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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 30 March 2016, Vol.64(12), pp.2467-74
    Description: Edible flowers are receiving renewed interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Ethanol extracts of eight edible flowers were phytochemically characterized and investigated for their bioactivity. Rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and myricetin were selected as standards and quantified by HPLC. The fatty acid profile was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using different in vitro tests. The hypoglycemic effects were investigated via the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Sambucus nigra exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity (IC50 of 1.4 μg/mL), followed by Hedysarum coronarium (IC50 of 1.6 μg/mL). Both species contained high quercetin and rutin contents. S. nigra extract exerted the highest activity in preventing lipid oxidation. Malva sylvestris extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7.8 and 11.3 μg/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry.
    Keywords: Antioxidant Activity ; Carbohydrate-Hydrolyzing Enzymes ; Edible Flowers ; Fatty Acids ; Flavonoids ; Antioxidants -- Analysis ; Flowers -- Chemistry ; Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors -- Analysis ; Hypoglycemic Agents -- Analysis ; Phytochemicals -- Analysis
    ISSN: 00218561
    E-ISSN: 1520-5118
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Food Science, January 2012, Vol.77(1), pp.H40-H46
    Description: The interest in medicinal plant research and in the aroma‐therapeutic effects of essential oils in humans has increased in recent years, especially for the treatment of pathologies of relevant social impact such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the peel essential oils from three species, Swingle, L., and Risso & Poit. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC‐MS and they contain mainly limonene, ‐pinene, ‐pinene, ‐terpinene, and linalyl acetate. oil showed the highest radical scavenging activity on ABTS assay (IC value of 19.6 g/mL), while exhibited a good antioxidant activity evaluated by the ‐carotene bleaching test (IC= 42.6 g/mL after 60 min of incubation). inhibited more selectively AChE. Obtained data suggest a potential use of oils as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. The demonstrated antioxidant activity and procholinesterase properties of essential oils suggested their use as a new potential source of natural antioxidant to added as extra‐nutrient for using in food industries as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly.
    Keywords: Anti‐Cholinesterase Activity ; Antioxidant Activity ; C. Aurantium L ; C. Bergamia Risso ; Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle ; Essential Oil
    ISSN: 0022-1147
    E-ISSN: 1750-3841
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  • 3
    In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, August 2014, Vol.94(11), pp.2217-2224
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jsfa.6544/abstract Byline: Mariangela Marrelli, Monica Rosa Loizzo, Marcello Nicoletti, Francesco Menichini, Filomena Conforti Keywords: wild edible plants; pancreatic lipase; [alpha]-amylase; inhibitors; chemical composition Abstract BACKGROUND Inhibition of digestive enzymes is one of the most widely studied mechanisms used to determine the potential efficacy of natural products as anti-obesity agents. In vitro studies reported here were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of formulations of edible plants from Italy on amylase and lipase by monitoring the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl caprilate and the hydrolysis of glycoside bonds in digestible carbohydrate foods. RESULTS The formulation obtained from Capparis sicula exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (IC.sub.50 = 0.53 mg mL.sub.-1) while the Borago officinalis formulation exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on [alpha]-amylase (IC.sub.50 = 31.61 A[micro]g mL.sub.-1). In order to characterise the extracts, high-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of the formulations was performed, revealing the predominance of ([+ or -])-catechin in Mentha aquatica formulation, rutin in C. sicula, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid in Echium vulgare. CONCLUSION The results obtained indicated that the extracts of C. sicula and B. officinalis could be good candidates for further studies to isolate pancreatic lipase and [alpha]-amylase inhibitors, respectively. [c] 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
    Keywords: Wild Edible Plants ; Pancreatic Lipase ; ‐Amylase ; Inhibitors ; Chemical Composition
    ISSN: 0022-5142
    E-ISSN: 1097-0010
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 15 December 2016, Vol.213, pp.115-122
    Description: The study evaluated the fatty acids and the biogenic amines (BAs) in ‘Nduja of Spilinga stored in different packaging materials (i.e. natural casing under vacuum, glass jar, aluminum tube and OVTENE®) during 15 months of shelf-life. Raw materials and pepper mixture were analysed as well. BAs concentrations increased with time, tyramine (TYR), putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD) were the most abundant. BAs in natural casing were always higher than those found in glass jar, aluminum tube and OVTENE®. Total fatty acids were characterized by higher level of unsaturated fatty acid that decreased with time (glass jar 〉 natural casing under vacuum 〉 aluminum tube 〉 OVTENE®). The reduction of PUFA is the consequence of the increase of peroxides and carbonyls reacting with amino acids to form BAs. This was confirmed by correlation matrices implying that lipid oxidation processes were in some way linked to the chemical production of BAs.
