an irrigation holding pond, irrigated soils, and in samples collected from storm flows destined for groundwater recharge. False-positive rates in storm flows (4.0%) agreed closely with USEPA technical literature but were higher in samples from the pond, soils, and treatment facilities (33.3%, 38.0%, and 48.8%, respectively). Sequencing of false-positive isolates confirmed that most were, like E. coli, of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and many of the false-positive isolates were reported to produce the β-D-glucuronidase enzyme targeted by MI agar. False-positive identification rates were inversely related to air temperature, suggesting that seasonal variations in water quality influence E. coli identification. Knowledge of factors contributing to failure of chromogenic media will lead to manufacturer enhancements in media quality and performance and will ultimately increase the accuracy of future water quality monitoring programs.
    Keywords: Diagnostic Errors ; Bacteriological Techniques -- Methods ; Culture Media -- Chemistry ; Escherichia Coli -- Isolation & Purification ; Groundwater -- Microbiology ; Sewage -- Microbiology
    ISSN: 00084166
    E-ISSN: 1480-3275
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Hydrogeology Journal, 2011, Vol.19(5), pp.1039-1051
    Description: Irrigation in semi-arid agricultural regions can have profound effects on recharge rates and the quality of shallow groundwater. This study coupled stable isotopes ( 2 Η, 18 O), age-tracers ( 3 H, CFCs, 14 C), 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, and elemental chemistry to determine the sources, residence times, and flowpaths of groundwater and agricultural contaminants (e.g. NO 3 – ) in the Saddle Mountains Basalt Aquifer in central Washington, USA, where over 80% of the population depend on groundwater for domestic use. Results demonstrate the presence of two distinct types of water: contaminated irrigation water and pristine regional groundwater. Contaminated irrigation water has high NO 3 – concentrations (11–116  mg/l), 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.70659–0.71078) within range of nitrogen-based fertilizers, detectable tritium (2.8–13.4 TU), CFC ages 20–40 years, high δ 18 O values (−16.9 to −13.5‰), and ∼100 percent modern 14 C. Pristine regional groundwater has low NO 3 – concentrations (1–5  mg/l), no detectable tritium (≤0.8 TU), low δ 18 O values (−18.9 to −17.3‰) and 14 C ages from ∼15 to 33 ky BP . Nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of NO 3 – , combined with high dissolved oxygen values, show that denitrification is not an important process in the organic-poor basalt aquifers resulting in transport of high NO 3 – irrigation water to depths greater than 40 m in less than 30  years. L’irrigation dans des régions agricoles semi-arides peut avoir des effets importants sur les taux de recharge et la qualité des aquifères superficiels. Cette étude combine l’utilisation des isotopes stables de l’eau (Η, O), des traceurs d’âges (H, CFCs, C), du rapport Sr/Sr et de la chimie élémentaire afin de déterminer les sources, les temps de résidence et les flux préférentiels des eaux souterraines et des contaminants agricoles (comme le NO) dans l’aquifère basaltique de Saddle Mountains, Washington central, Etats-Unis, dont plus de 80% de la population dépend pour un usage domestique. Les résultats montrent la présence de deux types distincts d’eau: l’eau d’irrigation contaminée et l’eau souterraine régionale pure. Les eaux d’irrigation contaminées ont de fortes concentrations en NO (11–116 mg/l), un rapport Sr/Sr (0.70659–0.71078) dans la gamme des fertilisants azotés, un tritium détectable (2.8–13.4 TU), des âge-CFC de 20–40 ans, un δO élevé (–16.9 to –13.5‰) et ∼100% de C moderne. Les eaux souterraines régionales pures ont de faibles concentrations en NO (1–5 mg/l), un tritium non détectable (0.8 TU), un δO bas (–18.9 to –17.3‰) et des âges C de ∼15 000 à 33 000 ans . Les isotopes de l’azote et de l’oxygène du NO combinés à de fortes concentrations en oxygène dissous montrent que le transport des eaux d’irrigation très enrichies en NO en moins de 30 ans à des profondeurs supérieures à 40 m n’est pas un processus important de dénitrification dans les aquifères basaltiques pauvres en matière organique. La irrigación en regiones agrícolas semiáridas pueden tener profundos efectos en los ritmos de recarga y en la calidad del agua subterránea somera. Este estudio acopla los isótopos estables (Η, O), los trazadores de edad (H, CFCs, C), las relaciones Sr/Sr, y la química elemental para determinar las fuentes, tiempos de residencia y trayectorias del agua subterránea y de los contaminantes agrícolas (por ejemplo NO) en el acuífero basáltico de Saddle Mountains en Washington central, EEUU, donde más del 80% de la población depende del agua subterránea para usos domésticos. Los resultados demuestran la presencia de dos tipos diferentes de aguas, agua de riego contaminada y agua subterránea regional prístina. Las aguas de riego contaminadas tienen altas concentraciones de NO (11–116 mg/l), relaciones Sr/Sr (0.70659–0.71078) dentro de los intervalos de fertilizantes nitrogenadas, tritio detectable (2.8–13.4 UT), edades CFC 20 a 40 años, altos valores de δO (–16.9 a –13.5‰), y ∼100 por ciento de C moderno. El agua subterránea regional prístina tiene baja concentración de NO (1–5 mg/l), cantidades de tritio no detectables (≤0.8 TU), bajos valores de δO (–18.9 a –17.3‰) y edades C desde ∼15 a 33 k años . Los isótopos de nitrógeno y oxígeno de NO, combinados con altos valores de oxígeno disuelto, muestran que la desnitrificación no es un proceso importante en los acuíferos basálticos pobremente orgánicos, lo que resulta en el transporte valores altos de NO en el agua de irrigación a profundidades mayores que 40 m en menos que 30 años. 摘要:农业回灌对半干旱地区的地下水补给速率和浅部地下水水质影响很大。本研究综合利用稳定同位素(H, O),年龄示踪剂(H, CFCs, C),Sr/Sr 比值和水化学技术来确定美国华盛顿中部Saddle山玄武岩含水层的地下水补给来源,滞留时间和流动路径以及农业污染物(如NO)。地下水为研究区80%以上的人口的生活用水。结果证明了研究区存在污染的灌溉水和原生的区域地下水这两种截然不同的水。污染的灌溉水NO 浓度较高(11–116 mg/l),Sr/Sr 比值(0.70659–0.71078)在氮肥的变化范围内,氚可检出(2.8–13.4 TU),CFC年龄为20–40岁, O 值高 (–16.9 to –13.5‰), C活度约为100pmC。原生区域地下水NO 浓度低(1–5 mg/l),无氚检出(≤0.8 TU), O 值低(–18.9 to –17.3‰),C 年龄表明其为15000–33000年以前的老水。NO 的氮氧同位素以及高溶解氧表明在有机质贫乏的玄武岩含水层中反硝化作用不明显,这也导致在过去30年不到的时间里高NO 浓度的灌溉水运移至40米以深的含水层中。 A rega em regiões agrícolas semi-áridas pode produzir efeitos notórios nas taxas de recarga e na qualidade da água subterrânea freática. Neste estudo foram usados isótopos estáveis acoplados (Η, O), traçadores da idade (H, CFCs, C), rácios Sr/Sr e química elementar para determinar as origens, os tempos de residência e as linhas de fluxo da água subterrânea e de contaminantes agrícolas (como o NO) no Aquífero das Montanhas Basálticas de Saddle, no centro de Washington, EUA, onde cerca de 80% da população depende da água subterrânea para uso doméstico. Os resultados revelam a presença de dois tipos de água: água contaminada pela rega e água subterrânea regional não contaminada. As águas contaminadas pela rega têm elevada concentração de NO (11–116 mg/l), rácios de Sr/Sr (0.70659–0.71078) que estão dentro da gama observada em fertilizantes azotados, trítio detectável (2.8–13.4 TU), idades CFC de 20 a 40 anos, valores elevados de δO (–16.9 to –13.5‰) e ∼100% C moderno. A água subterrânea regional não contaminada tem baixa concentração de NO (1–5 mg/l), trítio não detectável (≤0.8 TU), valores baixos de δO (–18.9 to –17.3‰) e idade de C desde ∼15 a 33 mil anos atrás. Os isótopos de oxigénio e azoto da molécula de NO, aliados a elevados teores de oxigénio dissolvido, mostram que a desnitrificação não é um processo importante nos aquíferos basálticos pobres em matéria orgânica, o que conduz ao transporte de água de rega rica em NO até profundidades superiores a 40 m em menos de 30 anos.