    Keywords: ‘nduja of Spilinga ; Biogenic Amines ; Fatty Acids ; Packaging ; Food Quality ; Food Safety ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 December 2013, Vol.141(3), pp.2606-2613
    Description: The content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from different chili peppers were analysed and the effects of typical domestic processing were investigated. Peppers were analysed before and after cooking by conventional boiling (10 min in 100 °C water) and also following a freezing period of four months in a domestic freezer (−20 °C). The content and bioaccessibility of the eight carotenoids quantified varied, depending on cultivar, species, colour and processing. Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and capsanthin were present at highest concentrations in the samples before and after processing. In general, yellow and orange peppers were the best sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and neoxanthin. Xanthophyll carotenoids were more efficiently transferred to the micelles and, therefore, were also more bioavailable. Processing decreased the carotenoid content in certain samples; however, the micellar content was generally not lower for processed peppers; therefore the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from processed peppers is enhanced relative to unprocessed peppers.
    Keywords: Carotenoids ; Capsicum Species ; Bioaccessibility ; Domestic Processing ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, December 2012, Vol.92(15), pp.2960-2967
    Description: The replacement of synthetic antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants fosters research on the screening of vegetables and food as sources of new antioxidants. Moreover, oxidative degeneration of cells is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. On the basis of these considerations this work aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties [by using the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl, 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) and ferric reducing ability of plasma assays, and the β‐carotene bleaching test] and the anti‐cholinesterase activity of peel and leaves from different areas of growth. Methanol extracts of the peel and leaves demonstrated the strongest radical scavenging activity. A similar trend was observed with the reducing ability, with values from 112.1 to 146.0 µmol L Fe(II) g. The relationship between phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity was statistically investigated. Based on analysis by high‐performance liquid chromatography, the most abundant flavonoids found in extracts were apigenin, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol and nobiletin. ‐Hexane fractions of both peel and leaves showed a good acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC values in the range 91.4‐107.4 µg mL. Gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as most common components. The findings of this study suggest a potential use of peel and leaves for supplements for human health. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry
    Keywords: Citrus Aurantifolia ; Total Phenol And Flavonoid Content ; Antioxidant Activity ; Gc/Ms Analysis ; Alzheimer'S Disease ; Nutraceuticals
    ISSN: 0022-5142
    E-ISSN: 1097-0010
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 13 September 2017, Vol.65(36), pp.7944-7954
    Description: Glycyrrhiza glabra cultivation and harvesting produces substantial quantities of aerial parts as waste. With the aim to prospect an innovative valorization of these byproducts, the aerial parts were harvested in May and October and analyzed for their chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and effects on viability of five cancer cell lines. Pinocembrin was the main constituent. A significant protection of lipid peroxidation was observed with the May total extract (IC of 4.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL at 30 min of incubation). The effects on viability of HeLa, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, Caco-2, and PC3 human cancer cells were investigated. All samples shown a remarkable activity with IC values below 25 μg/mL. Samples from plants harvested in May exhibited greater activity than those harvested in October. MCF-7 and HeLa were the most sensitive cells with IC in the range 2.73-3.01 and 3.28-5.53 μg/mL, respectively. G. glabra aerial parts represent a good source of valuable products.