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Hydrochemistry ; Groundwater age ; Stable isotopes ; USA
    ISSN: 1431-2174
    E-ISSN: 1435-0157
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  • 8
    In: Hydrological Processes, 30 March 2013, Vol.27(7), pp.995-1010
    Description: Urban expansion and the scarcity of water supplies in arid and semiarid regions have increased the importance of urban runoff to localized water resources. However, urban catchment responses to precipitation are poorly understood in semiarid regions where intense rainfall often results in large runoff events during the short summer monsoon season. To evaluate how urban runoff quantity and quality respond to rainfall magnitude and timing, we collected stream stage data and runoff samples throughout the 2007 and 2008 summer monsoons from four ephemeral drainages in Tucson, Arizona. Antecedent rainfall explained 20% to 30% of discharge (mm) and runoff ratio in the least impervious (22%) catchment but was not statistically related to hydrologic responses at more impervious sites. Regression models indicated that rainfall depth, imperviousness and their combined effect control discharge and runoff ratios ( 〈 0.01,  = 0.91 and 0.75, respectively). In contrast, runoff quality did not vary with imperviousness or catchment size. Rainfall depth and duration, time since antecedent rainfall and event and cumulative discharge controlled runoff hydrochemistry and resulted in five specific solute response patterns: (i) strong event and seasonal solute mobilization (solute flush), (ii) event chemostasis and strong seasonal flush, (iii) event chemostasis and weak seasonal flush, (iv) event and seasonal chemostasis and (v) late seasonal flush. Our results indicate that hydrologic responses of semiarid catchments are controlled by rainfall partitioning at the event scale, whereas wetting magnitude, frequency and timing alter solute stores readily available for transport and control temporal runoff quality. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Urban ; Runoff ; Semiarid ; Water Quality ; Runoff Ratio
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
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  • 9
    In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, August 2018, Vol.43(10), pp.2207-2218
    Description: The distribution, transport, and accumulation of wildfire‐generated pyrogenic carbon (PyC) has important consequences for contaminant transport and carbon cycling, but a conceptual model for PyC accumulation and loss that includes geomorphic processes is lacking. In this study we quantified PyC concentration in soil samples collected from the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico before and after the 2013 Thompson Ridge (TR) fire, and developed a conceptual model describing PyC redistribution. Pre‐fire samples were fortuitously collected 4 years before the TR burn and post‐fire samples were collected at the same locations 15 months following the TR fire. Samples were collected from the O and A horizon, with sites representing a range of slope angle, aspect, burn severity, and geomorphic setting. PyC was determined by a modified chemo‐thermal oxidation method to compare PyC to total organic carbon (TOC). The mean PyC/TOC ratio was significantly higher post‐fire than pre‐fire (0.14 vs 0.12), indicating increased PyC sequestration. O horizon PyC concentrations were more variable and more responsive to fire than the A horizon. Soil horizon, watershed, and geomorphic setting proved to be the most influential factors in predicting PyC concentration changes. PyC concentrations increased most on hillslopes and in low‐severity burn areas, suggesting higher rates of PyC production or post‐fire accumulation. Burn patchiness appears to facilitate PyC accumulation, with lower severity patches trapping PyC mobilized from high severity patches. While PyC content had greater point scale variance following the fire, the fire also homogenized pre‐fire PyC differences between soil horizons and among watersheds within the burn perimeter, differences that appear to develop over time between fires. The O horizon is a larger sink for PyC in the short term following fire, but based on pre‐fire concentrations the A horizon appears to be a more stable sink for PyC. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Pre‐ and post‐fire samples of soil pyrogenic carbon (PyC) show that this recalcitrant component of the carbon cycle becomes more abundant but also more spatially heterogeneous following a fire and subsequent geomorphic redistribution. Fire also had the effect of homogenizing pre‐fire PyC differences between soil horizons and among neighboring watersheds, differences that appear to develop over time between fires. Burn patchiness appears to facilitate PyC accumulation, with lower severity patches trapping PyC mobilized from high severity patch.
    Keywords: Pyrogenic Carbon Pyc ; Wildfire ; Erosion
    ISSN: 0197-9337
    E-ISSN: 1096-9837
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Research, 2015, Vol.30(5), pp.951-961
    Description: Ungulates use habitat with differential microclimate characteristics; therefore, fecal inputs to a particular habitat may result in vastly different rates of decomposition and nutrient release. We tested this hypothesis and conducted a 1-year decomposition experiment where we deployed fecal samples from Shiras moose ( Alces alces shirasi ) and subsequently measured loss of fecal mass, nutrient release captured with resin bags, and associated consequences for nitrogen (N) cycling in soils. The microhabitat type in which fecal samples were deployed influenced rates of decomposition observed; samples experienced faster rates of decomposition in a riparian habitat type than a conifer site. Cumulative nutrient losses as nitrate (NO 3 − ) measured with anion and cation exchange resin bags were significantly higher in the conifer site (0.08 g N/feces) than the riparian site (0.02 g N/feces), whereas ammonium (NH 4 + ) losses, though higher than nitrate losses, were not significantly different between the riparian site (0.40 g N/feces) and the conifer site (0.26 g N/feces) after 1-year. Concentrations of soil NH 4 + and NO 3 − beneath the fecal samples in the riparian site were significantly higher relative to control soils after 1 year, but no differences were detected in the conifer site. Cumulatively, our findings supported our hypothesis that fecal deposition by large herbivores can strongly influence nutrient releases to the ecosystem through the decomposition of fecal matter. Such nutrient additions may have direct effects on N cycling in soil and provide valuable inputs that are available for plant uptake and subsequent growth.
    Keywords: Decomposition ; Ecosystem processes ; Nutrient cycling ; Soil ; Ungulate
    ISSN: 0912-3814
    E-ISSN: 1440-1703
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