    Keywords: Glycyrrhiza Glabra ; Antioxidant Properties ; Effects on Cellular Viability ; Human Cancer Cells ; Vegetable Waste ; Antioxidants -- Pharmacology ; Cell Survival -- Drug Effects ; Flavanones -- Pharmacology ; Glycyrrhiza -- Chemistry ; Plant Extracts -- Pharmacology ; Vegetables -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00218561
    E-ISSN: 1520-5118
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  • 8
    In: Planta Medica, 2018, Vol.84(09/10)
    In: Planta Medica, 2018, Vol.84(09/10), pp.627-637
    Description: The genus is a taxonomically complex group of plant species widely distributed in the Mediterranean flora and used in traditional medicine since ancient times for their biological properties, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, digestive, and analgesic activities. Phytochemical investigations of species have revealed the presence of terpenoids as the main bioactive constituents of the genus. Coumarins and flavonoids were also identified. This review deals, for the first time, with information on the traditional uses, chemical profile, and biological properties of plants of the genus in order to provide input for future research prospects.
    Keywords: santolina ; Asteraceae ; Ethnobotany ; Phytochemicals ; Biological activities
    ISSN: 0032-0943
    E-ISSN: 1439-0221
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European journal of nutrition, 2014, Vol.53(2), pp.501-10
    Description: Carotenoid-rich foods are associated with antioxidant activity and the ability to alleviate chronic diseases. The present study investigated the effect of processing on the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from 13 cultivars of red chili pepper (Capsicum annuum). Carotenoids in chili peppers were analyzed before an in vitro digestion process. The portion of carotenoid transferred to the micelle fraction (bioaccessibility) was also quantified. β-Carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, capsanthin and antheraxanthin were the most abundant carotenoids. Zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and lutein were detected at lower concentrations. In general, freezing and boiling reduced carotenoid contents. Capsanthin and zeaxanthin had the highest bioaccessibility at an average value from 36 to 40%, followed by antheraxanthin (26%). Bioaccessibility of β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-carotene was lower, averaging 6.1, 4.8 and 4.0%, respectively. Neoxanthin and lutein were not detected in micelles. Freezing increased the bioaccessibility of capsanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin; β-cryptoxanthin bioaccessibility increased and capsanthin and zeaxanthin bioaccessibility decreased following boiling. Differences in the contents and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in 13 C. annuum cultivars and between the processed methods were herein evidenced.
    Keywords: Capsicum -- Chemistry ; Carotenoids -- Pharmacokinetics ; Food Handling -- Methods
    ISSN: 14366207
    E-ISSN: 1436-6215
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, March, 2013, Vol.53, p.392(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.12.011 Byline: Monica Rosa Loizzo (a), Alessandro Pugliese (a), Marco Bonesi (a), Damiano De Luca (b), Nora O'Brien (c), Francesco Menichini (a), Rosa Tundis (a) Keywords: Bell pepper; Phytochemical content; Apigenin; Food processes; Antioxidant activity; Hypoglycemic properties Abstract: a* Capsicum annum L. Roggiano and Senise cultivars were studied. a* Italian sweet peppers were analyzed fresh and after drying and dryin-frying processes. a* The antioxidant activity of both cultivars is not influenced by technological processes. a* Fresh Senise peppers exerted the strongest inhibitory activity against [alpha]-amylase. a* A potential health benefits could be obtained as a result of consuming these sweet peppers. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Pharmacy, Health Sciences and Nutrition, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy (b) CALAB, Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico della Calabria, I-87040 Montalto Uffugo (CS), Italy (c) Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork, Ireland Article History: Received 1 November 2012; Accepted 7 December 2012
    Keywords: Cultivars -- Analysis ; Antioxidants (Nutrients) -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0278-6915
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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